The number of people affected by pressure ulcers is growing across a continuum of healthcare settings. However, the conceptualization of pressure ulcers continues to spark many debates in the practice community as new insight into the development of pressure ulcers emerges. As the name implies, a pressure ulcer is caused by pressure, but it is often confused with other skin conditions, such as moisture-associated skin damage and incontinence-related dermatitis, skin tears, localized erythema due to inflammation, soft tissue infection, and even callused areas.
On the other hand, if pressure is the primary causative factor, should all plantar foot ulcers be considered pressure ulcers? The notion of deep tissue injury has also raised the question of whether pressure ulcers occur from inside-out, outside-in, or somewhere in the middle and then spread inward and outward. Perhaps there are different types of pressure ulcers precipitated by distinct mechanical forces (shear, friction, and/or pressure).
Furthermore, the current pressure ulcer classification systems are often misinterpreted, leading to the assumption that pressure ulcers always progress from Stage I to Stage IV. It is a conundrum to classify a healing pressure ulcer that is almost epithelialized when previous documentation and assessment is not available. The healing ulcer could be a healing Stage IV ulcer versus a healing Stage II ulcer. From a legal regulatory and reimbursement standpoint, there are heated debates whether pressure ulcers should be considered avoidable or preventable. Obviously, we are far from reaching a consensus but the discourse can be constructive providing momentum for further research and policy review.