Turner’s syndrome (TS) is a relatively common chromosomal abnormality frequently associated with cardiovascular abnormalities, such as a bicuspid aortic valve and coarctation of the aorta, as well as cardiovascular risk factors such as hypertension, hypothyroidism, and diabetes mellitus. Epidemiological studies have shown that these patients have increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. In addition, there is at least the theoretical potential that well-established treatments that are intended to address the short stature and hormonal deficiencies in these patients may negatively influence their cardiovascular risk profile. Further, the congenital structural abnormalities commonly found in TS, and long-term complications associated with them, warrant regular monitoring utilizing various cardiovascular imaging modalities to determine the need for timely surgical intervention. In this review, we summarize the main features of this syndrome, with emphasis on issues that impact the management, diagnostic work up, and monitoring of cardiovascular problems in adult patients with TS.
aDepartment of Cardiology, Manchester Heart Centre, Manchester Royal Infirmary
bDepartment of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance Imaging, University Hospital of South Manchester, Wythenshawe
cBiomedical Imaging Institute, University of Manchester, Manchester, UK
dDepartment of Endocrinology, University Hospital of Lübeck, Lübeck, Germany
Correspondence to Alexander N. Borg, MD, MRCP, Manchester Heart Centre, Manchester Royal Infirmary, Oxford Road, Manchester M13 9WL, UK Tel: +44 161 276 4143; fax: +44 161 276 3335; e-mail: email@example.com
Received August 4, 2013
Accepted January 7, 2014