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Educational Needs and Strategies of Pediatric Oncology Nurses in Low- and Middle-Income Countries: An International Society of Pediatric Oncology Pediatric Oncology in Developing Countries Nursing Working Group Initiative

Challinor, Julia M. PhD, RN; Hollis, Rachel MHSc, RSCN; Freidank, Carola; Verhoeven, Cathérine MSc

doi: 10.1097/NCC.0000000000000100
Articles: Online Only

Background: There is no existing pediatric oncology nursing curriculum written specifically for low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), where 80% of children with cancer reside. In 2012, the International Society of Pediatric Oncology Nursing Working Group sought to address this gap with a 3-phase study.

Objective: Phase 1: identify educational priorities of LMIC nurses providing oncology care. Phase 2: solicit educational strategies from expert pediatric oncology nurses. Phase 3: develop a culturally adaptable modular curriculum framework based on LMIC nurses’ priorities.

Methods: A cross-sectional sample of LMIC nurses were surveyed (including Africa, Latin America, Asia). Next, 2 rounds of a Delphi survey were sent to expert pediatric oncology nurses from high-income countries with experience working in LMICs. A 2-day workshop was conducted to develop the framework.

Results: Low- and middle-income country nurses’ survey responses indicated a similar need for specialty training (eg, chemotherapy and psychosocial support). Delphi survey participants agreed on educational strategies (eg, group discussions and peer teaching). Finally, 5 LMIC nurses committed to creating curriculum modules.

Conclusions: There is an urgent need for a curriculum framework created and field tested in LMICs. The International Society of Pediatric Oncology 3-phase project was a successful strategy for initiating this ongoing process.

Implications for Practice: Translating or modifying existing oncology nursing curricula from high-income countries for use in LMICs is no longer adequate. Engaging LMIC nurses who care for children and adolescents with cancer in curriculum development, recognizing local cultures, traditions, and priorities and harnessing the LMIC nurses’ knowledge, experience, and resources are the logical solution for a relevant curriculum.

Author Affiliations: School of Nursing, University of California, San Francisco (Dr Challinor); Paediatric Oncology and Haematology, Leeds Teaching Hospitals Trust, United Kingdom (Ms Hollis); Department of Further Education in Oncology Nursing, Medical School Hannover, Germany (Ms Freidank); and University of Amsterdam, the Netherlands (Ms Verhoeven).

Ms Verhoeven has graduated is now a freelance consultant.

Funding was provided by the Royal College of Nursing, London, to assist in travel costs and accommodation of the nurses from the low- and middle-income countries who participated in the International Society of Pediatric Oncology preconference workshop. The Royal College of Nursing, London, provided the 2-day Workshop site and refreshments. One nurse from a low-income country was funded by a private foundation to attend the Workshop. In addition, 3 nurses from low- and middle-income countries received International Society of Pediatric Oncology Annual Congress scholarships.

The authors have no conflicts of interest to disclose.

Correspondence: Julia M. Challinor, PhD, RN, Krom Boomssloot 53B 1011GS Amsterdam, the Netherlands (jmchallinor@gmail.com).

Accepted for publication August 13, 2013.

© 2014 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins