Cardiovascular Endocrinology

Skip Navigation LinksHome > March 2014 - Volume 3 - Issue 1 > Pig models for the human heart failure syndrome
Cardiovascular Endocrinology:
doi: 10.1097/XCE.0000000000000022
Cardiovascular Biomarkers in Animal Models - A Bridge to Human Disease Edited by Jens Peter Goetze and Lisbeth Hoier Olsen: Reviews

Pig models for the human heart failure syndrome

Hunter, Ingrida,b; Terzic, Dijanaa; Zois, Nora E.a; Olsen, Lisbeth H.b; Goetze, Jens P.a

Collapse Box


Human heart failure remains a challenging illness despite advances in the diagnosis and treatment of heart failure patients. There is a need for further improvement of our understanding of the failing myocardium and its molecular deterioration. Porcine models provide an important research tool in this respect as molecular changes can be examined in detail, which is simply not feasible in human patients. However, the human heart failure syndrome is based on symptoms and signs, where pig models mostly mimic the myocardial damage, but without decisive data on clinical presentation and, therefore, a heart failure diagnosis. In perspective, pig models are in need of some verification in terms of the clinical definition of the experimental condition. After all, humans are not pigs, pigs are not humans, and the difference between the species needs to be better understood before pig models can fully be used to elucidate the human heart failure syndrome.

© 2014Wolters Kluwer Health Lippincott Williams Wilkins

You currently do not have access to this article.

You may need to:

Note: If your society membership provides for full-access to this article, you may need to login on your society’s web site first.


Article Tools


Article Level Metrics

Search for Similar Articles
You may search for similar articles that contain these same keywords or you may modify the keyword list to augment your search.