Inspiratory Oxygen Fraction and Postoperative Complications in Obese Patients: A Subgroup Analysis of the PROXI Trial
Staehr, Anne K. M.D.*; Meyhoff, Christian S. M.D., Ph.D.†; Rasmussen, Lars S. M.D., Ph.D., D.M.Sc.‡; PROXI Trial Group
Background: Obese patients are at a high risk of postoperative complication, including surgical site infection (SSI). Our aim was to evaluate the effect of a high inspiratory oxygen fraction (80%) on SSI and pulmonary complications in obese patients undergoing laparotomy.
Methods: This study was a planned analysis of the obese patients (body mass index ≥ 30 kg/m2) recruited in the Danish multicenter, patient- and observer-blinded, PROXI Trial of 1,400 patients undergoing acute or elective laparotomy. Patients were randomized to receive either 80% or 30% oxygen during and for 2 h after surgery. The primary outcome was SSI within 14 days. Secondary outcomes were atelectasis, pneumonia, and respiratory failure.
Results: Two hundred thirteen patients had a body mass index ≥ 30 kg/m2. The median (5–95% range) body mass index was 34 kg/m2 (30–44) and 33 kg/m2 (30–41) in patients allocated to the 80% and 30% oxygen group. SSI occurred in 32 of 102 (31%) versus 29 of 111 (26%) patients given 80% and 30% oxygen, respectively (odds ratio, 1.29; 95% CI, 0.71–2.34; P = 0.40). In addition, the incidence of pulmonary complications was not significantly different, with atelectasis occurring in 9% versus 6%, pneumonia in 6% versus 5%, and respiratory failure in 8% versus 5% in patients given 80% and 30% oxygen, respectively.
Conclusion: Administration of 80% oxygen, compared with 30% oxygen, did not reduce the frequency of SSI in obese patients. Moreover, no significant association was found between oxygen fraction and the risk of pulmonary complications.
What We Already Know about This Topic
* In the Danish multicenter PROXI Trial involving 1,400 patients, no significant reduction in surgical site infection was observed when 80% oxygen was given during and 2 h after abdominal surgery compared with use of 30% oxygen in all patients, although obese patients may be at high risk
What This Article Tells Us That Is New
* In this planned analysis of the obese subgroup (body mass index ≥ 30 kg/m2, n = 231) of the PROXI Trial, there was no significant difference in the frequency of surgical site infection or postoperative pulmonary complications
OBESITY is associated with a high risk of postoperative complications, including atelectasis,1
thromboembolic events, cardiac complications, wound hernia, anastomotic leak, and surgical site infection (SSI).3
The risk of complications is increased further in obese patients with modified metabolic syndrome.4
Arterial oxygenation and subcutaneous perfusion have an important role in the host defense against infection.5
The bactericidal activity of neutrophils is mediated by oxidative killing,6
which is dependent on the partial pressure of oxygen in the tissue. Subcutaneous oxygen tension (Psqo2
) is often low during surgery, and this is significantly related to the development of SSI.7
can be increased with a high inspiratory oxygen fraction (Fio2
), and two trials have found significant reduction in SSI when patients are given 80% compared with 30% oxygen during the perioperative period.8,9
However, the PROXI Trial, involving 1,400 patients, recently showed no significant reduction in the frequency of SSI.10
The arterial oxygen tension is reduced more in obese than in lean patients during general anesthesia as a consequence of atelectasis and increased shunt fraction.1,11
Moreover, obesity increases the size of individual fat cells without increasing blood flow,12
resulting in subnormal total blood flow in relation to body weight13
and relatively hypoperfused fat tissue,11
but cardiac output, circulating blood volume, and resting oxygen consumption are increased.14
This contributes to a more pronounced reduction of Psqo2
in obese patients,11
increased risk of SSI,3
and thus a potential for enhanced effect of a high Fio2
The aim of this planned subgroup analysis was to evaluate the effect of a high perioperative Fio2 (80%) compared with 30% in obese patients undergoing laparotomy. We hypothesized that 80% oxygen would reduce the frequency of SSI. We also assessed the association between perioperative Fio2 and the frequency of pulmonary complications and other complications.
Materials and Methods
The study was a planned subgroup analysis of the Danish multicenter PROXI Trial15
and was approved by The Danish Medicines Agency and the regional ethics committee (NCT00364741, De Videnskabsetiske Komiteer for Region Hovedstaden, Hillerød, Denmark).16
Written informed consent was obtained from all patients, and they were included between October 8, 2006, and October 6, 2008.
Eligible patients were 18 yr or older, had a preoperative body mass index (BMI) ≥ 30 kg/m2
, and were scheduled for acute or elective laparotomy.15
Exclusion criteria were inability to give informed consent, chemotherapy for malignancy within 3 months, surgery performed under general anesthesia within 30 days, and preoperative arterial oxygen saturation less than 90% without supplemental oxygen as assessed by pulse oximetry.
Patients were randomized by a central interactive voice-response system at the Copenhagen Trial Unit to an Fio2 of either 0.80 (the 80% oxygen group) or 0.30 (the 30% oxygen group) using the following stratification variables: study center, diabetes mellitus, and acute or elective surgery.
The trial protocol15
emphasized an optimal perioperative care, including epidural analgesia, adequate temperature and glucose control, appropriate and timely prophylactic antibiotics, absence of preoperative oral bowel preparation, and standardized anesthesia without nitrous oxide. Perioperative fluids were given only to replace measured or calculated deficits aiming at body weight increase of less than 1 kg. Blood loss was replaced 1:1 with colloids, and blood transfusion was initiated if blood loss exceeded 20 ml/kg.15
Patients were preoxygenated with an Fio2
of 1.0 until tracheal intubation, after which patients were given the allocated Fio2
until the end of surgery, when an Fio2
of 1.0 was given immediately before extubation. The patients were ventilated to assure normocapnia.15
In both groups, Fio2
was increased to ensure arterial oxygen saturation above 94% and arterial oxygen tension above 9 kPa (68 mmHg). Positive end expiratory pressure was used at a level chosen by the attending anesthetist. Alveolar recruitment maneuvers were not routinely used but were allowed if the attending anesthetist thought they were clinically indicated.
The first 2 h after surgery, patients randomized to the 80% oxygen group breathed a Fio2
of 0.80 via
a nonrebreathing facemask with a reservoir (High Concentration Oxygen Mask, Intersurgical Ltd., Wokingham, United Kingdom) and an oxygen flow of 14 l/min and air flow of 2 l/min. The patients randomized to the 30% oxygen group received a mixture of oxygen (2 l/min) and air (14 l/min) through an identical nonrebreathing facemask.15
Two hours after surgery, supplemental oxygen was administrated according to clinical practice.
The primary outcome was SSI within 14 days of surgery, defined according to the criteria by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention as superficial or deep wound infection or intraabdominal organ/space infection.17
The secondary outcomes were atelectasis within 14 days, pneumonia within 14 days (according to the criteria by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention),§
and respiratory failure within 14 days (defined as the need for controlled ventilation or arterial oxygen saturation less than 90% despite supplemental oxygen). Tertiary outcomes were localization of SSI, admission to the intensive care unit within 14 days (if not part of routine postoperative care), another abdominal operation for any reason within 14 days, duration of postoperative hospitalization, wound-related adverse events, any adverse event, any serious adverse event, and mortality within 30 days.
The surgical investigator assessed all outcomes daily in the postoperative period, and a follow-up visit was conducted between postoperative days 13 and 30. The attending physician examined patients with symptoms of pulmonary complications according to clinical practice, including chest radiographs or computed tomography, when relevant. All chests radiographs and computed tomography were evaluated for infiltrate and atelectasis by the attending radiologist, who was blinded to allocation. The group allocation was also blinded to patients, outcome assessors, statisticians, the surgical team, and staff on the wards.15
Patients with the following major protocol deviations were not included in the per-protocol analysis16
: did not meet the inclusion criteria, fulfilled an exclusion criterion, Fio2
above 0.60 for more than 1 h in the 30% group, Fio2
less than 0.60 for more than 1 h in the 80% oxygen group, oxygen mask used less than 1 h, no in-hospital evaluation of the outcomes for 4 consecutive days or more, no follow-up visit between postoperative days 13 and 30, and unblinding of outcome assessors.
The complete statistical analysis plan is described in the trial protocol.15
A univariate analysis was carried out for the primary and secondary outcomes and in a multivariate analysis, and the intervention effect was assessed after adjustment for the stratification variables as well as the design variables: chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, daily smoking, and surgical incision extending above the umbilical transversal. The tertiary outcomes were reported without statistical analyses. All intervention effect estimates were reported with 95% confidence limits and a two-sided P
value of <0.05 was considered to indicate statistical significance. Analyses were performed using R version 2.8.0.∥
We estimated that the frequency of SSI would be 30% among obese patients,3
and the frequency of obesity would be 20% among all patients included in the PROXI Trial, for which a total sample size of 1,400 patients was required.15
We expected a high Fio2
to be associated with a relative risk reduction of 50% in SSI in obese patients and calculated that we would have 80% power to detect this in our subgroup analysis with a 5% risk of type 1 error and 10% dropout.
A total of 213 patients had a BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2
). Demographic and perioperative characteristics were similar in the two groups (table 1
The median (5–95% range) BMI was 34 kg/m2
(30–44) and 33 kg/m2
(30–41) in patients allocated to the 80% and 30% oxygen groups, respectively.
Surgical site infection occurred in 32 of 102 (31%) versus
29 of 111 (26%) patients in the 80% and the 30% oxygen groups, respectively (P
= 0.40, table 2
). The difference between the 80% and 30% oxygen groups in SSI was 5% (95% CI, 7–17%); in atelectasis, the difference was 3% (95% CI, −5 to 10%); in pneumonia, 1% (95% CI, −5 to 7%); and in respiratory failure, 3% (95% CI, −3 to 10%).
The incidence of SSI was 27% in obese patients (BMI = 30.0–34.9 kg/m2
) and 32% in morbidly obese patients (BMI ≥ 35.0 kg/m2
, fig. 2
). Atelectasis occurred in 9% versus
5%, pneumonia in 6% versus
3%, and respiratory failure in 6% versus
5% in the obese and morbidly obese patients, respectively.
Overall, 52% of the patients experienced adverse events in the follow-up period (table 3
). Approximately 21% of patients had serious complications, with sepsis occurring in 3%; 30-day mortality was 2%. The median duration of postoperative hospitalization was 6 versus
5 days in the 80% and 30% oxygen groups, respectively (table 3
). Anastomotic leak occurred in 2 of 31 (6%) versus
2 of 41 (5%) patients, and rupture of the abdominal fascia occurred in 9 of 102 (9%) versus
6 of 111 (5%) patients in the 80% and the 30% oxygen groups, respectively. Forty-three (20%) patients underwent abdominal reoperation. Twenty-four (11%) patients underwent second operation because of SSI, including five (2%) debridement procedures. Fifteen (7%) patients had rupture of the abdominal fascia, compared with 9 of 658 (1%) of patients of normal weight in the PROXI Trial.
The per-protocol analysis (n = 167, fig. 1
) of the primary and secondary outcomes showed a result similar to that of the intention-to-treat analysis, with SSI occurring in 31 of 91 (34%) versus
24 of 76 (32%) patients in the 80% and the 30% oxygen groups, respectively (P
Contrary to our hypothesis, we did not find a reduction in the frequency of SSI in obese patients undergoing abdominal surgery when a high perioperative Fio2 of 80% was given compared with when Fio2 of 30% was given. The high perioperative Fio2 was not associated with a significant increase in the frequency of pulmonary complication or other adverse events. In contrast, the primary and secondary outcomes all tended to be more common in patients allocated to 80% oxygen, but the power for the secondary outcomes was relatively low, as reflected in the wide confidence intervals. Therefore, we cannot exclude that a clinically important difference exists, but the detection of a difference in the incidence of respiratory failure between 4.5% and 8% would require a sample of nearly 2,000 patients with 80% power.
We included a total of 231 patients, of whom 73 were morbidly obese. We also analyzed the incidence of postoperative complications for the different BMI groups because it was thought there may be important differences in intervention effect, but this was not found. However, because only 34% of the patients were morbidly obese, the effect of high oxygen on this specific group needs to be investigated further.
The overall frequency of SSI was 29%, which is somewhat higher than had been reported previously in obese patients.20
The frequency of SSI after laparoscopic and endoscopic bariatric surgery recently was found by Birkmeyer et al.
to be 3.2%,21
whereas Merkow et al.22
found an incidence of approximately 15% after colectomy for cancer. The higher frequency in our study probably is caused by a high number of acute procedures, increased comorbidity, and intraoperative contamination. SSI was detected with thorough follow-up according to the sensitive criteria by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, which recently has been shown to be a suitable standard definition for identifying SSI.23
Our observed frequency of SSI was comparable with a study by Cantürk et al.,
who reported SSI in 29% of 61 obese and extremely obese patients undergoing general elective surgery.3
The frequency of SSI among the patients in the PROXI Trial (median BMI = 25 kg/m2
, interquartile range = 22–28 kg/m2
) was 20%,10
compared with the 29% found in this subgroup analysis of the obese patients (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2
). The distribution of SSI in the different weight groups among the patients in the PROXI Trial is shown in figure 2
, which illustrates that the frequency of SSI appears to increase with increasing body weight. In addition to a higher frequency of SSI, the obese patients had a much higher frequency of rupture of the abdominal fascia, which underlines the compromised healing process in these patients. A recent retrospective study of 1,024 trauma patients showed a higher rate of nosocomial infections in obese patients and a significantly higher frequency of pneumonia and wound infections.24
In that study, obese patients had a 4.7-fold higher risk of infection, and morbidly obese patients had an almost 6-fold higher risk of infection compared with patients with a BMI less than 30 kg/m2
. Obesity was still a risk factor for infection when controlling for age and comorbidity.
The increased risk of SSI among obese patients may also be caused by impaired immune system,25
larger wound area, and longer operating time.2
Another explanation is that the perioperative Psqo2
is significantly reduced in obese patients during major abdominal surgery.11
Even during supplemental oxygen administration, Psqo2
remains at a lower than normal level of partial pressure, which is associated with a substantial risk of infection.11
This increased risk is in accordance with the results of our trial and suggests that factors other than perioperative Fio2
, such as hypercapnia,26
and the use of vasopressors and epidural analgesia.29
However, these factors were all similar in the two groups. It is possible that long-term supplemental postoperative oxygen can reduce the incidence of SSI because it has been shown to significantly increase Psqo2
when administered for an average period of 13 h after surgery.30
However, the first hours after bacterial contamination traditionally have been recognized as critical for establishing the infection.31
Atelectasis is an important perioperative pulmonary complication. Two mechanisms contribute to atelectasis formation: compression and absorption.32
Atelectasis leads to a ventilation-perfusion mismatch33
and may predispose the patient to other pulmonary complications. Within minutes, ventilation with 100% oxygen results in significantly larger areas of atelectasis than does ventilation with 80% oxygen.34
However, one trial by Akça et al.
of 30 nonobese patients showed only a small, nonsignificant difference in the degree of atelectasis when an inspiratory perioperative Fio2
of 80% was given compared with 30% oxygen.35
The frequency of atelectasis among the patients in the PROXI Trial was 8% versus
7% in the 80% and 30% oxygen groups, respectively, and 6% in both the 80% and the 30% oxygen groups experienced pneumonia.10
Another subgroup study of the PROXI Trial involving 35 patients showed no significant difference in change in oxygenation index or functional residual capacity when 80% oxygen was administered than when 30% oxygen was used.36
Less evidence of the effect of ventilation with high oxygen is available in obese patients, but morbidly obese patients are more prone to perioperative atelectasis formation, and the atelectasis remains unresolved for a longer period after surgery than occurs in nonobese patients.1
One recent study of 142 moderately obese patients found a minimal reduction in postoperative lung function when patients were given 80%, compared with 40%, oxygen during minor peripheral surgery.37
The study showed a tendency toward better spirometry values in the low oxygen group and better arterial saturation during the first 2 h. We were not able to find any significant differences in the incidence of atelectasis, pneumonia, or other respiratory complications when given 80% oxygen compared with 30% oxygen. Moreover, there were no significant differences between obese and morbidly obese patients with regard to the secondary outcomes.
We examined only patients with pulmonary symptoms, and a chest radiograph or computed tomography was taken when relevant. Therefore, a difference in the frequency of subclinical atelectases could have been overlooked in this study, but if present, these subclinical atelectases did not result in significant differences in pneumonia or respiratory failure. One recent study found that a recruitment maneuver followed by positive end-expiratory pressure reduced atelectasis and improved oxygenation in morbidly obese patients.38
However, a positive end-expiratory pressure of 10 cm H2
O alone did not reduce atelectasis. We did not measure the use of recruitment maneuvers followed by positive end expiratory pressure; however, we believe the use of this combination was limited and thus not a bias to the results.
We used the preoperative calculated BMI as inclusion criteria. This formula could have been a limitation, particularly if applied to individuals with a great muscle mass, in whom body fat percent may be a more accurate measurement in regard to SSI.39
For pulmonary complications, an evaluation of body fat distribution as upper body fat distribution or central obesity may have been a more accurate measurement.40,41
It is also possible that some patients have had a significant amount of ascites or tumor mass removed during surgery, resulting in a falsely high BMI. However, BMI is easy to measure and allows for comparison with other trials. The change in body weight at the first postoperative day was similar in the two groups (table 1
We included a large number of obese patients undergoing open abdominal surgery, including 18% acute procedures. We had a thorough follow-up with assessment of adverse events in all patients. Thus, we believe the results of this study are generalizable to a general obese surgical population undergoing laparotomy, including acute laparotomy and gynecologic cancer surgery.
In summary, our trial, which included more than 200 obese patients undergoing acute or elective abdominal surgery, did not find a reduction in the frequency of SSI when 80% oxygen was given. Moreover, we did not find a significant association between perioperative Fio2 and the incidence of pulmonary complications or other adverse events.
1. Eichenberger A, Proietti S, Wicky S, Frascarolo P, Suter M, Spahn DR, Magnusson L: Morbid obesity and postoperative pulmonary atelectasis: An underestimated problem. Anesth Analg 2002; 95:1788–92
2. Gendall KA, Raniga S, Kennedy R, Frizelle FA: The impact of obesity on outcome after major colorectal surgery. Dis Colon Rectum 2007; 50:2223–37
3. Cantürk Z, Cantürk NZ, Cetinarslan B, Utkan NZ, Tarkun I: Nosocomial infections and obesity in surgical patients. Obes Res 2003; 11:769–75
4. Glance LG, Wissler R, Mukamel DB, Li Y, Diachun CA, Salloum R, Fleming FJ, Dick AW: Perioperative outcomes among patients with the modified metabolic syndrome who are undergoing noncardiac surgery. Anesthesiology 2010; 113:859–72
5. Sessler DI: Non-pharmacologic prevention of surgical wound infection. Anesthesiol Clin 2006; 24:279–97
6. Babior BM: Oxygen-dependent microbial killing by phagocytes (first of two parts). N Engl J Med 1978; 298:659–68
7. Hopf HW, Hunt TK, West JM, Blomquist P, Goodson WH 3rd, Jensen JA, Jonsson K, Paty PB, Rabkin JM, Upton RA, von Smitten K, Whitney JD: Wound tissue oxygen tension predicts the risk of wound infection in surgical patients. Arch Surg 1997; 132:997–1004
8. Belda FJ, Aguilera L, Garcíade la Asunción J, Alberti J, Vicente R, Ferrándiz L, Rodríguez R, Company R, Sessler DI, Aguilar G, Botello SG, Ortí R, Spanish Reduccion de la Tasa de Infeccion Quirurgica Group: Supplemental perioperative oxygen and the risk of surgical wound infection: A randomized controlled trial. JAMA 2005; 294:2035–42
9. Greif R, Akça O, Horn EP, Kurz A, Sessler DI, Outcomes Research Group: Supplemental perioperative oxygen to reduce the incidence of surgical-wound infection. N Engl J Med 2000; 342:161–7
10. Meyhoff CS, Wetterslev J, Jorgensen LN, Henneberg SW, Høgdall C, Lundvall L, Svendsen PE, Mollerup H, Lunn TH, Simonsen I, Martinsen KR, Pulawska T, Bundgaard L, Bugge L, Hansen EG, Riber C, Gocht-Jensen P, Walker LR, Bendtsen A, Johansson G, Skovgaard N, Heltø K, Poukinski A, Korshin A, Walli A, Bulut M, Carlsson PS, Rodt SA, Lundbech LB, Rask H, Buch N, Perdawid SK, Reza J, Jensen KV, Carlsen CG, Jensen FS, Rasmussen LS, PROXI Trial Group: Effect of high perioperative oxygen fraction on surgical site infection and pulmonary complications after abdominal surgery: The PROXI randomized clinical trial. JAMA 2009; 302:1543–50
11. Kabon B, Nagele A, Reddy D, Eagon C, Fleshman JW, Sessler DI, Kurz A: Obesity decreases perioperative tissue oxygenation. Anesthesiology 2004; 100:274–80
12. Jansson PA, Larsson A, Smith U, Lönnroth P: Glycerol production in subcutaneous adipose tissue in lean and obese humans. J Clin Invest 1992; 89:1610–7
13. Cheymol G: Drug pharmacokinetics in the obese. Fundam Clin Pharmacol 1988; 2:239–56
14. de Divitiis O, Fazio S, Petitto M, Maddalena G, Contaldo F, Mancini M: Obesity and cardiac function. Circulation 1981; 64:477–82
15. Meyhoff CS, Wetterslev J, Jorgensen LN, Henneberg SW, Simonsen I, Pulawska T, Walker LR, Skovgaard N, Heltø K, Gocht-Jensen P, Carlsson PS, Rask H, Karim S, Carlsen CG, Jensen FS, Rasmussen LS, PROXI Trial Group: Perioperative oxygen fraction—effect on surgical site infection and pulmonary complications after abdominal surgery: A randomized clinical trial. Rationale and design of the PROXI-Trial. Trials 2008; 9:58
16. Altman DG, Schulz KF, Moher D, Egger M, Davidoff F, Elbourne D, Gøtzsche PC, Lang T, CONSORT GROUP (Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials): The revised CONSORT statement for reporting randomized trials: Explanation and elaboration. Ann Intern Med 2001; 134:663–94
17. Mangram AJ, Horan TC, Pearson ML, Silver LC, Jarvis WR: Guideline for prevention of surgical site infection, 1999. Hospital Infection Control Practices Advisory Committee. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 1999; 20:250–78
18. Haley RW, Culver DH, Morgan WM, White JW, Emori TG, Hooton TM: Identifying patients at high risk of surgical wound infection. A simple multivariate index of patient susceptibility and wound contamination. Am J Epidemiol 1985; 121:206–15
19. Culver DH, Horan TC, Gaynes RP, Martone WJ, Jarvis WR, Emori TG, Banerjee SN, Edwards JR, Tolson JS, Henderson TS, Hughes JM: Surgical wound infection rates by wound class, operative procedure, and patient risk index. National Nosocomial Infections Surveillance System. Am J Med 1991; 91(3B):152S–7S
20. de Oliveira AC, Ciosak SI, Ferraz EM, Grinbaum RS: Surgical site infection in patients submitted to digestive surgery: Risk prediction and the NNIS risk index. Am J Infect Control 2006; 34:201–7
21. Birkmeyer NJ, Dimick JB, Share D, Hawasli A, English WJ, Genaw J, Finks JF, Carlin AM, Birkmeyer JD, Michigan Bariatric Surgery Collaborative: Hospital complication rates with bariatric surgery in Michigan. JAMA 2010; 304:435–42
22. Merkow RP, Bilimoria KY, McCarter MD, Bentrem DJ: Effect of body mass index on short-term outcomes after colectomy for cancer. J Am Coll Surg 2009; 208:53–61
23. Henriksen NA, Meyhoff CS, Wetterslev J, Wille-Jørgensen P, Rasmussen LS, Jorgensen LN, PROXI Trial Group: Clinical relevance of surgical site infection as defined by the criteria of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. J Hosp Infect 2010; 75:173–7
24. Serrano PE, Khuder SA, Fath JJ: Obesity as a risk factor for nosocomial infections in trauma patients. J Am Coll Surg 2010; 211:61–7
25. Cheah MH, Kam PC: Obesity: Basic science and medical aspects relevant to anaesthetists. Anaesthesia 2005; 60:1009–21
26. Hager H, Reddy D, Mandadi G, Pulley D, Eagon JC, Sessler DI, Kurz A: Hypercapnia improves tissue oxygenation in morbidly obese surgical patients. Anesth Analg 2006; 103:677–81
27. Sheffield CW, Sessler DI, Hopf HW, Schroeder M, Moayeri A, Hunt TK, West JM: Centrally and locally mediated thermoregulatory responses alter subcutaneous oxygen tension. Wound Repair Regen 1996; 4:339–45
28. Arkiliç CF, Taguchi A, Sharma N, Ratnaraj J, Sessler DI, Read TE, Fleshman JW, Kurz A: Supplemental perioperative fluid administration increases tissue oxygen pressure. Surgery 2003; 133:49–55
29. Kabon B, Fleischmann E, Treschan T, Taguchi A, Kapral S, Kurz A: Thoracic epidural anesthesia increases tissue oxygenation during major abdominal surgery. Anesth Analg 2003; 97:1812–7
30. Kabon B, Rozum R, Marschalek C, Prager G, Fleischmann E, Chiari A, Kurz A: Supplemental postoperative oxygen and tissue oxygen tension in morbidly obese patients. Obes Surg 2010; 20:885–94
31. Miles AA, Miles EM, Burke J: The value and duration of defence reactions of the skin to the primary lodgement of bacteria. Br J Exp Pathol 1957; 38:79–96
32. Hedenstierna G, Rothen HU: Atelectasis formation during anesthesia: Causes and measures to prevent it. J Clin Monit Comput 2000; 16:329–35
33. Tokics L, Hedenstierna G, Svensson L, Brismar B, Cederlund T, Lundquist H, Strandberg A: V/Q distribution and correlation to atelectasis in anesthetized paralyzed humans. J Appl Physiol 1996; 81:1822–33
34. Edmark L, Kostova-Aherdan K, Enlund M, Hedenstierna G: Optimal oxygen concentration during induction of general anesthesia. Anesthesiology 2003; 98:28–33
35. Akça O, Podolsky A, Eisenhuber E, Panzer O, Hetz H, Lampl K, Lackner FX, Wittmann K, Grabenwoeger F, Kurz A, Schultz AM, Negishi C, Sessler DI: Comparable postoperative pulmonary atelectasis in patients given 30% or 80% oxygen during and 2 hours after colon resection. Anesthesiology 1999; 91:991–8
36. Stæhr AK, Meyhoff CS, Henneberg S, Christensen PL, Rasmussen LS: Influence of perioperative oxygen fraction on pulmonary function after abdominal surgery. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand 2009; 53(Suppl 119):55–6
37. Zoremba M, Dette F, Hunecke T, Braunecker S, Wulf H: The influence of perioperative oxygen concentration on postoperative lung function in moderately obese adults. Eur J Anaesthesiol 2010; 27:501–7
38. Reinius H, Jonsson L, Gustafsson S, Sundbom M, Duvernoy O, Pelosi P, Hedenstierna G, Fredén F: Prevention of atelectasis in morbidly obese patients during general anesthesia and paralysis: A computerized tomography study. Anesthesiology 2009; 111:979–87
39. Waisbren E, Rosen H, Bader AM, Lipsitz SR, Rogers SO Jr, Eriksson E: Percent body fat and prediction of surgical site infection. J Am Coll Surg 2010; 210:381–9
40. Canoy D, Luben R, Welch A, Bingham S, Wareham N, Day N, Khaw KT: Abdominal obesity and respiratory function in men and women in the EPIC-Norfolk Study, United Kingdom. Am J Epidemiol 2004; 159:1140–9
41. Jubber AS: Respiratory complications of obesity. Int J Clin Pract 2004; 58:573–80
∥ Available at: http://www.r-project.org
. Accessed January 30, 2011. Cited Here...
This article has been cited 1 time(s).
Journal of Policy and Practice in Intellectual DisabilitiesAssessing Understanding and Obtaining Consent From Adults With Intellectual Disabilities for a Health Promotion StudyJournal of Policy and Practice in Intellectual Disabilities
© 2011 American Society of Anesthesiologists, Inc.
Publication of an advertisement in Anesthesiology Online does not constitute endorsement by the American Society of Anesthesiologists, Inc. or Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc. of the product or service being advertised.