There is a large population of patients with end-stage congestive heart failure who cannot be treated by means of conventional cardiac surgery, cardiac transplantation, or chronic catecholamine infusions. Implantable cardiac devices, many designated as destination therapy, have revolutionized patient care and outcomes, although infection and complications related to external power sources or routine battery exchange remain a substantial risk. Complications from repeat battery replacement, power failure, and infections ultimately endanger the original objectives of implantable biomedical device therapy – eliminating the intended patient autonomy, affecting patient quality of life and survival. We sought to review the limitations of current cardiac biomedical device energy sources and discuss the current state and trends of future potential energy sources in pursuit of a lifelong fully implantable biomedical device.
From the *Department of Internal Medicine, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, New York; †Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry, University of Alberta, Alberta, Canada; ‡Department of Neurobiology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts; §National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health, U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, Bethesda, Maryland; and ¶Division of Cardiac Surgery, Department of Surgery, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, New York.
Submitted for consideration March 2016; accepted for publication in revised form June 2016.
Disclosures: The authors have no conflicts of interest to report.
Correspondence: Vakhtang Tchantchaleishvili, Division of Cardiac Surgery, University of Rochester Medical Center, Box Cardiac Surgery, 601 Elmwood Avenue, Rochester, NY 14642. Email: firstname.lastname@example.org