Objective: To provide data regarding the etiology and timing of retrograde type A aortic dissection (RTAD) after thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR).
Methods: Details of patients who had RTAD after TEVAR were obtained from the MOTHER Registry supplemented by data from a systematic review of the literature. Univariate analysis and binary logistic regression analysis of patient or technical factors was performed.
Results: In MOTHER, RTAD developed in 16 of the 1010 patients (1.6%). Binary logistic regression demonstrated that an indication of TEVAR for aortic dissection (acute P = 0.000212; chronic P = 0.006) and device oversizing (OR 1.14 per 1% increase in oversizing above 9%, P < 0.0001) were significantly more frequent in patients with RTAD. Data from the systematic review was pooled with MOTHER data and demonstrated that RTAD occurred in 1.7% (168/9894). Most of RTAD occurred in the immediate postoperative (58%) period and was associated with a high mortality rate (33.6%). The odds ratio of RTAD for an acute aortic dissection was 10.0 (CI: 4.7–21.9) and 3.4 (CI: 1.3–8.8) for chronic aortic dissection. The incidence of RTAD was not significantly different for endografts with proximal bare stent (2.8%) or nonbare stent (1.9%) (P = 0.1298).
Conclusions: Although RTAD after TEVAR is an uncommon complication, it has a high mortality rate. RTAD is significantly more frequent in patients treated for acute and chronic type B dissection, and when the endograft is significantly oversized. The proximal endograft configuration was not associated with any difference in the incidence of RTAD.