Skip Navigation LinksHome > April 2009 - Volume 110 - Issue 4 > Early Exposure to Anesthesia and Learning Disabilities in a...
Anesthesiology:
doi: 10.1097/01.anes.0000344728.34332.5d
2008 Anesthesiology/Faer Session: Anesthesia and the Developing Brain: Implications for Obstetrics and Pediatrics

Early Exposure to Anesthesia and Learning Disabilities in a Population-based Birth Cohort

Wilder, Robert T. M.D., Ph.D.*; Flick, Randall P. M.D., M.P.H.†; Sprung, Juraj M.D., Ph.D.‡; Katusic, Slavica K. M.D.§; Barbaresi, William J. M.D.∥; Mickelson, Christopher M.D.#; Gleich, Stephen J. M.D.**; Schroeder, Darrell R. M.S.††; Weaver, Amy L. M.S.††; Warner, David O. M.D.‡

Free Access
Supplemental Author Material
Article Outline
Collapse Box

Author Information

Collapse Box

Abstract

Background: Anesthetic drugs administered to immature animals may cause neurohistopathologic changes and alterations in behavior. The authors studied association between anesthetic exposure before age 4 yr and the development of reading, written language, and math learning disabilities (LD).
Methods: This was a population-based, retrospective birth cohort study. The educational and medical records of all children born to mothers residing in five townships of Olmsted County, Minnesota, from 1976 to 1982 and who remained in the community at 5 yr of age were reviewed to identify children with LD. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to calculate hazard ratios for anesthetic exposure as a predictor of LD, adjusting for gestational age at birth, sex, and birth weight.
Results: Of the 5,357 children in this cohort, 593 received general anesthesia before age 4 yr. Compared with those not receiving anesthesia (n = 4,764), a single exposure to anesthesia (n = 449) was not associated with an increased risk of LD (hazard ratio = 1.0; 95% confidence interval, 0.79–1.27). However, children receiving two anesthetics (n = 100) or three or more anesthetics (n = 44) were at increased risk for LD (hazard ratio = 1.59; 95% confidence interval, 1.06–2.37, and hazard ratio = 2.60; 95% confidence interval, 1.60–4.24, respectively). The risk for LD increased with longer cumulative duration of anesthesia exposure (expressed as a continuous variable) (P = 0.016).
Conclusion: Exposure to anesthesia was a significant risk factor for the later development of LD in children receiving multiple, but not single anesthetics. These data cannot reveal whether anesthesia itself may contribute to LD or whether the need for anesthesia is a marker for other unidentified factors that contribute to LD.
EXPOSURE to alcohol and some anesthetic and sedative drugs cause histopathologic changes in the developing brains of animals.1–3 Implicated drugs include N-methyl-d-aspartate glutamate receptor antagonists (e.g., ketamine, nitrous oxide) and agents with γ-aminobutyric acid A mimetic properties (e.g., pentobarbital, diazepam, isoflurane, halothane, propofol). Some studies suggest that even relatively brief single exposures trigger changes, especially when combinations of agents are used.1–6 In one report, histologic neurodegeneration was associated with a diminished capacity to retain learned behaviors.7 It is not known whether findings in rodent models can be extrapolated to humans, but emerging histologic data in nonhuman primates8 tend to confirm findings in rodents. These findings have engendered considerable concern among the U.S. Food and Drug Administration and others.5 Except for case series reporting developmental outcomes of critically ill neonates and children undergoing repair of congenital heart disease,9–12 which have multiple limitations, there are no data that can yield insight into whether exposure to anesthesia and surgery during human development causes clinically relevant impairment in neural development.
One challenge to determining whether exposure to anesthesia and surgery in early life impairs neural development is defining relevant outcomes. Learning disabilities (LD) may be an appropriate outcome measure. Children with LD experience problems with one or more of the basic psychological processes involved in understanding or in using spoken or written language, which may manifest itself in an imperfect ability to listen, think, speak, read, write, spell, or perform mathematical calculations. Because learning disabilities are routinely sought on the basis of standardized individualized testing in educational settings and because of the relatively high incidence rate of LD,13 this outcome is available in large populations of children.
The purpose of the current study was to determine whether there was an association between exposure to anesthesia during the first 4 yr of life and the development of any learning disability in a birth cohort of children in Olmsted County, Minnesota.
Back to Top | Article Outline

Materials and Methods

The Mayo Clinic and Olmsted Medical Center Institutional Review Boards (both in Rochester, Minnesota) approved this study. A birth cohort of children born in Rochester, Minnesota, identified in previous work by the authors13–16 formed the basis of the current study. All children (n = 8,548) born between January 1, 1976, and December 31, 1982, to mothers residing at the time of delivery in the five Olmsted County, Minnesota, townships (comprising Minnesota Independent School District No. 535, the Rochester public and private school system) were identified through computerized birth certificate information obtained from the Minnesota Department of Health, Division of Vital Statistics. To ascertain vital status (still living in Rochester, moved, or deceased), for each member of the birth cohort during the 1995–1996 school year, resources available from the Rochester Epidemiology Project,17 Minnesota Independent School District No. 535, the Reading Center/Dyslexia Institute of Minnesota, and the Minnesota Department of Health were used. Children who left Olmstead County before age 5 yr (i.e., moved or died; n = 2,830) were not included in the final study cohort.14 Through the Rochester Epidemiology Project, all diagnoses and surgical procedures recorded at all Rochester medical facilities are indexed for automated retrieval. This diagnostic index expedites retrieval of the unit (or dossier) medical record, which includes the history of all encounters in the hospital, community and ambulatory medical and social services, emergency department, outpatient clinics, and home visits as well as laboratory and psychological test results from birth until patients no longer reside in the community. The evaluation and instructional resources of Minnesota Independent School District No. 535, the school system for the city of Rochester, are of high quality, and the district has a long tradition of excellent care and management of children with all types of handicapping conditions, including LD. Through a contractual research agreement, all public (19 primary, 3 junior high, 3 high schools) and nonpublic (12 primary, 10 junior high, 4 high schools) schools gave permission to access their richly documented cumulative educational records for every child from this birth cohort. Under a second research agreement, permission was obtained to access the resources of the privately owned Reading Center/Dyslexia Institute of Minnesota, the only private tutoring agency in the community during the years relevant to this study. The Reading Center/Dyslexia Institute of Minnesota files included a pool of some 3,000 evaluations and outcomes of tutorial instruction that spanned nearly 50 yr. All of these records, including the results of all individually administered intelligence quotient (IQ; primarily age-appropriate Wechsler scales) and achievement (primarily Woodcock–Johnson tests) tests and medical, educational, and socioeconomic information were abstracted by trained personnel, using detailed data abstraction protocols.
Back to Top | Article Outline
Identification of Learning Disabilities
Learning disabilities (including reading, written language, and math disabilities) were diagnosed using research criteria based on three formulas. In each of the following formulas, X is equal to the study subject's IQ score, and Y represents the predicted standard score from the achievement test. The regression formula–Minnesota, Y < 17.40 + 0.62X, is issued by the Minnesota Department of Education.18 Children classified as having LD by this formula had standard scores in academic achievement that were more than 1.75 SDs below their predicted standard score from an individually administered measure of cognitive ability (IQ). The value 0.62 represents the correlation between IQ and achievement used in the formula from the state of Minnesota. The discrepancy nonregression method was used in Minnesota Independent School District No. 535 before 1989 and included the school years of the children in our birth cohort. By using this approach, differences between standard scores on measures of intelligence and aptitude and measures of test achievement that were believed to be important varied by grade as follows: (1) kindergarten through 3rd grade, 15 or more standard score points difference, with achievement lower; (2) 4th through 6th grade, 19 or more points difference, achievement lower; and (3) 7th through 12th grade, 23 or more points difference. Finally, the low-achievement method (X ≥ 80 [aptitude] and Y ≤ 90 [achievement]) represents a recent concept in identifying LD independent of measured cognitive ability, assuming that cognitive ability is at least in the low average range.19 Children meeting the criteria before age 19 yr for at least one of the three LDs (reading, written language, and math disabilities) using IQ and achievement scores obtained within the same calendar year were identified as LD cases regardless of presence or absence of any comorbid conditions.13
Back to Top | Article Outline
Identification of Cohort Members Exposed to General Anesthesia before Age 4 Years
We identified all members of the birth cohort who underwent any type of surgery or diagnostic procedure necessitating general anesthesia before their fourth birthday, using the Mayo Clinic Surgical Information Retrieval System and a similar resource for procedures performed at Olmsted County Medical Center. The choice of age range was based on the analogous developmental stage of animal models in which anesthetic effects on neurodevelopment have been shown.1,20 Procedures such as neonatal circumcision performed without anesthesia were excluded from review.
For the children undergoing anesthesia, the following information was abstracted: American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status (ASA PS) classification, type of surgery or procedure and urgency, total duration of anesthesia, number of anesthetic exposures, age(s) at which exposure occurred, anesthetic agents (inhalational, intravenous, sedatives), and comorbidities (including syndromes that can be associated with mental retardation, congenital heart disease, and neurologic diseases). For all children in the cohort (including those who did not receive anesthesia), sex, gestational age at birth, birth weight, Apgar scores at 1 and 5 min (Apgar scores were available for children born 1980–1982), complications of pregnancy, complications of labor and delivery, number of births (multiple or single), need for induced labor, and the mother's and father's age and level of education (< 12 yr, 12 yr, > 12 yr) were available from birth certificates.
Back to Top | Article Outline
Statistical Analysis
The primary outcome for the current analysis was LD based on individually administered IQ and academic achievement test scores using any of the three standard formulas for determining the presence of reading written language or math LD. The primary risk factor of interest for this investigation was exposure to general anesthesia before age 4 yr. Preliminary analyses were performed to compare demographic, pregnancy and delivery, and parental characteristics between those who were exposed versus unexposed to general anesthesia before age 4 yr using the two-sample t test (or rank sum test) for continuous variables and the chi-square test (or Fisher exact test) for categorical variables.
Individuals were followed up from birth until the date they first met the LD criteria using any of the three standard formulas for determining the presence of reading, written language, and math LD. Cumulative incidence rates of LD were calculated according to the method of Kaplan and Meier with data censored at the initial occurrence of emigration, death, last follow-up date, or age 19 yr. Proportional hazards regression was used to assess whether anesthetic exposure was a risk factor for LD. For these analyses, anesthetic exposure was quantified as any exposure to general anesthesia before age 4 yr (yes vs. no), the number of exposures to general anesthesia before age 4 yr (none, one, two, three or more), and the cumulative duration of exposure (treated as a continuous variable and also categorically using 30-min intervals). Both unadjusted and adjusted analyses were performed. In all cases, separate models were used to evaluate the different anesthesia exposure variables. The covariates that were included in the adjusted analyses include gestational age, sex, and birth weight. In the adjusted analysis, only those individuals for whom complete covariate information was available were included. Results were summarized using hazard ratio estimates and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs). In all cases, two-tailed P values less than 0.05 were considered to be statistically significant. Analyses were performed using SAS statistical software (version 9.1; SAS Institute, Inc., Cary, NC).
Back to Top | Article Outline

Results

Table 1
Table 1
Image Tools
Table 2
Table 2
Image Tools
Between 1976 and 1982, there were 8,548 children born in the five Olmsted County, Minnesota, townships comprising Minnesota Independent School District No. 535, and 5,718 of these children still resided in the community at age 5 yr. Of these, 19 individuals were diagnosed with severe mental retardation and were excluded, as were 342 patients who denied research authorization for the use of their medical records. Therefore, 5,357 children are included in the current report. Of those, 593 underwent procedures requiring general anesthesia before age 4 yr. In comparison to unexposed children, those exposed to anesthesia before age 4 yr had lower birth weight (P < 0.001), lower gestational age (P = 0.001), and were more likely to be male (P < 0.001) (table 1 and Supplemental Digital Content 1 [see table, which illustrates birth, maternal, and paternal characteristics, http://links.lww.com/A825]). All of these factors were subsequently used as adjustors in multivariate analysis. Children exposed to anesthesia also had mothers with higher levels of maternal education (P = 0.039); however, this factor was not included as an adjustor in subsequent analysis because these data were missing for approximately 10% of children. Apgar scores were not different between two groups for those in whom data were available. The peripartum complications of those exposed or not exposed to anesthesia were similar (table 2 and Supplemental Digital Content 2 [see table, which illustrates peripartum complications from birth certificates, http://links.lww.com/A826]), with the exception that the mothers of those exposed to anesthesia experienced a slightly higher rate of peripartum hemorrhage and prolonged labor.
Table 3
Table 3
Image Tools
Table 4
Table 4
Image Tools
Table 5
Table 5
Image Tools
The 593 children exposed to anesthesia underwent 875 procedures, with 449 (75.7%) having a single procedure (table 3). Of the children exposed to anesthesia, 438 (74%) were classified as ASA PS I (table 3). Types of surgeries are shown in table 4. Most anesthetics included halothane (88%) and nitrous oxide (91%); 9% included ketamine (table 5).
Table 6
Table 6
Image Tools
Fig. 1
Fig. 1
Image Tools
A total of 932 children developed an LD before age 19 yr as assessed by individually administered IQ and achievement tests scored using any of the three standard formulas (estimated cumulative incidence 20.5%; 95% CI, 19.3–21.7%). For both unadjusted and adjusted (for sex, birth weight, and gestational age) analyses, the risk for the development of LD (compared with children not exposed to anesthesia) increased (P < 0.001) with the number of exposures to anesthesia before age 4 yr (table 6). The risk was not increased for the 449 children exposed to a single anesthetic (adjusted hazard ratio = 1.00; 95% CI, 0.79–1.27; table 6). However, the risk was significantly increased for children exposed to two or more anesthetics (table 6 and fig. 1). The estimated incidence of LD by age 19 yr was 20.0% (95% CI, 18.8–21.3%) in those with no exposure to anesthesia, 20.4% (95% CI, 16.3–24.3%) in those with single exposure, and 35.1% (95% CI, 26.2–42.9%) in those with multiple exposures. The risk for LD was also increased with longer cumulative duration of anesthesia (P = 0.016 and P = 0.027 from adjusted analysis assessing cumulative duration of anesthesia as a continuous and as a categorical variable, respectively; table 6).
Fig. 2
Fig. 2
Image Tools
Children with multiple exposures to anesthesia were also more likely to be assigned a higher ASA PS compared with those with a single exposure, indicative of more severe comorbidity in the judgment of the anesthesia provider (fig. 2). However, when the analyses assessing the relation between number of exposures and cumulative duration of exposures with development of LD were repeated after eliminating surgical patients with ASA PS of III or greater, the findings were similar: anesthesia was a significant risk factor for the development of LD in children receiving multiple, but not single, anesthetics (data not shown). Detailed information regarding each of the 144 children who received multiple anesthetic exposures before age 4 yr, including their medical diagnoses before and after age 4 yr, are provided in Supplemental Digital Content 3 (see table, which illustrates diagnoses from the medical record in the 144 children who received multiple anesthetics before age 4 yr, http://links.lww.com/A827).
Back to Top | Article Outline

Discussion

In this population-based birth cohort, exposure to anesthesia before age 4 yr was a risk factor for the development of LD in children receiving multiple, but not single, anesthetics. The cumulative incidence of LD diagnosed by age 19 yr among those with repeated anesthetic exposures was almost twice as high (35.1%) compared with children not exposed to anesthesia (20.0%).
Late prenatal and early postnatal neural development is vulnerable to pharmacologic and environmental influences.20–22 Exposure of immature animals to compounds with γ-aminobutyric acid mimetic receptor agonist or N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor antagonist properties induces apoptotic degeneration of neurons in various brain regions.1–4,7,23 In particular, several drugs with sedative and anesthetic properties (including isoflurane, nitrous oxide, ketamine, benzodiazepines, halothane, and propofol) produce neurodegeneration when administered at sufficient doses and durations of exposure.7,8,23–26 In some animal models, these histologic changes have been associated with impaired learning and memory assessed by water and radial arm mazes.7,27
Although these data have raised concerns and stimulated further research on the part of the Food and Drug Administration and others,5 it is not known whether exposure to anesthetics produces neuropathologic or neurobehavioral sequelae in humans. A recent review28 summarized reports describing neurologic sequelae after surgery and anesthesia in children. Some studies of developmental outcomes in patients undergoing repair for congenital heart disease suggest neurologic impairment, although others do not.9–11,29–31 Similarly, studies comparing neurodevelopmental outcomes of neonates with patent ductus arteriosus and necrotizing enterocolitis managed either surgically or medically provide conflicting results.32–34 In the majority of these studies, it was not possible to distinguish the potential effects of comorbidities, clinical characteristics, and surgery from the effects of anesthesia, and the potential for selection bias is high.9,11,29,30,35,36
We examined a birth cohort originally created to study the incidence of learning disabilities in a population.13,15,37–39 This cohort provided several unique advantages. All of these children resided in the same community, attended any of public and/or private schools, and received health care at one of two local facilities (Mayo Clinic and Olmsted County Medical Center), making it possible to review all available medical and educational records. These records, combined with rigorous definitions of LD, made it possible to perform a population assessment of a clinically significant outcome that plausibly reflects the learning abnormalities observed in an animal model postanesthesia. Nearly complete data available from birth records made it possible to control for potential confounding factors known to affect the frequency of LD (sex, gestational age, and birth weight). Complete anesthesia records were available for all procedures, and anesthetic technique was remarkably consistent. The distribution of surgical procedures reflected the population-based nature of the cohort, so is not weighted toward sicker patients undergoing more extensive procedures, as is the case with many studies at academic centers.
If exposure to anesthesia significantly affects neurodevelopment, there should be a dose–response relation between exposure and a relevant outcome. We found evidence for such a dose–response relation between anesthetic exposure and LD in two respects. First, risk was increased for children requiring multiple exposure (adjusted hazard ratio of 1.6 for two exposures and 2.6 for three or more exposures; table 6), but not for single exposures to anesthesia (adjusted hazard ratio of 1.0). Second, risk was increased for longer durations of anesthesia, reaching statistical significance for cumulative duration of 120 min or greater (table 6). When anesthesia exposure was analyzed as a dichotomous variable (any exposure before age 4 yr), exposure was a significant risk factor for LD in unadjusted (hazard ratio of 1.27) but not adjusted (hazard ratio of 1.20) analysis. The latter finding likely reflects the fact that the majority of children received only one exposure, which again was not associated with increased risk.
This study has several limitations. We cannot distinguish between potential effects of anesthesia itself and other factors associated with anesthesia, such as the stress response to surgical injury. Perhaps most importantly, children requiring anesthesia may differ in important ways from those who do not, and such differences may affect risk for LD. Therefore, we cannot exclude that requiring multiple anesthetics is a marker for conditions that increase LD risk and that exposure to anesthetic drugs themselves is not causative. We adjusted for known factors (for which data were available) contributing to LD risk that differed between the groups with the exception of maternal education, because data were missing in a significant number of children. However, when analysis was repeated excluding children with missing data and including maternal education as a covariate, the qualitative results were the same (data not shown). Children requiring repeated procedures may have a higher burden of illness, which may increase risk for LD. For example, premature infants and children requiring repair of congenital heart defects may require more procedures. Indeed, children requiring multiple procedures were judged by their anesthesiologist to have more severe systemic disease, as indicated by higher ASA PS. We did not review the medical records of the children not requiring anesthesia, so we could not use medical diagnoses as covariates in the analysis—and ASA PS classification is not available in these children. However, among the 144 children receiving multiple anesthetics, LD was not more frequent in children with higher ASA PS, and among all children receiving anesthesia, LD frequency did not differ with ASA PS in univariate analysis (data not shown). Furthermore, the association of LD with repeated anesthetic exposure was still present when the analysis was repeated after eliminating surgical patients with ASA PS of III or greater. These findings suggest that ASA PS was not associated with LD risk in our cohort, and that the increased frequency of LD observed in children receiving multiple anesthetics cannot be primarily attributed to those children with multiple medical problems.
The relative homogeneity of anesthetic technique is an experimental advantage, but conversely we cannot comment of the potential of anesthetics other than halothane26,40 and nitrous oxide2,7 to cause neurodegeneration. Insufficient numbers of children received ketamine to perform a separate analysis for this drug.
In animal studies, there is a definite time window of vulnerability to the effects of anesthetic exposure (e.g., approximately 7 days after birth in rodents), thought to correspond to a period of maximal synaptogenesis.20,41 Therefore, the ages chosen to study the effects of anesthetic exposure may be important. In humans, the period of synaptogenesis has been considered to extend through age 3 yr,20,41 which was the basis for our choice of the fourth birthday as the upper age limit to define anesthetic exposure. However, the correspondence between stages of human and animal neurodevelopment is controversial, and other authors suggest that the period corresponding to the time of greatest risk observed in animal models (e.g., approximately 1–2 days before birth until 2 weeks after birth in rodents) is actually perinatal in humans (last month of gestation and first 6 months after birth).2 We repeated our analysis examining anesthetic exposure before age 2 yr (rather than age 4 yr) on the risk of LD and found similar results (see figure, Supplemental Digital Content 4, which illustrates the cumulative percentage of learning disabilities by the age at exposure, http://links.lww.com/A828, and table, Supplemental Digital Content 5, which illustrates the effects of anesthetic exposure before age 2 yr on risk for developing learning disabilities, http://links.lww.com/A829). We did not have sufficient numbers of cases to meaningfully examine a more restricted age range (e.g., infancy).
Another potential limitation is related to emigration from the original birth cohort of 8,548 children. Birth cohort studies can be biased as a result of migration from the community. For example, given the accessibility and quality of health care available in Rochester, children with a higher level of medical need may tend not to migrate and thus be overrepresented in the cohort. This could tend to bias the surgical group toward children with more severe illness. However, a previously published comparison of children who left the community before age 5 yr and those who stayed after age 5 yr (the usual age of school enrollment) indicates that the children included in the study are representative of the entire birth cohort.14 A further limitation related to the nature of this cohort is that in these years Rochester was a predominantly white, middle-class community, which may limit the generalization of these results to other populations.42
Finally, it remains to be determined whether LD is a relevant outcome measure for any potential neurotoxic effects of anesthesia in humans, recognizing that many other genetic, family, and socioeconomic factors may also impact LD. Based on the animal studies showing an association between the neurodegeneration caused by exposure to anesthetics and behavioral learning deficits,7 we argue that LD is a relevant endpoint in humans. It also remains to be determined whether the observed increase in the frequency of LD among children with multiple anesthetic exposures is specific to one type of LD (i.e., math, written language, and reading disabilities). For purposes of this analysis, we chose a broad definition of LD to maximize the number of children with LD and thus the ability to detect effects. Analysis by specific type of LD would be of interest, but would be complicated by the overlap between types (i.e., some children have more than one type of LD) and the need for increased numbers of subjects to detect effect sizes of the magnitude noted in the current study. There are a wide variety of other neurodevelopmental outcomes that could be sought, but many require specialized testing that is difficult to administer in large population-based studies.
In conclusion, in this population-based birth cohort, exposure to anesthesia before age 4 yr was a significant risk factor for the later development of LD in children receiving multiple, but not single, anesthetics. These data cannot reveal whether exposure to anesthesia itself may contribute to the pathogenesis of LD or whether the need for anesthesia is a marker for other unidentified confounding factors that contribute to LD. However, these results suggest that the possibility of potential adverse effects of repeated anesthetic exposures on human neurodevelopment cannot be excluded.
The authors thank the late Leonard T. Kurland, M.D. (Epidemiologist, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota), for his vision in initiating the Rochester Epidemiology Project, and Robert Colligan, Ph.D. (Professor of Psychology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester), for sharing his knowledge and experience in the science of learning disability. The authors thank Candice Klein, B.S. (Clinical Research Coordinator, Mayo Clinic, Rochester), Peg Farrell, R.N. (Data Abstractor), and other members of the Learning Disability team for data collection; Independent School District No. 535; and the Reading Center/Dyslexia Institute of Minnesota for their cooperation and collaboration. The authors also thank Andrew Hanson, B.A. (Statistical Program Analyst, Mayo Clinic, Rochester), and Anthony Santamaria, M.D. (Consultant in Anesthesiology), for assistance in obtaining medical records from Olmsted County Medical Center, Rochester, Minnesota.
Back to Top | Article Outline

References

1. Olney JW, Wozniak DF, Jevtovic-Todorovic V, Farber NB, Bittigau P, Ikonomidou C: Drug-induced apoptotic neurodegeneration in the developing brain. Brain Pathol 2002; 12:488–98

2. Jevtovic-Todorovic V, Benshoff N, Olney JW: Ketamine potentiates cerebrocortical damage induced by the common anaesthetic agent nitrous oxide in adult rats. Br J Pharmacol 2000; 130:1692–8

3. Olney JW, Young C, Wozniak DF, Jevtovic-Todorovic V, Ikonomidou C: Do pediatric drugs cause developing neurons to commit suicide? Trends Pharmacol Sci 2004; 25:135–9

4. Ikonomidou C, Bosch F, Miksa M, Bittigau P, Vockler J, Dikranian K, Tenkova TI, Stefovska V, Turski L, Olney JW: Blockade of NMDA receptors and apoptotic neurodegeneration in the developing brain. Science 1999; 283:70–4

5. Mellon RD, Simone AF, Rappaport BA: Use of anesthetic agents in neonates and young children. Anesth Analg 2007; 104:509–20

6. Wang C, Sadovova N, Fu X, Schmued L, Scallet A, Hanig J, Slikker W: The role of the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor in ketamine-induced apoptosis in rat forebrain culture. Neuroscience 2005; 132:967–77

7. Jevtovic-Todorovic V, Hartman RE, Izumi Y, Benshoff ND, Dikranian K, Zorumski CF, Olney JW, Wozniak DF: Early exposure to common anesthetic agents causes widespread neurodegeneration in the developing rat brain and persistent learning deficits. J Neurosci 2003; 23:876–82

8. Slikker W Jr, Zou X, Hotchkiss CE, Divine RL, Sadovova N, Twaddle NC, Doerge DR, Scallet AC, Patterson TA, Hanig JP, Paule MG, Wang C: Ketamine-induced neuronal cell death in the perinatal rhesus monkey. Toxicol Sci 2007; 98:145–58

9. Bellinger DC, Rappaport LA, Wypij D, Wernovsky G, Newburger JW: Patterns of developmental dysfunction after surgery during infancy to correct transposition of the great arteries. J Dev Behav Pediatr 1997; 18:75–83

10. Bellinger DC, Wypij D, duDuplessis AJ, Rappaport LA, Jonas RA, Wernovsky G, Newburger JW: Neurodevelopmental status at eight years in children with dextro-transposition of the great arteries: The Boston Circulatory Arrest Trial. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 2003; 126:1385–96

11. Bellinger DC, Wypij D, Kuban KC, Rappaport LA, Hickey PR, Wernovsky G, Jonas RA, Newburger JW: Developmental and neurological status of children at 4 years of age after heart surgery with hypothermic circulatory arrest or low-flow cardiopulmonary bypass. Circulation 1999; 100:526–32

12. Wright M, Nolan T: Impact of cyanotic heart disease on school performance. Arch Dis Child 1994; 71:64–70

13. Katusic SK, Colligan RC, Barbaresi WJ, Schaid DJ, Jacobsen SJ: Incidence of reading disability in a population-based birth cohort, 1976–1982, Rochester, Minn. Mayo Clin Proc 2001; 76:1081–92

14. Katusic SK, Colligan RC, Barbaresi WJ, Schaid DJ, Jacobsen SJ: Potential influence of migration bias in birth cohort studies. Mayo Clin Proc 1998; 73:1053–61

15. Barbaresi WJ, Katusic SK, Colligan RC, Weaver AL, Jacobsen SJ: Math learning disorder: Incidence in a population-based birth cohort, 1976–82, Rochester, Minn. Ambul Pediatr 2005; 5:281–9

16. Katusic SK, Barbaresi WJ, Colligan RC, Weaver AL, Leibson CL, Jacobsen SJ: Case definition in epidemiologic studies of AD/HD. Ann Epidemiol 2005; 15:430–7

17. Kurtland LT, Elverback LR, Nobrega FT: Population Studies in Rochester and Olmstead County, Minnesota 1900–1968. Baltimore, Johns Hopkins Press, 1970

18. SLD Companion Manual, revision edition. Roseville, Minnesota Educational Series, 1998

19. Fletcher J, Shaywitz S, Shankweiler D, Katz L, Liberman I, Stuebing K, Francis D, Fowler A, Shaywitz B: Cognitive profiles of reading disability: Comparisons of discrepancy and low achievement definitions. J Educ Psychol 1994; 86:6–23

20. Rice D, Barone S Jr: Critical periods of vulnerability for the developing nervous system: Evidence from humans and animal models. Environ Health Perspect 2000; 108(suppl 3):511–33

21. Middaugh LD, Dow-Edwards D, Li AA, Sandler JD, Seed J, Sheets LP, Shuey DL, Slikker W Jr, Weisenburger WP, Wise LD, Selwyn MR: Neurobehavioral assessment: A survey of use and value in safety assessment studies. Toxicol Sci 2003; 76:250–61

22. Wang C, Slikker W Jr: Strategies and experimental models for evaluating anesthetics: Effects on the developing nervous system. Anesth Analg 2008; 106:1643–58

23. Olney JW, Young C, Wozniak DF, Ikonomidou C, Jevtovic-Todorovic V: Anesthesia-induced developmental neuroapoptosis: Does it happen in humans? Anesthesiology 2004; 101:273–5

24. Cattano D, Young C, Straiko MM, Olney JW: Subanesthetic doses of propofol induce neuroapoptosis in the infant mouse brain. Anesth Analg 2008; 106:1712–4

25. Uemura E, Bowman RE: Effects of halothane on cerebral synaptic density. Exp Neurol 1980; 69:135–42

26. Uemura E, Ireland WP, Levin ED, Bowman RE: Effects of halothane on the development of rat brain: A golgi study of dendritic growth. Exp Neurol 1985; 89:503–19

27. Fredriksson A, Archer T, Alm H, Gordh T, Eriksson P: Neurofunctional deficits and potentiated apoptosis by neonatal NMDA antagonist administration. Behav Brain Res 2004; 153:367–76

28. Loepke AW, Soriano SG: An assessment of the effects of general anesthetics on developing brain structure and neurocognitive function. Anesth Analg 2008; 106:1681–707

29. Hovels-Gurich HH, Seghaye MC, Dabritz S, Messmer BJ, von Bernuth G: Cognitive and motor development in preschool and school-aged children after neonatal arterial switch operation. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 1997; 114:578–85

30. Limperopoulos C, Majnemer A, Shevell MI, Rosenblatt B, Rohlicek C, Tchervenkov C: Neurodevelopmental status of newborns and infants with congenital heart defects before and after open heart surgery. J Pediatr 2000; 137:638–45

31. Karl TR, Hall S, Ford G, Kelly EA, Brizard CP, Mee RB, Weintraub RG, Cochrane AD, Glidden D: Arterial switch with full-flow cardiopulmonary bypass and limited circulatory arrest: neurodevelopmental outcome. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 2004; 127:213–22

32. Surgery and the tiny baby: Sensorineural outcome at 5 years of age. The Victorian Infant Collaborative Study Group. J Paediatr Child Health 1996; 32:167–72

33. Simon NP, Brady NR, Stafford RL, Powell RW: The effect of abdominal incisions on early motor development of infants with necrotizing enterocolitis. Dev Med Child Neurol 1993; 35:49–53

34. Chacko J, Ford WD, Haslam R: Growth and neurodevelopmental outcome in extremely-low-birth-weight infants after laparotomy. Pediatr Surg Int 1999; 15:496–9

35. Blakely ML, Tyson JE, Lally KP, McDonald S, Stoll BJ, Stevenson DK, Poole WK, Jobe AH, Wright LL, Higgins RD: Laparotomy versus peritoneal drainage for necrotizing enterocolitis or isolated intestinal perforation in extremely low birth weight infants: Outcomes through 18 months adjusted age. Pediatrics 2006; 117:e680–7

36. Lindahl H: Long-term prognosis of successfully operated oesophageal atresia—with aspects on physical and psychological development. Z Kinderchir 1984; 39:6–10

37. Barbaresi WJ, Katusic SK, Colligan RC, Pankratz VS, Weaver AL, Weber KJ, Mrazek DA, Jacobsen SJ: How common is attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder? Incidence in a population-based birth cohort in Rochester, Minn. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 2002; 156:217–24

38. Barbaresi W, Katusic S, Colligan R, Weaver A, Pankratz V, Mrazek D, Jacobsen S: How common is attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder? Towards resolution of the controversy: Results from a population-based study. Acta Paediatr Suppl 2004; 93:55–9

39. Katusic SK, Colligan RC, Beard CM, O'Fallon WM, Bergstralh EJ, Jacobsen SJ, Kurland LT: Mental retardation in a birth cohort, 1976–1980, Rochester, Minnesota. Am J Ment Retard 1996; 100:335–44

40. Uemura E, Levin ED, Bowman RE: Effects of halothane on synaptogenesis and learning behavior in rats. Exp Neurol 1985; 89:520–9

41. Dobbing J, Sands J: Comparative aspects of the brain growth spurt. Early Hum Dev 1979; 3:79–83

42. Melton LJ III: History of the Rochester Epidemiology Project. Mayo Clin Proc 1996; 71:266–74

Cited By:

This article has been cited 82 time(s).

Neuroscience Letters
JNK pathway may be involved in isoflurane-induced apoptosis in the hippocampi of neonatal rats
Li, YJ; Wang, F; Liu, CL; Zeng, MT; Han, X; Luo, T; Jiang, W; Xu, J; Wang, HQ
Neuroscience Letters, 545(): 17-22.
10.1016/j.neulet.2013.04.008
CrossRef
Anasthesiologie Intensivmedizin Notfallmedizin Schmerztherapie
Pediatric Anesthesia - Does Anesthesia make Children stupid?
Becke, K; Siebert, C; Dinkel, M
Anasthesiologie Intensivmedizin Notfallmedizin Schmerztherapie, 48(4): 240-245.
10.1055/s-0033-1343758
CrossRef
Pediatric Anesthesia
Educational outcome in adolescence following pyloric stenosis repair before 3months of age: a nationwide cohort study
Hansen, TG; Pedersen, JK; Henneberg, SW; Morton, NS; Christensen, K
Pediatric Anesthesia, 23(): 883-890.
10.1111/pan.12225
CrossRef
Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology
What's new in pediatric dermatology? Part II. Treatment
Pride, HB; Tollefson, M; Silverman, R
Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology, 68(6): -.
ARTN 899.e1
CrossRef
Dermatologic Clinics
Procedural Pediatric Dermatology
Metz, BJ
Dermatologic Clinics, 31(2): 337-+.
10.1016/j.det.2012.12.011
CrossRef
Molecular Neurobiology
Functional Implications of an Early Exposure to General Anesthesia: Are We Changing the Behavior of Our Children?
Jevtovic-Todorovic, V
Molecular Neurobiology, 48(2): 288-293.
10.1007/s12035-013-8488-5
CrossRef
Molecular Neurobiology
Utilization of Neural Stem Cell-Derived Models to Study Anesthesia-Related Toxicity and Preventative Approaches
Wang, C; Liu, F; Patterson, TA; Paule, MG; Slikker, W
Molecular Neurobiology, 48(2): 302-307.
10.1007/s12035-013-8501-z
CrossRef
Neural Regeneration Research
Ketamine induces tau hyperphosphorylation at serine 404 in the hippocampus of neonatal rats
Jin, HY; Hu, ZY; Dong, MJ; Wu, YD; Zhu, ZR; Xu, LL
Neural Regeneration Research, 8(): 1590-1596.
10.3969/j.issn.1673-5374.2013.17.007
CrossRef
Archives of Ophthalmology
A Randomized Trial Comparing the Cost-effectiveness of 2 Approaches for Treating Unilateral Nasolacrimal Duct Obstruction
Lee, KA; Chandler, DL; Repka, MX; Beck, RW; Foster, NC; Frick, KD; Golden, RP; Lambert, SR; Melia, M; Tien, DR; Weakley, DR
Archives of Ophthalmology, 130(): 1525-1533.

Intensive Care Medicine
Optimal sedation in pediatric intensive care patients: a systematic review
Vet, NJ; Ista, E; de Wildt, SN; van Dijk, M; Tibboel, D; de Hoog, M
Intensive Care Medicine, 39(9): 1524-1534.
10.1007/s00134-013-2971-3
CrossRef
Journal of Urology
Newly Postulated Neurodevelopmental Risks of Pediatric Anesthesia: Theories That Could Rock Our World
Hays, SR; Deshpande, JK
Journal of Urology, 189(4): 1222-1228.
10.1016/j.juro.2012.11.090
CrossRef
Annals of Neurology
Neuronal vulnerability to anesthesia neurotoxicity depends on age of neurons
Xie, ZC
Annals of Neurology, 73(6): 686-687.
10.1002/ana.23914
CrossRef
Annals of Neurology
Cell age-specific vulnerability of neurons to anesthetic toxicity
Hofacer, RD; Deng, M; Ward, CG; Joseph, B; Hughes, EA; Jiang, C; Danzer, SC; Loepke, AW
Annals of Neurology, 73(6): 695-704.
10.1002/ana.23892
CrossRef
British Journal of Anaesthesia
Propofol-induced apoptosis of neurones and oligodendrocytes in fetal and neonatal rhesus macaque brain
Creeley, C; Dikranian, K; Dissen, G; Martin, L; Olney, J; Brambrink, A
British Journal of Anaesthesia, 110(): 29-38.
10.1093/bja/aet173
CrossRef
British Journal of Anaesthesia
Mitochondrial protectant pramipexole prevents sex-specific long-term cognitive impairment from early anaesthesia exposure in rats
Boscolo, A; Ori, C; Bennett, J; Wiltgen, B; Jevtovic-Todorovic, V
British Journal of Anaesthesia, 110(): 47-52.
10.1093/bja/aet073
CrossRef
British Journal of Anaesthesia
Impact of anaesthetics and surgery on neurodevelopment: an update
Sanders, RD; Hassell, J; Davidson, AJ; Robertson, NJ; Ma, D
British Journal of Anaesthesia, 110(): 53-72.
10.1093/bja/aet054
CrossRef
British Journal of Anaesthesia
Perioperative central nervous system injury in neonates
McCann, ME; Soriano, SG
British Journal of Anaesthesia, 109(): I60-I67.
10.1093/bja/aes424
CrossRef
Journal of Pediatric Surgery
Central venous cutdown in neonates: Feasibility as a bedside procedure without general anesthesia
Hong, SM; Lee, HS; Moon, SB
Journal of Pediatric Surgery, 48(8): 1722-1726.
10.1016/j.jpedsurg.2012.09.047
CrossRef
Clinics in Perinatology
Sedation and Analgesia to Facilitate Mechanical Ventilation
Nemergut, ME; Yaster, M; Colby, CE
Clinics in Perinatology, 40(3): 539-+.
10.1016/j.clp.2013.05.005
CrossRef
Clinics in Perinatology
Neurodevelopmental Implications of the Use of Sedation and Analgesia in Neonates
Davidson, A; Flick, RP
Clinics in Perinatology, 40(3): 559-+.
10.1016/j.clp.2013.05.009
CrossRef
Journal of Public Health Dentistry
Using chlorhexidine varnish to prevent early childhood caries in American Indian children
Robertson, LD; Phipps, KR; Oh, J; Loesche, WJ; Kaciroti, N; Symington, JM
Journal of Public Health Dentistry, 73(1): 24-31.
10.1111/j.1752-7325.2012.00348.x
CrossRef
Mayo Clinic Proceedings
Anesthesia and Incident Dementia: A Population-Based, Nested, Case-Control Study
Sprung, J; Jankowski, CJ; Roberts, RO; Weingarten, TN; Aguilar, AL; Runkle, KJ; Tucker, AK; McLaren, KC; Schroeder, DR; Hanson, AC; Knopman, DS; Gurrieri, C; Warner, DO
Mayo Clinic Proceedings, 88(6): 552-561.
10.1016/j.mayocp.2013.01.024
CrossRef
Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
General anesthesia as a possible GABAergic modulator affects visual processing in children
Van den Boomen, C; de Graaff, JC; de Jong, TPVM; Kalkman, CJ; Kemner, C
Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience, 7(): -.
ARTN 42
CrossRef
Archives De Pediatrie
Neonatal exposure to anesthesia and adverse cognitive outcome in childhood. Insight from epidemiology
Cans, C
Archives De Pediatrie, 29(9): 1011-1015.
10.1016/j.arcped.2013.06.015
CrossRef
Anasthesiologie & Intensivmedizin
Perioperative pain management for preterm babies, infants and toddlers
Kaufmann, J; Laschat, M; Wappler, F
Anasthesiologie & Intensivmedizin, 53(): 656-+.

Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica
Sevoflurane induces short-term changes in proteins in the cerebral cortices of developing rats
Li, Y; Liu, C; Zhao, Y; Hu, K; Zhang, J; Zeng, M; Luo, T; Jiang, W; Wang, H
Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica, 57(3): 380-390.
10.1111/aas.12018
CrossRef
Comprehensive Physiology
Effects of Anesthetics, Sedatives, and Opioids on Ventilatory Control
Stuth, EAE; Stucke, AG; Zuperku, EJ
Comprehensive Physiology, 2(4): 2281-2367.
10.1002/cphy.c100061
CrossRef
Gastrointestinal Endoscopy
Diagnostic yield of EGD in children: a retrospective single-center study of 1000 cases
Sheiko, MA; Feinstein, JA; Capocelli, KE; Kramer, RE
Gastrointestinal Endoscopy, 78(1): 47-U224.
10.1016/j.gie.2013.03.168
CrossRef
British Journal of Hospital Medicine
Should we rethink administering anaesthesia to young children?
Ramklass, R
British Journal of Hospital Medicine, 74(1): 58.

Jama Otolaryngology-Head & Neck Surgery
Vascular Compression of the Airway Establishing a Functional Diagnostic Algorithm
Rogers, DJ; Cunnane, MB; Hartnick, CJ
Jama Otolaryngology-Head & Neck Surgery, 139(6): 586-591.
10.1001/jamaoto.2013.3214
CrossRef
Neurochemical Research
Effects of Sevoflurane on Self-Renewal Capacity and Differentiation of Cultured Neural Stem Cells
Nie, H; Peng, ZW; Lao, N; Dong, HL; Xiong, LZ
Neurochemical Research, 38(8): 1758-1767.
10.1007/s11064-013-1074-4
CrossRef
Anaesthesist
Neurotoxicity of general anesthetics in childhood. Does anesthesia leave its mark on premature babies, newborns and infants?
Sinner, B; Becke, K; Engelhard, K
Anaesthesist, 62(2): 91-100.
10.1007/s00101-013-2139-0
CrossRef
Anaesthesist
Anesthesia-induced Neurotoxicity
Becke, K; Schreiber, M; Philippi-Hohne, C; Strauss, J; Engelhard, K; Sinner, B
Anaesthesist, 62(2): 101-104.
10.1007/s00101-013-2143-4
CrossRef
Toxicological Sciences
Ketamine-Induced Neuronal Damage and Altered N-Methyl-d-Aspartate Receptor Function in Rat Primary Forebrain Culture
Liu, F; Patterson, TA; Sadovova, N; Zhang, X; Liu, SL; Zou, XJ; Hanig, JP; Paule, MG; Slikker, W; Wang, C
Toxicological Sciences, 131(2): 548-557.
10.1093/toxsci/kfs296
CrossRef
Archives of Disease in Childhood-Fetal and Neonatal Edition
Placental transfer and pharmacokinetics of thiopentone in newborn infants
Norman, E; Westrin, P; Fellman, V
Archives of Disease in Childhood-Fetal and Neonatal Edition, 95(4): F277-F282.
10.1136/adc.2009.177626
CrossRef
Twin Research and Human Genetics
Anesthesia and Cognitive Performance in Children: No Evidence for a Causal Relationship
Bartels, M; Althoff, RR; Boomsma, DI
Twin Research and Human Genetics, 12(3): 246-253.

Pediatric Research
Anesthesia-Induced Neurodegeneration in Fetal Rat Brains
Wang, SP; Peretich, K; Zhao, YF; Liang, G; Meng, QC; Wei, HF
Pediatric Research, 66(4): 435-440.

Anesthesia and Analgesia
The Young: Neuroapoptosis Induced by Anesthetics and What to Do About It
Creeley, CE; Olney, JW
Anesthesia and Analgesia, 110(2): 442-448.
10.1213/ANE.0b013e3181c6b9ca
CrossRef
Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
Anesthetic-Induced Neurodegeneration Mediated via Inositol 1,4,5-Trisphosphate Receptors
Zhao, YF; Liang, G; Chen, QR; Joseph, DJ; Meng, QC; Eckenhoff, RG; Eckenhoff, MF; Wei, HF
Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, 333(1): 14-22.
10.1124/jpet.109.161562
CrossRef
Pediatric Anesthesia
Fundamentals of neuronal apoptosis relevant to pediatric anesthesia
Blaylock, M; Engelhardt, T; Bissonnette, B
Pediatric Anesthesia, 20(5): 383-395.
10.1111/j.1460-9592.2010.03291.x
CrossRef
Plos One
Behavioral Consequences of NMDA Antagonist-Induced Neuroapoptosis in the Infant Mouse Brain
Yuede, CM; Wozniak, DF; Creeley, CE; Taylor, GT; Olney, JW; Farber, NB
Plos One, 5(6): -.
ARTN e11374
CrossRef
Pediatric Anesthesia
Ethical concerns in the management of pain in the neonate
Mancuso, T; Burns, J
Pediatric Anesthesia, 19(): 953-957.
10.1111/j.1460-9592.2009.03144.x
CrossRef
Australasian Journal of Dermatology
Congenital melanocytic naevi
Kovalyshyn, I; Braun, R; Marghoob, A
Australasian Journal of Dermatology, 50(4): 231-242.
10.1111/j.1440-0960.2009.00553.x
CrossRef
Pediatric Anesthesia
Dexmedetomidine: perioperative applications in children
Yuen, VMY
Pediatric Anesthesia, 20(3): 256-264.
10.1111/j.1460-9592.2009.03207.x
CrossRef
Twin Research and Human Genetics
Anesthesia and Cognitive Performance in Children: No Evidence for a Causal Relationship. Are The Conclusions Justified By The Data? Response to Bartels et al., 2009
Flick, RP; Wilder, RT; Sprung, J; Katusic, SK; Voigt, R; Colligan, R; Schroeder, DR; Weaver, AL; Warner, DO
Twin Research and Human Genetics, 12(6): 611-612.

Experimental Brain Research
Postnatal exposure to MK801 induces selective changes in GAD67 or parvalbumin
Turner, CP; DeBenedetto, D; Ware, E; Stowe, R; Lee, A; Swanson, J; Walburg, C; Lambert, A; Lyle, M; Desai, P; Liu, C
Experimental Brain Research, 201(3): 479-488.
10.1007/s00221-009-2059-z
CrossRef
Neuroscience
Is Age-Dependent, Ketamine-Induced Apoptosis in the Rat Somatosensory Cortex Influenced By Temperature?
Gutierrez, S; Carnes, A; Finucane, B; Musci, G; Oelsner, W; Hicks, L; Russell, GB; Liu, C; Turner, CP
Neuroscience, 168(1): 253-262.
10.1016/j.neuroscience.2010.03.016
CrossRef
Neurochemical Research
Postnatal Expression of GAD67
Turner, CP; Ware, E; Stowe, R; DeBenedetto, D; Walburg, C; Lee, A; Swanson, J; Lambert, A; Lyle, M; Desai, P; Liu, C
Neurochemical Research, 35(2): 254-261.
10.1007/s11064-009-0049-y
CrossRef
Twin Research and Human Genetics
Anesthesia and Cognitive Performance in Children: No Evidence for a Causal Relationship. Are the Conclusions Justified by the Data? Reply to Flick et al., 2009
Bartels, M; Althoff, R; Boomsma, DI
Twin Research and Human Genetics, 12(6): 613-614.

Undersea & Hyperbaric Medicine
Hyperbaric oxygen therapy and neurologic disease: The time has come
Mychaskiw, G
Undersea & Hyperbaric Medicine, 37(2): XI-XIII.

Journal of Aapos
Simultaneous bilateral intraocular surgery in children
Nallasamy, S; Davidson, SL; Kuhn, I; Mills, MD; Forbes, BJ; Anninger, WV; Stricker, PA
Journal of Aapos, 14(1): 15-19.
10.1016/j.jaapos.2009.10.014
CrossRef
Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
Isoflurane anesthesia induced persistent, progressive memory impairment, caused a loss of neural stem cells, and reduced neurogenesis in young, but not adult, rodents
Zhu, CL; Gao, JF; Karlsson, N; Li, Q; Zhang, Y; Huang, ZH; Li, HF; Kuhn, HG; Blomgren, K
Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism, 30(5): 1017-1030.
10.1038/jcbfm.2009.274
CrossRef
Pediatric Anesthesia
Anesthetic-induced neurotoxicity of the neonate: time for clinical guidelines?
Sanders, RD; Davidson, A
Pediatric Anesthesia, 19(): 1141-1146.
10.1111/j.1460-9592.2009.03141.x
CrossRef
Presse Medicale
Does anesthesia affect cerebral development?
Vutskits, L; Habre, W
Presse Medicale, 38(): 1591-1596.
10.1016/j.lpm.2009.07.013
CrossRef
Anesthesia and Analgesia
The Safety of Key Inhaled and Intravenous Drugs in Pediatrics (SAFEKIDS): An Update
Durieux, M; Davis, PJ
Anesthesia and Analgesia, 110(5): 1265-1267.
10.1213/ANE.0b013e3181d5a656
CrossRef
Archives of Otolaryngology-Head & Neck Surgery
Use of 532-nm Pulsed Potassium Titanyl Phosphate Laser and Adjuvant Intralesional Bevacizumab for Aggressive Respiratory Papillomatosis in Children
Maturo, S; Hartnick, CJ
Archives of Otolaryngology-Head & Neck Surgery, 136(6): 561-565.

Anesthesiology
Anesthetic Sevoflurane Causes Neurotoxicity Differently in Neonatal Naïve and Alzheimer Disease Transgenic Mice
Lu, Y; Wu, X; Dong, Y; Xu, Z; Zhang, Y; Xie, Z
Anesthesiology, 112(6): 1404-1416.
10.1097/ALN.0b013e3181d94de1
PDF (1752) | CrossRef
Anesthesiology
Volatile Anesthetics Rapidly Increase Dendritic Spine Density in the Rat Medial Prefrontal Cortex during Synaptogenesis
Briner, A; De Roo, M; Dayer, A; Muller, D; Habre, W; Vutskits, L
Anesthesiology, 112(3): 546-556.
10.1097/ALN.0b013e3181cd7942
PDF (1165) | CrossRef
Anesthesiology
Update on Neonatal Anesthetic Neurotoxicity: Insight into Molecular Mechanisms and Relevance to Humans
Patel, P; Sun, L
Anesthesiology, 110(4): 703-708.
10.1097/ALN.0b013e31819c42a4
PDF (197) | CrossRef
Anesthesiology
Isoflurane-induced Neuroapoptosis in the Neonatal Rhesus Macaque Brain
Olney, JW; Brambrink, AM; Evers, AS; Avidan, MS; Farber, NB; Smith, DJ; Zhang, X; Dissen, GA; Creeley, CE
Anesthesiology, 112(4): 834-841.
10.1097/ALN.0b013e3181d049cd
PDF (877) | CrossRef
Anesthesiology
Isoflurane Causes Greater Neurodegeneration Than an Equivalent Exposure of Sevoflurane in the Developing Brain of Neonatal Mice
Liang, G; Ward, C; Peng, J; Zhao, Y; Huang, B; Wei, H
Anesthesiology, 112(6): 1325-1334.
10.1097/ALN.0b013e3181d94da5
PDF (923) | CrossRef
Anesthesiology
Anesthetic Effects on the Developing Nervous System: If You Aren't Concerned, You Haven't Been Paying Attention
Drasner, K
Anesthesiology, 113(1): 10-12.
10.1097/ALN.0b013e3181dcd8b3
PDF (136) | CrossRef
Anesthesiology
Anesthesia for Cesarean Delivery and Learning Disabilities in a Population-based Birth Cohort
Sprung, J; Flick, RP; Wilder, RT; Katusic, SK; Pike, TL; Dingli, M; Gleich, SJ; Schroeder, DR; Barbaresi, WJ; Hanson, AC; Warner, DO
Anesthesiology, 111(2): 302-310.
10.1097/ALN.0b013e3181adf481
PDF (338) | CrossRef
Anesthesiology
Neurotoxicity of General Anesthetics: Cause for Concern?
Perouansky, M; Hemmings, HC
Anesthesiology, 111(6): 1365-1371.
10.1097/ALN.0b013e3181bf1d61
PDF (347) | CrossRef
Anesthesiology
Learning Disability and Repeated Anesthetics: Drugs or Airway Management Issues?
Coté, CJ
Anesthesiology, 111(6): 1379-1380.
10.1097/ALN.0b013e3181c0d6f6
PDF (76) | CrossRef
Anesthesiology
Learning Disabilities May Be Related to Undetected Hypoxia
Mitchell, JA
Anesthesiology, 111(6): 1379.
10.1097/ALN.0b013e3181c0d4dd
PDF (68) | CrossRef
Anesthesiology
“If the Odds Are a Million to One Against Something Occurring, Chances Are 50–50 It Will”*
Tolpin, DA; Collard, CD
Anesthesiology, 111(6): 1380-1381.
10.1097/ALN.0b013e3181c0d71c
PDF (76) | CrossRef
Anesthesiology
The Elephant in the Room
Arul, GS; Thies, K
Anesthesiology, 111(6): 1380.
10.1097/ALN.0b013e3181c0d709
PDF (69) | CrossRef
Anesthesiology
Anesthesia in Infancy Linked to Later Disabilities: Causation, Association, or Coincidence?
Taylor, SP
Anesthesiology, 111(6): 1381-1382.
10.1097/ALN.0b013e3181c0d72f
PDF (75) | CrossRef
Anesthesiology
Surgical Diagnosis Is an Important Variable to Consider in Postanesthesia Exposure–associated Learning Disabilities
Pysyk, CL; Murto, K; Kuehn, S; Doherty, DR
Anesthesiology, 111(6): 1382.
10.1097/ALN.0b013e3181c0d742
PDF (67) | CrossRef
Anesthesiology
Hyperoxia in Pediatric Anesthesia: Time for Reconsideration?
Head, BP; Patel, PM
Anesthesiology, 111(6): 1383-1384.
10.1097/ALN.0b013e3181c0e13f
PDF (79) | CrossRef
Anesthesiology
Hyperoxia in Pediatric Anesthesia: Time for Reconsideration?
Kopp, VJ
Anesthesiology, 111(6): 1383.
10.1097/ALN.0b013e3181c0d755
PDF (69) | CrossRef
Anesthesiology
Hyperoxia in Pediatric Anesthesia: Time for Reconsideration?
Flick, RP; Wilder, RT; Sprung, J; Katusic, SK; Voigt, R; Colligan, R; Schroeder, DR; Weaver, AL; Warner, DO
Anesthesiology, 111(6): 1384-1386.
10.1097/ALN.0b013e3181c0e228
PDF (87) | CrossRef
Anesthesiology
The Need for Perspective
Houle, TT; Eisenach, JC
Anesthesiology, 111(6): 1386-1387.
10.1097/ALN.0b013e3181c0e2bd
PDF (77) | CrossRef
Anesthesiology
The Need for Perspective
Raghunathan, K; Schwartz, DA; Connelly, NR
Anesthesiology, 111(6): 1386.
10.1097/ALN.0b013e3181c0d930
PDF (69) | CrossRef
Clinical Obstetrics and Gynecology
Anesthesia for Nonobstetric Surgery: Maternal and Fetal Considerations
CHEEK, TG; BAIRD, E
Clinical Obstetrics and Gynecology, 52(4): 535-545.
10.1097/GRF.0b013e3181c11f60
PDF (228) | CrossRef
Current Opinion in Anesthesiology
Cerebral monitoring to optimize outcomes after cardiac surgery
Fedorow, C; Grocott, HP
Current Opinion in Anesthesiology, 23(1): 89-94.
10.1097/ACO.0b013e3283346d10
PDF (378) | CrossRef
Current Opinion in Anesthesiology
Is there any relationship between long-term behavior disturbance and early exposure to anesthesia?
Wilder, RT
Current Opinion in Anesthesiology, 23(3): 332-336.
10.1097/ACO.0b013e3283391f94
PDF (142) | CrossRef
Journal of Neurosurgical Anesthesiology
Neuroanesthesiology Update
Pasternak, JJ; Lanier, WL
Journal of Neurosurgical Anesthesiology, 22(2): 86-109.
10.1097/ANA.0b013e3181d2ef96
PDF (341) | CrossRef
Journal of Neurosurgical Anesthesiology
Victorian Water Pumps and Anesthetic Neurotoxicity
Kalkman, CJ; Peelen, L
Journal of Neurosurgical Anesthesiology, 21(4): 283-285.
10.1097/ANA.0b013e3181b6ee0e
PDF (67) | CrossRef
Pediatric Critical Care Medicine
Developmental neurotoxicity of sedatives and anesthetics: A concern for neonatal and pediatric critical care medicine?*
Loepke, AW
Pediatric Critical Care Medicine, 11(2): 217-226.
10.1097/PCC.0b013e3181b80383
PDF (281) | CrossRef
Journal of Pediatric Orthopaedics
Safety of Percutaneous Tendoachilles Tenotomy Performed Under General Anesthesia on Infants With Idiopathic Clubfoot
Parada, CA; Baird, GO; Auffant, RA; Tompkins, BJ; Caskey, PM
Journal of Pediatric Orthopaedics, 29(8): 916-919.
10.1097/BPO.0b013e3181c18ab5
PDF (89) | CrossRef
Back to Top | Article Outline

Supplemental Digital Content

Back to Top | Article Outline

© 2009 American Society of Anesthesiologists, Inc.

Publication of an advertisement in Anesthesiology Online does not constitute endorsement by the American Society of Anesthesiologists, Inc. or Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc. of the product or service being advertised.
Login

Article Tools

Images

Share