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Editorial Board

Editor-In-Chief

James C. Eisenach, M.D.
Editor-in-Chief, Anesthesiology
Department of Anesthesiology
Wake Forest University School of Medicine
Medical Center Boulevard
Winston-Salem, NC 27157
Tel: (319) 356-4601; 1-800-260-5631
E-mail: editorial-office@anesthesiology.org

Executive Editors

Michael J. Avram, Ph.D.
Chicago, IL

Charles D. Collard, M.D.
Houston, TX

Jerrold H. Levy, M.D., F.A.H.A., F.C.C.M.
Durham, NC

James P. Rathmell, M.D.
Boston, MA

David S. Warner, M.D.
Durham, NC

Editors

J. David Clark, M.D., Ph.D.
Palo Alto, CA

Hugh C. Hemmings, Jr., M.D., Ph.D., F.R.C.A.
New York, NY

Shiroh Isono, M.D.
Chiba, Japan

Jean Mantz, M.D., Ph.D.
Clichy, France

Piyush M. Patel, M.D., F.R.C.P.C.
San Diego, CA

David M. Roth, M.D., Ph.D.
San Diego, CA

Daniel I. Sessler, M.D.
Cleveland, OH

Jeanine P. Wiener-Kronish, M.D.
Boston, MA

Statistical Editor

Timothy T. Houle, Ph.D.
Winston-Salem, NC

Editorial Office

Managing Editor
George H. Kendall
Winston-Salem, NC
Email: managing-editor@anesthesiology.org

Vicky J. Farrington-Howrey
Iowa City, IA

Angel R. Marsh
Iowa City, IA

Shawn A. Platt
Iowa City, IA

Janan R. Winn
Iowa City, IA

Anesthesiology Journal
Department of Anesthesia, 6546 JCP
The University of Iowa
200 Hawkins Drive
Iowa City, IA 52242-1009
Tel: (319) 356-4601; Fax (847) 720-9669
E-mail: editorial-office@anesthesiology.org

Past Editors-In-Chief

Henry S. Ruth, M.D.
1940-1955

Ralph M. Tovell, M.D.
1956-1958

James E. Eckenhoff, M.D.
1959-1962

Leroy D. Vandam, M.D.
1963-1970

Arthur S. Keats, M.D.
1971-1973

Nicholas M. Greene, M.D.
1974-1976

C. Philip Larson. Jr., M.D.
1977-1979

John D. Michenfelder, M.D.
1980-1985

Lawrence J. Saidman, M.D.
1986-1996

Michael M. Todd, M.D.
1997-2006

LWW Publication Staff

Publisher
Druanne Martin

Journal Production Editor
Joseph Albrecht

Journal Production Associate
Debbie Moody

Senior Account Manager, Advertising
Michelle Smith

Classified Advertising Representative
Keida Spurlock

Translation, Rights & Licensing
Silvia Serra
translationrights@wolterskluwer.com

Associate Editors

Julien Amour, M.D., Ph.D.
Paris, France

Takashi Asai, M.D., Ph.D.
Osaka, Japan

Brian Thomas Bateman, M.D., M.Sc.
Boston, MA

George S. Bause, M.D., M.P.H.
Cleveland, OH

Beatrice Beck-Schimmer, M.D.
Zurich, Switzerland 

Chad Michael Brummett, M.D.
Ann Arbor, MI

John Butterworth, M.D.
Richmond, VA

Jaume Canet, M.D., Ph.D.
Barcelona, Spain, M.D.

Carol Wiley Cassella, M.D.
Seattle, WA 

Deborah J. Culley, M.D.
Boston, MA

Albert Dahan, M.D., Ph.D.
Leiden, The Netherlands

Andrew J. Davidson, M.D., M.B.B.S., F.A.N.Z.C.A.
Melbourne, Australia

Stefan G. De Hert, M.D., Ph.D.
Ghent, Belgium

Matthias Eikermann, M.D., Ph.D.
Boston, MA

Holger K. Eltzschig, M.D., Ph.D.
Aurora, CO

Pamela Flood, M.D.
San Francisco, CA

Amanda A. Fox, M.D., M.P.H.
Dallas, TX

Admir Hadžić, M.D., Ph.D.
New York, NY

Quinn H. Hogan, M.D.
Milwaukee, WI

Ru-Rong Ji, Ph.D.
Durham, NC

Yandong Jiang, M.D., Ph.D.
Boston, MA

Franz Kehl, M.D., Ph.D., D.E.A.A.
Karlsruhe, Germany

Sachin Kheterpal, M.D., M.B.A.
Ann Arbor, MI

Yannick Le Manach, M.D., Ph.D.
Hamilton, Canada

Ronald S. Litman, D.O., F.A.A.P.
Philadelphia, PA

Martin J. London, M.D.
San Francisco, CA

Edward J. Mascha, Ph.D.
Cleveland, OH

George A. Mashour, M.D., Ph.D.
Ann Arbor, MI

Peter Nagele, M.D., M.Sc.
St. Louis, MO

Mark D. Neuman, M.D., M.Sc.
Philadelphia, PA

Paolo Pelosi, M.D., Ph.D.
Varese, Italy

Jean-Francois Pittet, M.D.
Birmingham, AL

Warren S. Sandberg, M.D., Ph.D.
Nashville, TN

Alan Jay Schwartz, M.D., M.S.Ed.
Philadelphia, PA

Jamie W. Sleigh, M.D.
Hamilton, New Zealand

Balachundhar Subramaniam, M.B.B.S., M.D., M.P.H.
Boston, MA

ASA Officers

President
Jane C. K. Fitch, M.D.

President-Elect
John P. Abenstein, M.D.

Immediate Past President
John M. Zerwas, M.D.

First Vice-President
Daniel J. Cole, M.D.

Vice-President for Scientific Affairs
Beverly K. Philip, M.D.

CME Editors

Leslie C. Jameson, M.D.

Dan J. Kopacz, M.D.

Cover Art

James P. Rathmell, M.D.
Boston, MA

Annemarie B. Johnson, C.M.I.
Winston-Salem, NC

 

Editors

James Eisenach, M.D.
Editor-in-Chief

FM James, III Professor of Anesthesiology, Departments of Anesthesiology and Physiology & Pharmacology, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston Salem, NC

Dr. Eisenach's research interests focus on the neurophysiology and pharmacology of pain, with active laboratory and clinical research in projects involving labor pain, postoperative pain, and chronic neuropathic pain. This involves basic neurophysiologic studies of nerves which innervate the uterine cervix, changes in spinal cord neurons and glia following incisional surgery or peripheral nerve injury, and changes in efficacy of alpha2-adrenoceptor, puririnergic, and muscarinic receptor agonists in chronic pain states.

Conflicts of Interest: Dr. Eisenach's current conflicts of interests are consultation with Medtronics, Adynxx, Vertex, NeurogesX, Targacept, and Aerial Biopharma in novel analgesics.

 

Michael J. Avram, Ph.D.
Executive Editor

Associate Professor of Anesthesiology, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, Illinois

Dr. Avram's research interests include pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of anesthetics, analgesics, cardiovascular drugs, and chemotherapeutics.

Conflicts of Interest: Dr. Avram is a consultant for Alexza Pharmaceuticals, Inc. and has been a consultant for Eisai Medical Research, Inc.

 

Charles D. Collard, M.D.
Executive Editor

Professor & Anesthesiologist-in-Chief, St. Luke's Episcopal Hospital and the Texas Heart Institute, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX

Dr. Collard's research interests include perioperative genomics, inflammation, and cardiovascular pathophysiology. Dr. Collard has extensive clinical experience with regard to cardiothoracic and vascular surgery, including transplantation (heart, lung, liver and kidney), aortic surgery, cardiopulmonary bypass, circulatory arrest, and transesophageal echocardiography.

Conflicts of Interest: Dr. Collard is currently or has in the past received funding from the following: NIH, FAER, SCA, Alexion Pharmaceuticals, Procter & Gamble Pharmaceuticals, Hemosol, Pharmacia Corporation (now Pfizer), Eisai Medical Research, Xoma (US) LLC, The Medicines Company, Ischemia Research and Education Foundation, University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston GCRC, Avant Immunotherapeutics, Bayer Pharmaceuticals, Allon Therapeutics, Talecris, Hospira, Cecoura Therapeutics, Allon Therapeutics, Quark Pharmaceuticals, Hoffman-LaRoche, Siemens Healthcare Diagnostics, Takeda, Hospira, Cubist Pharmaceduticals, Inocoll Pharmaceuticals, Schering-Plough, Merck & Co. Inc., Zoll Inc., Allocure Inc., Canyon Pharmaceuticals, Nonin Medical, Inc, and Novartis.

 

Jerrold H. Levy, M.D., F.A.H.A., F.C.C.M.
Executive Editor

 

Dr. Levy completed his residency in Anesthesia at Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, where he was also a fellow in cardiac anesthesiology and respiratory intensive care. He was Professor of Anesthesiology and Deputy Chairman for Research in the Department of Anesthesiology at Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, Georgia. He was in the Cardiothoracic Anesthesiology Division and an Attending Physician in the Cardiothoracic Intensive Care Units at Emory Healthcare. He is currently at Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, North Carolina,

Dr. Levy’s research interests include hemostasis, acute inflammation and anaphylactic reactions, cardiovascular pharmacology, and vascular physiology. His clinical interests are cardiothoracic anesthesiology and critical care medicine. He has been active in developing therapeutic approaches to perioperative hemostatic management, anticoagulation and reversal, and transfusion alternatives. Some of his current research efforts are the application of biotechnology in clinical medicine, developing purified and recombinant novel agents that can be administered to modulate inflammation, hemostasis, and treating or preventing bleeding.

Conflicts of Interest: Within the past three years Dr. Levy has served or serves on research steering committees, data safety monitoring boards, or advisory boards for CSL Behring, Boehringer-Ingelheim, Grifols, J&J, Marathon, Merck, Medicines Company, Octapharma, Portola, and Roche.

 

James P. Rathmell, M.D.
Executive Editor

Director, Massachusetts General Hospital Pain Center; Associate Professor, Department of Anesthesia and Critical Care, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts

Dr. Rathmell's research interests include imagining in regional anesthesia and pain medicine, outcomes following intervention for the treatment of chronic pain, and pain management during pregnancy and lactation.


 

David S. Warner, M.D.
Executive Editor

Professor, Departments of Anesthesiology, Neurobiology and Surgery, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina

Dr. Warner focuses his academic mission on the study of mechanisms of acute central nervous system injury and development of therapeutic interventions, which may have either translational or direct clinical implications for patients presenting with such insults or at risk for such insults in the perioperative period.

Conflicts of Interest: Dr. Warner's possible conflicts of interest include associations with the following companies: Angion Biomedica, Corp., Biomimetix Pharmaceutical, Inc., and Phoenix Biotechnology, Inc.

 

Hugh C. Hemmings, Jr., M.D., Ph.D., F.R.C.A.                                                    
Editor

Joseph F Artusio Jr Chair and Professor of Anesthesiology, Professor of Pharmacology, Weill Cornell Medical College, Anesthesiologist-in-Chief, New York Presbyterian Hospital, New York, NY

Dr. Hemmings' research is on the synaptic effects of general anesthetics, mechanisms of neuronal signal transduction, the pharmacology of voltage-gated sodium channels, and novel analgesics.

Conflicts of interest: Editor of British Journal of Anaesthesia, recipient of grant funds from the NIH, research funding from Cadence, consultant for Elsevier.

 

Shiroh Isono, M.D.
Editor

Professor, Department of Anesthesiology, Chiba University Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba, Japan

Dr. Isono's areas of expertise and interest include respiratory physiology and sleep medicine, particularly the pathophysiology of upper airway maintenance in unconscious subjects. His clinical interests include perioperative airway management.

Conflicts of interest: Dr. Isono’s department receives research support from MSD, COVIDIEN Japan, Baxter, Pacific Medico, and Nihon Kohden.

 

Jean Mantz, M.D., Ph.D.
Editor

Professor and Chair, Department of Anesthesia, Intensive Care and SMUR, Beaujon University Hospital, Clinchy, France

Dr. Mantz's research interests include experimental neurosciences (molecular and cellular mechanisms of action of general anesthetics on the brain, cellular signaling of anesthetics effects, neuroprotective effects of general anesthetics, clinical neurociences (sedation and analgesia in ICU, postoperative cognitive dysfunction, monitorung of depth of anesthesia) and critical care medicine.

Conflicts of Interest: Prior research funding from drug companies: Astrazeneca, Abbott, and LFB. Paid consultancies for drug companies: GSK, Bristol Myers Squibb, ProstrakanPharma, Orionpharma, Nycomed, Pall, Sanofi Aventis, Abbott, Baxter, and Eisei Pharma.

Piyush M. Patel, M.D., F.R.C.P.C.
Editor

Professor, Department of Anesthesiology, University of California at San Diego

My research interests are focused on the study of ischemic preconditioning of the brain. Our goal is to identify the molecular mechanisms that underlie this endogenous neuroprotection. Current efforts are directed at microarray analysis of gene transcription and NMDA receptor mediated signaling in the acquisition of tolerance. With respect to the latter, our recent results indicate that caveolin-1, a scaffolding protein, is present in neurons, appears to scaffold NMDA receptor subunits, scaffolds downstream signaling molecules, and is essential to the development of tolerance.

A second more recent area of interest is anesthetic neurotoxicity. Anesthetic exposure during the period of synaptogenesis in the postnatal rodent brain leads to widespread apoptotic neurodegeneration. Our laboratory efforts are directed at the study of the mechanisms by which anesthetic agents interfere with synaptogenesis and how this interference leads to neuronal apoptosis.

Conflicts of Interest: None

David M. Roth, M.D., Ph.D.
Editor

Professor, Department of Anesthesiology, University of California at San Diego and VA San Diego Healthcare System

Dr. Roth’s research interests include mechanisms of myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury, therapeutics for cardiac protection, heart failure mechanisms and therapeutics, the pathophysiology of isolated right heart failure, and basic mechanisms of cell stress and survival. The goal of our research group is to identify molecular mechanisms that underlie endogenous adaptation of the heart to stress with a focus on membrane components and to determine how to manipulate cell stress pathways to increase cardiomyocyte and cell survival. Dr. Roth’s clinical interests include cardiac anesthesia and anesthetic management of pulmonary thromboendarterectomy surgery.

Conflicts of Interest: None

 

Daniel I. Sessler, M.D.
Editor

Dr. Sessler attended medical school at Columbia University, and subsequently completed pediatric and anesthesia residencies at the University of California, Los Angeles. He is currently Professor and Chair of the Department of Outcomes Research at the Cleveland Clinic and Director of the Outcomes Research Consortium. Dr. Sessler has published a book on therapeutic hypothermia and more than 445 full research papers including a half dozen in the New England Journal of Medicine. He has been a principal or coinvestigator on grants exceeding $20 million, more than $14 million of which is from NIH and other peer-reviewed sources. Dr. Sessler has given invited lectures at more than 275 institutions. Among his awards is a Fulbright Fellowship and the 2002 American Society of Anesthesiologists Excellence in Research prize.

Conflicts of Interest: 
Advisory Board (3M, Abbvie), consultant (MoInlycke, Carefusion), stock options (E-Motion), royalties (Sedysis, J&J), Board of Directors (AQI), Funded Research (Hospira, Fresenius, Merck, AcelRx, Covidien, and Cumberland).

Jeanine P. Wiener-Kronish, M.D.
Editor

Anesthetist-in-Chief, Henry Isaiah Dorr Professor of Teaching and Research in Anesthesia and Anesthetics, Harvard Medical School, Department of Anesthesia and Critical Care, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts

Dr. Wiener-Kronish's research is focused on the role of bacterial virulence products in causing acute lung injury and sepsis. She has investigated the role of the type III secretion system in Pseudomonas aeruginosa in causing lung injury and has developed a humanized antibody that is effective in blocking the type III system of P. aeruginosa. Dr. Wiener-Kronish is now determining when P. aeruginosa utilizes the type III system in nosocomial pneumonia and is also investigating the role of innate immunity in host defense against P. aeruginosa. Dr. Wiener-Kronish's clinical interests involve critical care medicine, including ventilator associated pneumonia and postoperative problems in patients with severe lung disease. She is interested in preoperative assessment of patients with lung disease and other medical problems.

Conflicts of Interest: Dr. Wiener-Kronish recieves one consulting fee from Kalabios Pharmaceuticals Inc. and has no affiliations with any other companies. Her only salary is from the Massachusetts General Hospital and the honoraria she receives for talks and from the NIH.

Timothy T. Houle, Ph.D.
Statistical Editor

Research Assistant Professor, Department of Anesthesiology, Wake Forest University Health Sciences, Winston-Salem, North Carolina

Dr. Houle's clinical and research interests are migraine headache, behavioral medicine, chronic pain, time-series analytical approaches, and experimental design.

Conflicts of Interest: Dr. Houle is currently a statistical consultant for Endo Pharmaceuticals and Monster Worldwide, Inc.

Takashi Asai, M.D., Ph.D.
Associate Editor

Assistant Professor, Department of Anesthesiology, Kansai Medical University, Osaka, Japan

Dr. Asai’s research interest includes airway management, gastrointestinal motility, epidural anaesthesia, statistical analysis, and medical ethics.

Conflict of interest:  Dr. Asai has received honoraria for giving lectures from the manufacturers and distributors of the laryngeal mask airway, the i-gel, and the Pentax-AWS.

Brian Thomas Bateman, M.D., M.Sc.
Associate Editor

Assistant Professor of Anaesthesia, Harvard Medical School and faculty member, Department of Anesthesia, Critical Care, and Pain Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital and in the Division of Pharmacoepidemiology and Pharmacoeconomics, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women’s Hospital.

Dr. Bateman’s research interests focus on the epidemiology of pregnancy complications, medication safety in pregnancy, and patterns of medication use and drug safety in the perioperative period.

Funding: National Institutes of Health, Icelandic Centre for Research, SOAP/Gertie Marx Trust. Consulting fees: Obstetric hemorrhage quality improvement project, Association of Women’s Health, Obstetric & Neonatal Nurses.

Beatrice Beck-Schimmer, M.D.
Associate Editor

Professor of Anesthesiology, Institute of Anesthesiology, University Hospital Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland, and Institute of Physiology and Zurich Center of Integrative Human Physiology, University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland

Dr. Beck-Schimmer’s research interests include inflammation and immunopathology and the translation to cardiothoracic and liver anesthesia including transplantation. A main focus is organ protection by local and general anesthetics in acute lung and liver injury, which is explored in basic and clinical research. Another focus area is nanomedicine, the effects of nanoparticles on different cell types and tissues, and potential future therapeutic applications.

Conflicts of Interest: Dr. Beck-Schimmer has received research funding and honoraria from Abbott and Baxter. She is a member of the National Research Council of the Swiss National Science Foundation.

Chad Michael Brummett, M.D.
Associate Editor

Dr. Brummett is a graduate of the Indiana University School of Medicine. After completing residency in anesthesiology at the University of Michigan, he trained in pain medicine at Johns Hopkins University. He has been faculty at the University of Michigan since 2007 where he is the Director of Pain Research.

Dr. Brummett was the first to describe the use of peripheral perineural dexmedetomidine, and his early research focused on the efficacy, safety, and mechanisms of dexmedetomidine added to local anesthetics for peripheral nerve blocks. He has since translated that work to humans. His new interests include predictors of chronic postsurgical pain and failure to derive benefit for interventions for interventions and surgeries done primarily for pain. In particular, Dr. Brummett is interested in the impact of a fibromyalgia-like or centralized pain phenotype on analgesic outcomes.

Conflicts of interest: Dr. Brummett is a consultant for Purdue Pharma, LLC. Dexmedetomidine patent: The University of Michigan holds a patent covering the use of perineural dexmedetomidine for in regional anesthesia. Brummett CM, Inventor; The Regents of the University of Michigan, Assignee; Anesthetic Methods and Compositions; US patent application US 12/791,506; Issue date 04/02/2013.

John F. Butterworth, M.D.
Associate Editor

Robert K. Stoelting Professor and Chairman, Department of Anesthesia, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, Indiana

Dr. Butterworth’s research interests include local anesthetic pharmacology and toxicity, clinical pharmacology, cardiothoracic anesthesia, regional anesthesia and acute pain, and legal and economic issues related to anesthetic practice. Dr. Butterworth’s clinical practice includes thoracic, regional, and “generalist” anesthesia.

Conflicts of Interest: Dr. Butterworth has served as a consultant to the manufacturers of ropivacaine and bupivacaine but has no current financial conflicts of interest under the definitions used by Anesthesiology or Indiana University School of Medicine.

Jaume Canet, M.D., Ph.D.
Associate Editor

Chairman of the Department of Anesthesiology and Postoperative Critical Care, Hospital Universitari Germans Trias i Pujol, Badalona, Barcelona, Spain

Dr. Canet’s research includes studies in the following fields: respiratory physiology applied to anesthesia and critical care; inhalational anesthesia; anesthesia for morbid obesity; respiratory failure; postoperative cognitive dysfunction; the epidemiology of anesthesia; postoperative outcomes; and airway management.

Conflicts of Interest: Dr. Canet has received honoraria for lecturing from the following companies: Abbott and Baxter.

Deborah J. Culley, M.D.
Associate Editor 

Associate Professor, Department of Anesthesiology, Perioperative and Pain Medicine, Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA.

Dr. Culley’s research interests focus on the effects of surgery and anesthesia on the aged brain. The majority of efforts in our laboratory aim to identify mechanisms, and risk factors for the development of short-term (delirium) and long-term (postoperative cognitive dysfunction) cognitive alterations following routine surgery and anesthesia in aged rodents. Recently the research team has been expanded to include clinical studies on patient factors that may contribute to the development of postoperative cognitive alterations in elders.

Conflicts of Interest: Dr. Culley receives an Honorarium as a Director of the American Board of Anesthesiology.

 

Andrew J. Davidson, M.D., F.A.N.Z.C.A.
Associate Editor

Clinical Associate Professor, Department of Pharmacology , University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Australia

Dr. Davidson's research interests include EEG and awareness in pediatric anesthesia as well as neurotoxicity of anaesthesia in the newborn. He is also head of Clinical Research Development at the Murdoch Children's Research Institute with a special interest in research ethics and trial design. His clinical expertise is in neuro anesthesia.

Conflicts of Interest: Dr. Davidson has no conflict of interest to declare.

Stefan G. De Hert, M.D., Ph.D.
Associate Editor

Professor, Department of Anesthesiology, University of Amsterdam, Director, Division of Cardiothoracic Anesthesiology, Academic Medical Center

Dr. De Hert's interest is in cardiothoracic and vascular physiology with emphasis on diastolic function and cardiovascular effects of anesthetic agents. Dr. De Hert is currently investigating the influence of perioperative pharmacological strategies on short and long-term outcome after cardiovascular surgery. Other areas of interest include transesophageal echocardiography and the physiology of hemodilution.

Conflicts of Interest: Dr. De Hert has received honoraria for lecturing from the following companies: Abbott, Baxter, Edwards, Fresenius-Kabi, and Pulsion.

Matthias Eikermann, M.D., Ph.D.
Associate Editor

Associate Professor of Anesthesia, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, and at
Universität Duisburg-Essen, Duisburg, Germany

Dr. Eikermann’s scientific interest is focused on respiratory and skeletal muscle function during sleep, anesthesia, and critical illness. His goal is to develop new strategies for sedation, analgesia, and control of muscle strength that help stabilize breathing and early rehabilitation in perioperative medicine. Dr. Eikermann is board certified in anesthesiology and in critical care and pain medicine, and he works clinically as an intensivist and anesthesiologist at the Massachusetts General Hospital in Boston, MA.

Conflicts of Interest: Dr. Eikermann received research funding from Merck and the ResMed Foundation.

Holger K. Eltzschig, M.D., Ph.D.
Associate Editor

As a physician scientist trained in anesthesiology and critical care medicine, Dr. Eltzschig is a funded investigator to study the role of hypoxia-elicited adaptive responses in the context of acute organ injury. Many surgical patients experience acute organ injury in their perioperative course, which is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. At present, therapeutic approaches to prevent or treat acute organ injury—such as acute kidney or lung injury, intestinal inflammation, or myocardial ischemia are very limited. Dr. Eltzschig’s laboratory (http://www.ucdenver.edu/academics/colleges/medicalschool/departments/Anesthesiology/anesresearch/labs/chair/Pages/chair.aspx) is particularly interested in studying endogenous adaptive pathways that are under the control of hypoxia-inducible factors. They have applied these molecular concepts in a wide range of disease models that are important for the field of anesthesiology and critical care medicine, including myocardial ischemia, acute kidney injury, liver ischemia or acute lung injury and intestinal inflammation. Many of our studies point toward an adaptive role for hypoxia-elicited signaling pathways, for example, by attenuating hypoxia-associated inflammation or promoting ischemia tolerance. They are currently exploring translational approaches to take these findings from bench to bedside, and they anticipate that some of these findings will lead to novel approaches to prevent or treat acute organ injury in patients who require major surgery or suffer from critical illness.

Dr. Eltzschig’s research laboratory is particularly devoted toward providing junior investigators with unique training and career opportunities. As such, he has trained many scientists and physician scientists from the field of anesthesiology, surgery, immunology, and critical care medicine. Several of his trainees went on to become funded investigators (e.g., via NIH K08 or R01 mechanisms) or took over academic leadership roles.

Conflicts of interest: None.

Amanda A. Fox, M.D., M.P.H.
Associate Editor
 

The University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center Department of Anesthesiology and Pain Management, Dallas, TX

Dr. Fox’s research centers on identifying genetic variants and biomarkers associated with short and longer-term adverse outcomes after cardiac surgery. Dr. Fox’s present research focuses on predictors of heart failure and quality of life after primary coronary artery bypass graft surgery.

Conflicts of Interest: Dr. Fox has received financial support for research from the Society of Cardiovascular Anesthesiologists, the Foundation for Anesthesia Education and Research, and the American Geriatrics Society.

Admir Hadžić, M.D., Ph.D.
Associate Editor 

Senior Attending Anesthesiologist, St. Luke’s-Roosevelt Hospitals, New York, New York, and Professor of Clinical Anesthesiology, College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia University, New York, New York

Dr. Hadžić has many peer-reviewed articles and two leading textbooks. He has lectured at various universities and anesthesia CME events world-wide. He is a founder and Program Chair of NWAC, Networking World Anesthesia Convention, and NYSORA, The New York School of Regional Anesthesia.  His current interests are focused on global education in anesthesiology, NYSORA and NWAC Educational Outreach and Scholarship Programs (ESOP), global Networking in Anesthesiology and philanthropic programs in medicine and arts worldwide.

Franz Kehl, M.D., Ph.D., D.E.A.A.
Associate Editor

Professor and Chairman, Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care Medicine, Municipal Hospital Karlsruhe, Germany

Dr. Kehl’s research interests include management of high risk cerebro-cardio-vascular patients; pre- and postconditioning of heart and brain; Neuroanesthesia, especially vasospasm; critical care medicine, especially long-term sedation with volatile anesthetics, pediatric anesthesia, and difficult airway management.

Conflict of Interest: Dr. Kehl has received investigator initiated, unrestricted research grants by Abbott Wiesbaden, and Baxter Deutschland GmbH, Unterschleißheim, Germany. He has received consultant fees and honoraria by LMA, Dräger, Bayer Germany, and Sedana Medical, Stockholm, Sweden.

Ronald S. Litman, D.O., F.A.A.P.
Associate Editor

Conflicts of Interest: Dr. Litman has received funding from Nihon-Koden to test the validity of a newly designed pediatric facemask capnography device.

Martin J. London, M.D.
Associate Editor 

Professor of Clinical Anesthesia, Department of Anesthesia and Perioperative Care, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, California, and Attending Anesthesiologist, San Francisco Veterans Affairs Medical Center, San Francisco, California

Dr. London’s clinical areas include adult cardiac and vascular anesthesia, “generalist” anesthesia, and perioperative/medical critical care. His current research interests focus on pharmacoepidemiology of perioperative cardiovascular medications using large VA databases. Prior studies have focused on health care delivery, monitoring strategies and fast tracking for cardiac surgery, implications of perioperative ischemia in noncardiac surgery, effects of colloidal volume expanders in cardiac surgery and the coronary circulation during hypothermia. He is active in educational initiatives, particularly those related to perioperative transesophageal echocardiography.

Conflicts of interest: Dr. London has no conflicts of interest.

Edward J. Mascha, Ph.D.
Associate Editor 

Associate Professor of Biostatistics, Departments of Quantitative Health Sciences and Outcomes Research, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio

Dr. Mascha’s research interests include design and analysis of clinical trials and observational studies in perioperative medicine, interim monitoring, causal inference, methods for analyzing correlated binary outcomes, joint hypothesis testing, noninferiority and equivalence testing, mediation analysis and treatment effect heterogeneity. Dr. Mascha has authored or coauthored more than 150 peer-reviewed papers and is a regular statistical reviewer for several medical journals.

Conflicts of interest: none to report.

George A. Mashour, M.D., Ph.D.
Associate Editor 

Bert N. LaDu Professor of Anesthesiology, Faculty, Neuroscience Graduate Program, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, Michigan

Dr. Mashour is an anesthesiologist and neuroscientist whose primary scholarly interest relates to consciousness and anesthesia. Dr. Mashour’s clinical research focuses on intraoperative awareness as well as other neurologic and psychiatric outcomes of surgery. His NIH-funded laboratory investigates mechanisms of unconsciousness during sleep and anesthesia. His theoretical research group explores network science approaches to understanding consciousness and anesthetic-induced unconsciousness. In addition to numerous peer-reviewed publications, Dr. Mashour has edited four textbooks related to anesthesiology and the neurosciences.

Funding: National Institutes of Health, Canadian Institutes of Health Research, James S. McDonnell Foundation, Cerephex Corporation.

Disclosures: Patent pending (through the University of Michigan) on measures of directional connectivity for brain monitoring (Application No.: 13/804,706, Filed March 14, 2013, “System and Method to Assess Causal Signaling in the Brain during States of Consciousness”).

Peter Nagele, M.D., M.Sc.
Associate Editor

Assistant Professor, Departments of Anesthesiology and Genetics, and Chief, Section of Trauma Anesthesiology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri

Dr. Nagele's research interests are at the intersection of pharmacogenomics and cardiovascular disease in the perioperative period. In particular, he is interested in the role of nitrous oxide and beta-blockers in perioperative myocardial infarction, as well as the usefulness of novel high-sensitivity cardiac biomarkers in perioperative medicine. His clinical interests are in civilian and military, pre-hospital and in-hospital trauma and emergency medicine and cardiac arrest.

Conflicts of Interest: Dr. Nagele has received research funding from Roche Diagnostics.

Paolo Pelosi, M.D., Ph.D.
Associate Editor

Professor in Anesthesia and Intensive Care Medicine, Department of Ambient, Health and Safety, University of Insubria, Varese, Italy

Dr. Pelosi's research interests include respiratory physiology and mechanical ventilation during general anesthesia and in patients with acute respiratory failure. In clinical practice, Dr. Pelosi is an anesthesiologist and Intensive Care physician.

Conflicts of Interest: Within the past five years, Dr. Pelosi has received research support from Starmed, Mirandola, Italy.

Jean-Francois Pittet, M.D.
Associate Editor

Dr. Pittet holds several faculty appointments at the University of Alabama at Birmingham (UAB) including the primary appointment of Professor in the Department of Anesthesiology. He also serves as Director of the Division of Critical Care and Perioperative Medicine. Originally from Fribourg, Switzerland, Dr. Pittet received his medical degree from the University of Lausanne (Switzerland). Dr. Pittet joined the UAB faculty in 2010 after nearly 20 years on staff at the University of California, San Francisco and San Francisco General Hospital.

Dr. Pittet has received numerous grants from various agencies, including NIH, the U.S. Department of Defense, and American Lung Association. His most recent research effort has been focused on coagulation abnormalities and trauma; heat shock and lung fluid balance; and molecular mechanisms of acute lung injury. He is a regular member of the NIH Surgery, Anesthesiology, and Trauma study section reviewing grants several times a year.

Warren S. Sandberg, M.D., Ph.D.
Associate Editor

Dr. Warren Sandberg is Chair of the Department of Anesthesiology at Vanderbilt University School of Medicine and professor of anesthesiology, surgery, and biomedical informatics.

Dr. Sandberg received his Ph.D. in biochemistry and molecular biology from the University of Chicago, and his M.D. from the University of Chicago, Pritzker School of Medicine. He served his internship at the University of Chicago Hospitals and was a resident/fellow in the Department of Anesthesia/Critical Care at Massachusetts General Hospital. Dr. Sandberg joined the Harvard faculty in 1998 where he served until his selection as chair at Vanderbilt, April 2010.

At Vanderbilt, Dr. Sandberg divides his time between clinical practice, research, and administration. He has a deep clinical and research interest in the development and use of informatics in anesthesiology, and Vanderbilt is a recognized national leader in informatics, quality and health outcomes research. Dr. Sandberg’s specific research interests include: factors affecting physician-patient communication, patient care technology, perioperative systems design, and OR workflow management. In his role as Chair of the Department of Anesthesiology, his goal is to leverage forward thinking technologists and the already present capabilities of the institution to develop a world class anesthesia informatics and real-time decision support research program.

Conflicts of interest: None.

Alan Jay Schwartz, M.D., M.S.Ed.
Associate Editor

Director of Education and Pediatric Anesthesiology Fellowship Director, The Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia, Professor of Anesthesiology & Critical Care, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA

Dr. Schwartz’s interests include clinical care and education with special emphasis on pediatric and cardiothoracic anesthesiology and cardiopulmonary resuscitation.

Conflicts of Interest: Dr. Schwartz has worked as a consultant for the American Heart Association.