Home Current Issue Previous Issues Published Ahead-of-Print For Authors Journal Info
Skip Navigation LinksHome > November 2009 - Volume 63 - Issue 5 > Vertical and Horizontal Coordinates of the Nipple-Areola Com...
Annals of Plastic Surgery:
doi: 10.1097/SAP.0b013e3181953854
Breast Surgery

Vertical and Horizontal Coordinates of the Nipple-Areola Complex Position in Males

Atiyeh, Bishara S. MD, FACS*; Dibo, Saad A. MD†; El Chafic, Abdul Hamid MD‡

Collapse Box

Abstract

After massive weight loss, male breasts in particular are one of the most disturbing body regions and can be a difficult area to treat often requiring nipple-areola repositioning. The need for bilateral repositioning of the nipple-areola complex is also increasing in other surgical fields such as in female-to-male transsexual patients with large breasts and in patients with severe forms of gynecomastia. Proper configuration and localization of the nipple-areola complex requires both meticulous planning and a thorough understanding of the male anatomy and is essential in determining final aesthetic outcome. Currently available guidelines create areolas that are too large, place the nipple-areola complex too high and too far medially, and/or require complex abstract mathematical calculations. Relying on the recently appreciated aesthetic value of the golden number Phi (ϕ) we propose an easy and reliable method to determine the horizontal and vertical coordinates of the male nipples. With only 2 easily measurable distances, umbilicus-anterior axillary fold apex and umbilicus-suprasternal notch, the internipple distance and the position of the horizontal nipple plane relative to the suprasternal notch can be calculated. The internipple distance can be determined with 95% accuracy and the distance from the suprasternal notch can be determined in 80% of cases within a range of 3.33 ± 1.25 cm.

© 2009 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc.

Login

Search for Similar Articles
You may search for similar articles that contain these same keywords or you may modify the keyword list to augment your search.