Conductive materials are potential candidates for developing bone tissue engineering scaffolds as they are nontoxic and can enhance bone tissue regeneration. Their bioactivity can be enhanced by depositing biomineralization in simulated body fluid (SBF). In the current study, a composite electrospun membrane made up of poly(lactic) acid, poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate), and hydroxyapatite was fabricated using an electrospinning method. The fabricated membranes were dip-coated with a conductive polymer solution, poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) poly(4-styrenesulfonate), to induce conductivity. Characterization of the membranes based on characteristics such as morphology, chemical bonding, and wettability was conducted using scanning electron microscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and contact angle measurement. From the results, biomineralization of both coated and noncoated composite membranes was observed on the surface of nanofibers after 21 days in SBF. The membranes provide a superhydrophilic surface as shown by the contact angle. In conclusion, this biomimetic electrospun composite membrane could be used to further support cell growth for bone tissue engineering application.
Submitted for consideration April 2017; accepted for publication in revised form August 2017.
Disclosures: The authors have no conflict of interest to report.
The authors acknowledge MOE, GUP Tier 1 grant (Vot: 12H24), HiCOE vot (4J191), UTM, and RMC for financial support. The lab facilities of FBME are also acknowledged.
Correspondence: Naznin Sultana, Faculty of Bioscience and Medical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Johor, Malaysia. Email: email@example.com.
Copyright © 2017 by the American Society for Artificial Internal Organs