Objective: To identify complications associated with different techniques utilized to treat portal vein thrombosis (PVT) during primary liver transplantation and their impact on survival.
Background: PVT remains an intricate problem in liver transplantation, and the long-term outcomes of patients with PVT who undergo transplantation are not well defined.
Methods: We performed a retrospective cohort analysis of all consecutive adult patients who underwent primary isolated liver transplantation from 1998 to 2009 (median follow-up period, 89 months). The outcomes of patients with PVT were compared with those without PVT.
Results: Among 1379 recipients, 174 (12.6%) had PVT at the time of transplantation [83 (48%) complete and 91 (52%) partial]. Among PVT patients with reestablished physiological portal inflow (PVT: physiological group; n = 149), 123 underwent thrombectomies, 16 received interpositional vein grafts, and 10 received mesoportal jump grafts. In 25 patients, physiological portomesenteric venous circulation was not reconstituted (PVT: nonphysiological group; 18 underwent cavoportal hemitranspositions, 6 renoportal anastomoses, and 1 arterialization). The PVT: nonphysiological group suffered a significantly increased incidence of rethrombosis of the portomesenteric veins and gastrointestinal bleeding, with a marginal 10-year overall survival rate of 42% (no PVT, 61%; P = 0.002 and PVT: physiological, 55%; P = 0.043). The PVT: physiological and no PVT groups exhibited comparable survival rates (P = 0.13). No significant differences in survival were observed between complete and partial PVT as long as physiological portal flow was reestablished.
Conclusions: The subset of PVT patients requiring nonphysiological portal vein reconstruction was associated with higher complication rates and suffered diminished long-term prognoses. For the most severe PVT cases, a comprehensive approach is critical to further improve outcomes.