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Anesthesiology:
doi: 10.1097/ALN.0b013e31824e54c8
Table of Contents

Table of Contents

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ON THE COVER:

Physicians, including anesthesiologists, are working later in life. This issue contains an original investigation and editorial regarding assessment of competency and educational needs of the older anesthesiologist.
* Warner: More Than Just Taking the Keys Away …, p. 501
* Tessler et al.: Association between Anesthesiologist Age and Litigation, p. 574
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THIS MONTH IN ANESTHESIOLOGY 9A

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EDITORIAL VIEWS

More Than Just Taking the Keys Away … 501
Mark A. Warner
Getting Oil and Water to Mix 504
Evan D. Kharasch
Neurotoxicity and the Need for Anesthesia in the Newborn: Does the Emperor Have No Clothes? 507
Andrew J. Davidson
Surgery and the Plastic Brain 510
Michael S. Avidan and Tammie L. Benzinger
Preoperative Transfusions to Limit the Deleterious Effects of Blood Transfusions 513
Jean-Louis Vincent and Christophe Lelubre
Videolaryngoscopes: Do They Truly Have Roles in Difficult Airways? 515
Takashi Asai
Reconstructing Deconstructed Blood for Trauma 518
Richard B. Weiskopf
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SPECIAL ARTICLES

Practice Advisory for Preanesthesia Evaluation: An Updated Report by the American Society of Anesthesiologists Task Force on Preanesthesia Evaluation 522
The American Society of Anesthesiologists Committee on Standards and Practice Parameters presents an updated report of the Practice Advisory for Preanesthesia Evaluation. SUPPLEMENTAL DIGITAL CONTENT IS AVAILABLE IN THE TEXT
Practice Guidelines for Central Venous Access: A Report by the American Society of Anesthesiologists Task Force on Central Venous Access 539
The American Society of Anesthesiologists Committee on Standards and Practice Parameters presents a report of the Practice Guidelines for Central Venous Access. The Guidelines focus on the prevention of infectious complications and prevention and treatment of major vascular injury. SUPPLEMENTAL DIGITAL CONTENT IS AVAILABLE IN THE TEXT
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PERIOPERATIVE MEDICINE

Association between Anesthesiologist Age and Litigation 574
Michael J. Tessler, Ian Shrier, and Russell J. Steele
Three age groups of Canadian anesthesiologists, from postresidency to retirement, were examined for frequency of litigation. The oldest group had the highest frequency of litigation and greatest severity of injury in the litigations pursued.
Exceptionally Stable Fluorous Emulsions for the Intravenous Delivery of Volatile General Anesthetics 580
Jun-Pil Jee, Maria C. Parlato, Mark G. Perkins, Sandro Mecozzi, and Robert A. Pearce
A new dibranched fluorinated polymer allows the formation of exceptionally stable emulsions for the intravenous delivery of sevoflurane.
Delayed Environmental Enrichment Reverses Sevoflurane-induced Memory Impairment in Rats 586
Jennifer Shih, Laura D. V. May, Heidi E. Gonzalez, Elaine W. Lee, Rehan S. Alvi, Jeffrey W. Sall, Vinuta Rau, Philip E. Bickler, Gopal R. Lalchandani, Marianna Yusupova, Elliott Woodward, Heejae Kang, Alan J. Wilk, Colleen M. Carlston, Mortay V. Mendoza, Jeremy N. Guggenheim, Maximilian Schaefer, Allison M. Rowe, and Greg Stratmann
Behavioral consequences of anesthesia-induced developmental neurotoxicity are treatable. Sevoflurane, but not tissue injury, caused a short-term memory deficit that was reversed by delayed environmental enrichment.
Surgery and Brain Atrophy in Cognitively Normal Elderly Subjects and Subjects Diagnosed with Mild Cognitive Impairment 603
Richard P. Kline, Elizabeth Pirraglia, Hao Cheng, Susan De Santi, Yi Li, Michael Haile, Mony J. de Leon, and Alex Bekker; for the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative
The authors explored postoperative changes in brain volume (total gray matter and hippocampus) and cognition using the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative database. Analyzed regions showed increased rates of atrophy in surgical versus nonsurgical subjects.
Advance Targeted Transfusion in Anemic Cardiac Surgical Patients for Kidney Protection: An Unblinded Randomized Pilot Clinical Trial 613
Keyvan Karkouti, Duminda N. Wijeysundera, Terrence M. Yau, Stuart A. McCluskey, Christopher T. Chan, Pui-Yuen Wong, Mark A. Crowther, Siroos Hozhabri, and W. Scott Beattie
In 60 anemic cardiac surgical patients, prophylactic transfusion of 2 erythrocyte units 1 to 2 days before surgery reduced perioperative anemia and erythrocyte transfusions. Studies assessing the renal protective effects of this intervention are warranted.
A Prospective Randomized Equivalence Trial of the GlideScope Cobalt® Video Laryngoscope to Traditional Direct Laryngoscopy in Neonates and Infants 622
John E. Fiadjoe, Harshad Gurnaney, Nicholas Dalesio, Emily Sussman, Huaqing Zhao, Xuemei Zhang, and Paul A. Stricker
In a population of healthy infants with normal airway anatomy, tracheal intubation was performed with similar times and success rates using the GlideScope Cobalt® video laryngoscope (Verathon Medical, Bothell, WA) as compared with direct laryngoscopy with a Miller 1 blade.
Comparative Effectiveness of the C-MAC Video Laryngoscope versus Direct Laryngoscopy in the Setting of the Predicted Difficult Airway 629
Michael F. Aziz, Dawn Dillman, Rongwei Fu, and Ansgar M. Brambrink
A randomized controlled trial that compared conventional Macintosh blade laryngoscopy with the C-MAC® video laryngoscope (Karl Storz, Tuttlingen, Germany) in patients presenting with a predicted difficult airway found that using the C-MAC video laryngoscope improves intubation success at first attempt.
Pulmonary Hypertension in Lambs Transfused with Stored Blood Is Prevented by Breathing Nitric Oxide 637
David M. Baron, Binglan Yu, Chong Lei, Aranya Bagchi, Arkadi Beloiartsev, Christopher P. Stowell, Andrea U. Steinbicker, Rajeev Malhotra, Kenneth D. Bloch, and Warren M. Zapol
In this study, an ovine model of autologous blood storage and transfusion was developed. The model was utilized to examine the hemodynamic effects of blood transfusion after storage of erythrocytes for prolonged periods. SUPPLEMENTAL DIGITAL CONTENT IS AVAILABLE IN THE TEXT
Choice of Anesthetic Combination Determines Ca2+ Leak after Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury in the Working Rat Heart: Favorable versus Adverse Combinations 648
Michael Zaugg, Lianguo Wang, Liyan Zhang, Phing-How Lou, Eliana Lucchinetti, and Alexander S. Clanachan
The choice of anesthetic combination determines the postischemic sarcoplasmic Ca2+ leak and intracellular Ca2+ overload after ischemia-reperfusion injury in the working rat heart. Propofol antagonizes sevoflurane protection but does not block remifentanil protection. SUPPLEMENTAL DIGITAL CONTENT IS AVAILABLE IN THE TEXT
Intraoperative Hypotension and Perioperative Ischemic Stroke after General Surgery: A Nested Case-control Study 658
Jilles B. Bijker, Suzanne Persoon, Linda M. Peelen, Karel G. M. Moons, Cor J. Kalkman, L. Jaap Kappelle, and Wilton A. van Klei
This study supports the hypothesis that intraoperative hypotension, especially when defined as a decrease in mean blood pressure relative to baseline, can influence the evolution of postoperative strokes by compromising blood flow to ischemic areas.
Continuous Femoral Nerve Blocks: Decreasing Local Anesthetic Concentration to Minimize Quadriceps Femoris Weakness 665
Maria Bauer, Lu Wang, Olusegun K. Onibonoje, Chad Parrett, Daniel I. Sessler, Loran Mounir-Soliman, Sherif Zaky, Viktor Krebs, Leonard T. Buller, Michael C. Donohue, Jennifer E. Stevens-Lapsley, and Brian M. Ilfeld
For continuous femoral nerve blocks, the authors found no evidence that local anesthetic concentration and volume influence block characteristics, specifically quadriceps weakness, suggesting that local anesthetic dose (mass) is the primary determinant of perineural infusion effects.
Xenon Attenuates Hippocampal Long-term Potentiation by Diminishing Synaptic and Extrasynaptic N-methyl-D-aspartate Receptor Currents 673
Stephan Kratzer, Corinna Mattusch, Eberhard Kochs, Matthias Eder, Rainer Haseneder, and Gerhard Rammes
In acute murine hippocampal brain slices, the inhalational anesthetic xenon impaired long-term potentiation and N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor-mediated neurotransmission.
Influence of Supervision Ratios by Anesthesiologists on First-case Starts and Critical Portions of Anesthetics 683
Richard H. Epstein and Franklin Dexter
The number of operating rooms that an anesthesiologist can supervise concurrently is determined by the probability of multiple simultaneous critical portions of cases (i.e., requiring presence) and the availability of cross-coverage. The timing and duration of critical portions of cases was determined from 1 yr of data at a tertiary care hospital and the percentages of days with at least one supervision lapse occurring at supervision ratios between 1:1 and 1:3 were determined. Even at a supervision ratio of 1:2, lapses occurred on 35% of days. Decreasing the supervision ratio from 1:2 to 1:3 has a large impact on supervision lapses during first case starts. These lapses occur even after excluding case starts, lunch relief, and breaks. To mitigate morning lapses, either staggered starts or additional anesthesiologists working at the start of the day would be required.
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CRITICAL CARE MEDICINE

Molecular Changes Induced in Rat Liver by Hemorrhage and Effects of Melanocortin Treatment 692
Caterina Lonati, Andrea Sordi, Daniela Giuliani, Luca Spaccapelo, Patrizia Leonardi, Andrea Carlin, Alessandra Ottani, Maria Galantucci, Paolo Grieco, Anna Catania, and Salvatore Guarini
Melanocortins restore blood pressure, reverse metabolic acidosis, and prevent hemorrhage-induced alterations in liver gene expression. Melanocortins could be an effective adjunctive therapy in hemorrhagic shock. SUPPLEMENTAL DIGITAL CONTENT IS AVAILABLE IN THE TEXT
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CLASSIC PAPERS REVISITED

Adventures in Anesthetic Mechanisms 701
Joseph F. Antognini
This article is a revisiting of original material published as: Antognini JF, Schwartz K: Exaggerated anesthetic requirements in the preferentially anesthetized brain. ANESTHESIOLOGY 1993; 79:1244–9.
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EDUCATION

Case Scenario
Postoperative Liver Failure after Liver Resection in a Cirrhotic Patient 705
Catherine Paugam-Burtz, Julia Wendon, Jacques Belghiti, and Jean Mantz
Management of postoperative liver failure after liver resection for hepatocellular carcinoma in a cirrhotic patient is highlighted.
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Images in Anesthesiology
A Proposal to Minimize Work Area Contamination during Induction 712
Elise M. Mecham and Harriet W. Hopf
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Anesthesia Literature Review 713
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Review Article
Prevalence of Survivor Bias in Observational Studies on Fresh Frozen Plasma:Erythrocyte Ratios in Trauma Requiring Massive Transfusion 716
Anthony M.-H. Ho, Peter W. Dion, Janice H. H. Yeung, John B. Holcomb, Lester A. H. Critchley, Calvin S. H. Ng, Manoj K. Karmakar, Chi W. Cheung, and Timothy H. Rainer
Uncontrolled observational studies comparing high versus low plasma with packed erythrocyte ratio in trauma resuscitation requiring massive transfusion were reviewed. Ten of the 26 studies reviewed probably contain survivor bias favoring increased use of plasma.
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Mind to Mind
Close Quarters: An Introspective 729
Richard L. Saupé
If It Was … 732
Antonia Micalizzi
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CORRESPONDENCE

Reducing Blood Losses and Transfusion Requirements in Craniosynostosis Surgery: An Endless Quest? 733
Estelle Vergnaud, Antonio Vecchione, Stéphane Blanot, Federicco di Rocco, Eric Arnaud, Dominique Renier, Philippe Meyer; and the Pediatric Craniofacial Group
In Reply
Christophe Dadure and Xavier Capdevila
In Reply
Susan M. Goobie, Petra M. Meier, David Zurakowski, and Navil F. Sethna
Puzzling ENIGMA: Cost-Benefit Analysis of Nitrous Oxide 735
Girish P. Joshi
In Reply
Paul S. Myles and the ENIGMA Trial Investigators
Intranasal Application of Xenon: A Shortcut to the Brain or Just a Longer Way to It through the Lungs? 736
Andrey B. Petrenko and Hiroshi Baba
In Reply
Oliver Adolph, Thorsten Frederik Holsträter, Gebhard Froeba, and Michael Georgieff
Why the Gray Zone May Shift within the Fog 739
Joshua A. Bloomstone, Karthik Raghunathan, and William T. McGee
How Accurate Is Pulse Pressure Variation as a Predictor of Fluid Responsiveness?
Andrew Verniquet and Rafid Kakel
The “Gray Zone Approach”: Assessing the Accuracy of Pulse Pressure Variation without Considering the Prevalence?
Piet A. H. Wyffels and Patrick F. Wouters
In Reply
Maxime Cannesson, Yannick Le Manach, Benoit Vallet, and Benoit Tavernier
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ANESTHESIOLOGY REFLECTIONS

The Rohrig Dropper Device for Ether or Chloroform 509
George S. Bause
Bateman's Drops of Tinctured Opium 579
George S. Bause
MBC Stovaine Pastilles 664
George S. Bause
25 Years of Curating for the Wood Library-Museum 704
George S. Bause
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REVIEWS OF EDUCATIONAL MATERIAL 744

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ANNOUNCEMENTS 746

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CLASSIFIED ADS 19A

INSTRUCTIONS FOR AUTHORS
The most recently updated version of the Instructions for Authors is available at www.anesthesiology.org. Please refer to the Instructions for the preparation of any material for submission to ANESTHESIOLOGY.

© 2012 American Society of Anesthesiologists, Inc.

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