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Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) Surgery Resident Operative Logs: The Last Quarter Century

Drake, Frederick Thurston MD, MPH*,†; Aarabi, Shahram MD; Garland, Brandon T. MD; Huntington, Ciara R. MD§; McAteer, Jarod P. MD, MPH*; Richards, Morgan K. MD, MPH*; Zern, Nicole Kansier MD*; Gow, Kenneth W. MD

doi: 10.1097/SLA.0000000000001738
Original Articles

Study Objective: To describe secular trends in operative experience for surgical trainees across an extended period using the most comprehensive data available, the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) case logs.

Background: Some experts have expressed concern that current trainees are inadequately prepared for independent practice. One frequently mentioned factor is whether duty hours’ restrictions (DHR) implemented in 2003 and 2004 contributed by reducing time spent in the operating room.

Methods: A dataset was generated from annual ACGME reports. Operative volume for total major cases (TMC), defined categories, and four index laparoscopic procedures was evaluated.

Results: TMC dropped after implementation of DHR but rebounded after a transition period (949 vs 946 cases, P = nonsignificance). Abdominal cases increased from 22% of overall cases to 31%. Alimentary cases increased from 21% to 26%. Trauma and vascular surgery substantially decreased. For trauma, this drop took place well before DHR. The decrease in vascular surgery also began before DHR but continued afterward as well: 148 cases/resident in the late 1990s to 107 currently.

Conclusions: Although total operative volume rebounded after implementation of DHR, diversity of operative experienced narrowed. The combined increase in alimentary and abdominal cases is nearly 13%, over a half-year's worth of operating in 5-year training programs. Bedrock general surgery cases—trauma, vascular, pediatrics, and breast—decreased. Laparoscopic operations have steadily increased. If the competence of current graduates has, in fact, diminished. Our analysis suggests that operative volume is not the problem. Rather, changing disease processes, subspecialization, reductions in resident autonomy, and technical innovation challenge how today's general surgeons are trained.

*Department of Surgery, University of Washington, Seattle, WA

Department of Surgery, Division of Endocrine Surgery, University of California, San Francisco, CA

Department of Surgery, Division of Vascular Surgery, University of Washington, Seattle, WA

§Department of Surgery, Carolinas Medical Center, Charlotte, NC

Department of Surgery, Division of Pediatric Surgery, University of Washington, Seattle, WA.

Reprints: Frederick Thurston Drake, MD, MPH, Department of Surgery, University of California, 1600 Divisadero Avenue, C-347, Box 1674, San Francisco, CA. E-mail: frederick.drake@ucsf.edu.

Kenneth W. Gow, MD, Department of Surgery, Division of Pediatric Surgery, University of Washington, 4800 Sand Point Way NE, Seattle, WA 98105. E-mail: kenneth.gow@seattlechildrens.org.

Disclosure: No funding was received for this research project.

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

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