Purpose: The purpose of this article was to review recent advances in applications of nanotechnology in ophthalmology.
Design: Literature review.
Methods: Research articles about nanotechnology-based treatments for particular eye diseases and diagnostic technologies were searched through Web of Science, and the most recent advances were reported.
Results: Nanotechnology enabled to improve drug and gene delivery systems, medicine solubility and short half-life in biological systems, controlled release, targeted delivery, bioavailability, diffusion limitations, and biocompatibility so far. These promising achievements are the assurance of next-generation treatment technologies. As well as treatment, nanofabrications systems such as microelectromechanical manufacturing systems removed the limitations of nanodevice generations and led the development of diagnostic tools such as intraocular pressure monitors and biosensors.
Conclusions: The pursuit of personalized medicine approaches for combating ocular diseases may be possible only through the development of nanotechnology platforms that include molecular-level engineering. Nanoparticle engineering is a common thread; herein, we attempt to show unmodified nanoparticles as well as interesting and representative biomimetic strategies can be used for specific diseases. Finally, through combining microelectromechanical and nanoelectromechanical manufacturing system strategies, interesting manufacturing and sensor development can be accomplished for early detection and, in some cases, treatment of ocular diseases.