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Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology:
doi: 10.1097/FJC.0b013e3181feb90a
Original Article

High-carbohydrate High-fat Diet–induced Metabolic Syndrome and Cardiovascular Remodeling in Rats

Panchal, Sunil K MSc*; Poudyal, Hemant MBiotech†; Iyer, Abishek MMolBiol†; Nazer, Reeza BSc†; Alam, Ashraful MSc†; Diwan, Vishal MPharm†; Kauter, Kathleen PhD*; Sernia, Conrad PhD†; Campbell, Fiona PhD‡; Ward, Leigh PhD§; Gobe, Glenda PhD¶; Fenning, Andrew PhD‖; Brown, Lindsay PhD*†

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Abstract

The prevalence of metabolic syndrome including central obesity, insulin resistance, impaired glucose tolerance, hypertension, and dyslipidemia is increasing. Development of adequate therapy for metabolic syndrome requires an animal model that mimics the human disease state. Therefore, we have characterized the metabolic, cardiovascular, hepatic, renal, and pancreatic changes in male Wistar rats (8-9 weeks old) fed on a high-carbohydrate, high-fat diet including condensed milk (39.5%), beef tallow (20%), and fructose (17.5%) together with 25% fructose in drinking water; control rats were fed a cornstarch diet. During 16 weeks on this diet, rats showed progressive increases in body weight, energy intake, abdominal fat deposition, and abdominal circumference along with impaired glucose tolerance, dyslipidemia, hyperinsulinemia, and increased plasma leptin and malondialdehyde concentrations. Cardiovascular signs included increased systolic blood pressure and endothelial dysfunction together with inflammation, fibrosis, hypertrophy, increased stiffness, and delayed repolarization in the left ventricle of the heart. The liver showed increased wet weight, fat deposition, inflammation, and fibrosis with increased plasma activity of liver enzymes. The kidneys showed inflammation and fibrosis, whereas the pancreas showed increased islet size. In comparison with other models of diabetes and obesity, this diet-induced model more closely mimics the changes observed in human metabolic syndrome.

© 2011 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc.

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