There is growing interest in dietary phytochemicals as potential cancer chemopreventive agents. Resveratrol (3,4′,5-trihydroxy-trans-stilbene), a naturally occurring phytoalexin that is present in grapes, red wine, berries and peanuts, has been studied extensively for its ability to interfere with multistage carcinogenesis. Resveratrol is known to have antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and antiproliferative effects on a variety of cancer cells in vitro and in various animal models. However, the effect(s) of resveratrol in vivo on humans are still controversial. This study discusses current knowledge with regard to the effects of resveratrol in relation to its potential as a chemopreventive and/or chemotherapeutic molecule against human gliomas.