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Enhancing Fire Department Home Visiting Programs: Results of a Community Intervention Trial

Gielen, Andrea C. ScD, ScM*; Shields, Wendy MPH*; Frattaroli, Shannon PhD, MPH*; McDonald, Eileen MS*; Jones, Vanya PhD, MPH*; Bishai, David MD, PhD*; O’Brocki, Raymond; Perry, Elise C. MHS*; Bates-Hopkins, Barbara; Tracey, Pat; Parsons, Stephanie MHS*

doi: 10.1097/BCR.0b013e3182685b3a
Original Articles

This study evaluates the impact of an enhanced fire department home visiting program on community participation and installation of smoke alarms, and describes the rate of fire and burn hazards observed in homes. Communities were randomly assigned to receive either a standard or enhanced home visiting program. Before implementing the program, 603 household surveys were completed to determine comparability between the communities. During a 1-year intervention period, 171 home visits took place with 8080 homes. At baseline, 60% of homes did not have working smoke alarms on every level, 44% had unsafe water temperatures, and 72% did not have carbon monoxide alarms. Residents in the enhanced community relative to those in the standard community were significantly more likely to let the fire fighters into their homes (75 vs 62%). Among entered homes, those in the enhanced community were significantly more likely to agree to have smoke alarms installed (95 vs 92%), to be left with a working smoke alarm on every level of the home (84 vs 78%), and to have more smoke alarms installed per home visited (1.89 vs 1.74). The high baseline rates of home hazards suggest that fire department home visiting programs should take an “all hazards” approach. Community health workers and community partnerships can be effective in promoting fire departments’ fire and life safety goals. Public health academic centers should partner with the fire service to help generate evidence on program effectiveness that can inform decision making about resource allocation for prevention.

From *Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Johns Hopkins Center for Injury Research and Policy, Baltimore; Baltimore City Fire Department; and Department of Environmental Health, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD.

Supported by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, Grant No. R18CE001339, and by the National Institutes of Health, National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, Grant No. RO1HD059216.

Address correspondence to Andrea C. Gielen, ScD, ScM, Johns Hopkins Center for Injury Research and Policy, 624 N. Broadway, Baltimore, MD 21205.

© 2013 The American Burn Association