The authors have previously shown that recombinant factor XIII (rFXIII) eliminates early manifestations of multiple-organ injury caused by experimental superior mesenteric artery occlusion or trauma-hemorrhagic shock. The aim of the present study was to test the hypothesis that rFXIII provides similar protective effect in experimental burn injury. Rats were randomly divided into five groups (eight animals per group): group 1: burn + placebo treatment; group 2: burn + rFXIII pretreatment; group 3: burn + rFXIII treatment; group 4: sham burn + placebo treatment, and group 5: sham burn + rFXIII treatment. Burn (40% of TBSA) was achieved by immersing the back and abdomen of a rat into 97°C water for 10 and 5 seconds, respectively. Infusion of rFXIII (1 mg/kg) or placebo was performed immediately after burn/sham burn in treatment groups or 24 hours before burn and repeated immediately after it in pretreatment group. Endpoint parameters measured 3 hours after burn/sham burn included muscle blood flow and PO2, lung permeability, gut histology, lung and gut myeloperoxidase activity, neutrophil respiratory burst, and FXIII activity. Both treatment and pretreatment with rFXIII partially preserved microvascular blood flow in the muscle. Muscle PO2 in pretreated rats did not differ from that in shams. Pretreatment but not treatment with rFXIII preserved lung permeability. rFXIII did not have any protective effect on other endpoint parameters. In contrast to superior mesenteric artery occlusion and trauma-hemorrhagic shock experimental models, rFXIII at the doses tested has a limited effect on preventing early manifestations of multiple-organ injury after experimental burn.