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Cardiovascular Endocrinology:
doi: 10.1097/XCE.0000000000000036
Reviews

Does dipeptidyl peptidase IV inhibitor increase the risk of heart failure? A cardiologist’s paradox

Kanakia, Rushita; Martinho, Shaunc; Patel, Tejasa; Arain, Faisal A.a; Panday, Manoj M.b; Le Saux, Claude J.b; Pham, Son V.b; Bailey, Steven R.a; Chilton, Roberta

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Abstract

Diabetes patients have a higher burden of cardiovascular disease compared with the general population. In addition, type 2 diabetes portends a very high risk for major adverse cardiovascular events. The SAVOR trial showed that patients with documented type 2 diabetes and a previous history of, or risk factors for, cardiovascular disease had a 1-year cardiovascular event rate of 2–3%. Whereas in the EXAMINE trial, type 2 diabetes patients with acute coronary syndrome had a 1-year event rate between 6 and 7% after revascularization. Both of these prospective trials used new dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP-4) inhibitors as the treatment modality. Clinically, this class of compounds is extremely well tolerated by patients. The new DPP-4 inhibitors were promising from previous meta-analyses at reducing cardiovascular outcomes. In this article, we review literature on the cardiovascular outcomes with oral hypoglycemic agents, focusing on the two recent, large prospective trials on DDP-4 inhibitors. It is important to recognize that these trials enrolled different patients. The SAVOR trial had type 2 diabetes patients (>40 years old) with established cardiovascular disease or multiple cardiovascular risk factors, whereas EXAMINE trial had type 2 diabetes patients (>18 years old) 15–90 days postrevascularization for acute coronary syndrome. The primary cardiovascular endpoint was a composite of cardiovascular death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, or nonfatal stroke. Neither trial showed a significant cardiovascular benefit. However, neither trial showed increased cardiovascular mortality.

© 2014 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins

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