Background: Endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA) can be performed under either conscious sedation or general anesthesia. Herein, we describe the diagnostic yield and complications of EBUS-TBNA performed under bronchoscopist-directed conscious sedation.
Methods: This is a retrospective analysis of data collected in the bronchoscopy suite of this center on EBUS-TBNA or endoscopic ultrasound with a bronchoscope-guided fine needle aspiration (EUS-B-FNA) procedures performed between July 2011 and January 2016. All procedures were performed under bronchoscopist-directed conscious sedation with midazolam and pentazocine. The diagnostic yield, sample adequacy rate, complications, and doses of sedative agents are presented.
Results: Of the total 1005 EBUS-TBNA/EUS-B-FNA procedures performed during the study period, 1004 were performed under conscious sedation in spontaneously breathing subjects [mean (SD) age, 45.9 (15.8) years; 378 (37.6%) women]. The mean (SD) doses of midazolam and pentazocine used were 2.53 (1.8) mg and 30.9 (6.9) mg, respectively. The diagnostic yield of the procedure (972 subjects) was 61.2%. Complications related to EBUS were observed in 60 (5.9%) subjects. Majority of them were minor and self-limiting; major complications occurred in 11 (1.1%) subjects and included respiratory failure requiring assisted ventilation (n=6), arrhythmia (n=3), and hypotension (n=2). Escalation of the level of care was needed in only 8 (0.8%) subjects.
Conclusion: EBUS-TBNA/EUS-B-FNA performed under bronchoscopist-guided conscious sedation was found to be safe and is associated with a reasonable diagnostic yield.
Departments of *Pulmonary Medicine
†Cytology, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research (PGIMER), Chandigarh, India
Disclosure: There is no conflict of interest or other disclosures.
Reprints: Ritesh Agarwal, MD, DM, Department of Pulmonary Medicine, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Sector-12, Chandigarh 160012, India (e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org).
Received May 7, 2016
Accepted August 10, 2016