Opioid-induced Hyperalgesia: A Qualitative Systematic Review
Angst, Martin S. M.D.*; Clark, J David M.D., Ph.D.†
Opioids are the cornerstone therapy for the treatment of moderate to severe pain. Although common concerns regarding the use of opioids include the potential for detrimental side effects, physical dependence, and addiction, accumulating evidence suggests that opioids may yet cause another problem, often referred to as opioid-induced hyperalgesia. Somewhat paradoxically, opioid therapy aiming at alleviating pain may render patients more sensitive to pain and potentially may aggravate their preexisting pain. This review provides a comprehensive summary of basic and clinical research concerning opioid-induced hyperalgesia, suggests a framework for organizing pertinent information, delineates the status quo of our knowledge, identifies potential clinical implications, and discusses future research directions.
OPIOIDS are the cornerstone therapy for alleviating moderate to severe pain. Whereas opioids have long been used for alleviating acute and cancer-related pain, they recently have gained significant popularity for the treatment of chronic nonmalignant pain. Today, opioids are second only to nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs in terms of prescription frequency for chronic pain.1
Common concerns regarding the use of opioids are the potential for detrimental side effects, physical dependence, and addiction. However, recent research suggests that opioids may yet cause another problem, often referred to as opioid-induced hyperalgesia
(OIH). Patients receiving opioids to control their pain somewhat paradoxically may become more sensitive to pain as a direct result of opioid therapy. That is, the use of opioids may be a double-edged sword. They provide straight analgesic and antihyperalgesic effects initially, but subsequently are associated with the expression of hyperalgesia likely reflecting upregulation of compensatory pronociceptive pathways.
Several recent articles have reviewed and highlighted important aspects of OIH, which reflects the growing interest and rapidly expanding body of literature regarding this phenomenon.2–5
The aim of this article is to provide a comprehensive and systematic review of the literature pertinent to OIH. The primary intent of such an undertaking is to provide the interested reader with an all-inclusive and current overview of a topic that may be difficult to grasp as a whole because new evidence accumulates quickly and in quite distinct research fields. As such, a comprehensive review may serve as a source document. However, a systematic review also uses a framework for presenting information, and such a framework may facilitate and clarify future communication by clearly delineating various entities or aspects of OIH. Finally, a systematic review aims at defining the status quo of our knowledge concerning OIH, a necessary task to guide future research efforts and to identify potential clinical implications.
For the purpose of this review, it is important to point out that OIH occurs in several distinct settings characterized by the opioid dose administered and the pattern of administration. Most work reported OIH during ongoing (maintenance) therapy or withdrawal from opioids. Other bodies of literature documented OIH while administering either very high or very low opioid doses. Although the opioid dose offers a convenient way to categorize different types of OIH, it is less certain to what degree these phenomenological differences are mirrored by distinct mechanisms. Nevertheless, in this review we use separate sections to discuss OIH in the context of (1) maintenance dosing and withdrawal, (2) at very high or escalating doses, and (3) at ultra-low doses. Each section is divided further into a human and animal/basic science data subsection. At the end of each section, we draw conclusions and outline potential clinical implications. The review ends with a discussion of future research directions.
The three major databases, PubMed, BIOSIS, and PsycInfo, were searched for identifying articles pertinent to OIH. PubMed, BIOSIS, and PsycInfo index publications relating to human health, the biologic and biomedical sciences, and the field of psychology, respectively. The search included all work published between the inception of a database (PubMed, 1966; BIOSIS, 1969; PsycInfo, 1887) and September 2004.
Ideally, a search in PubMed using the mesh terms hyperalgesia/chemically induced AND analgesics, opioid would have retrieved most of the relevant articles. However, such a search missed important articles when comparing results with an a priori index of all relevant articles known to the authors. A more complex search accounting for variations in indexing was necessary to retrieve most of the pertinent articles without listing an abundance of irrelevant publications. The final search in PubMed was based on four “hedges” of free-text terms and medical subject headings. Hedges one and two, and hedges three and four were combined for the search. Title rather than title/abstract searches were used to minimize retrieval of irrelevant citations. The hedges were as follows:
* Hedge 1 (induced hyperalgesia): hyperalgesia/chemically induced [mesh] OR hyperalgesia/etiology OR antianalges* OR ((allodyni* [ti] OR hyperesthesi* [ti] OR hyperalg* [ti]) AND (produc* [ti] OR elicit* [ti] OR cause* [ti] OR trigger* [ti] OR refer* [ti] OR induc* [ti]));
* Hedge 2 (opioids): opioid* [ti] OR opiate* [ti] OR morphine [ti] OR fentanyl [ti]) OR analgesics, opioid [pa] OR “opioid-related disorders”[mesh] OR “receptors, opioid”[mesh] OR “analgesics, opioid”[mesh];
* Hedge 3 (drug tolerance or withdrawal): (toler* [ti] OR withdrawal [ti] OR adapt* [ti]) OR “substance withdrawal syndrome”[mesh] OR “drug tolerance”[mesh] OR “adaptation, physiologic”[mesh];
* Hedge 4 (increased sensitivity to pain or sensation): hyperalgesia [mesh] OR hyperalges* OR allodyni* OR hyperesthesi*.
Variability in indexing required combing three hedges:
* Hedge 1 (title search): ((opiate* OR opioid* OR heroin OR fentanyl OR morphine) AND (antianalges* OR allodyni* OR hyperesthesi* OR hyperalg*)) NOT (antihyperalges* OR “anti hyperalges*”));
* Hedge 2 (subject search): hyperalgesia AND drug-induced;
* Hedge 3 (subject search): ((hyperalgesia AND (opiate* OR opioid*)).
A simple search using a single and fairly broad hedge was sufficient:
* Hedge: hyperalgesia AND (kw: Opiate* Or kw: Opioid*).
The search retrieved 869 citations. Based on the preestablished criteria that only peer-reviewed original articles published in English were considered for this review, a total of 213 citations were excluded (123 meeting abstracts, 24 letters, 46 reviews, 3 meeting notes, 9 book chapters, 5 articles not in English, 3 patents). Of the remaining 656 articles, 139 were included in this review, because they reported data relevant for the discussion of hyperalgesia associated with the exogenous administration of opioids (OIH). Most of the other 517 articles were excluded because they reported opioid-mediated antinociceptive and antihyperalgesic effects. Other articles were excluded because they reported data obtained in nonmammalian species (lizards), hyperalgesia as a consequence of abstinence from endogenous opioids, or antianalgesic rather than hyperalgesic treatment effects (attenuation of analgesic effects rather than increased sensitivity to pain).
The 139 articles included in this review were supplemented by an additional 41 publications. These 41 articles were added because they were either identified by the authors as containing relevant data when they reviewed references cited in retrieved manuscripts, or these articles provided important background information indirectly related to OIH. Specifically, 18 manuscripts provided additional data relevant for the discussion of hyperalgesia associated with the exogenous administration of opioids (2 manuscripts in nonmammal species but of particular interest), 7 articles reported analgesic effects in the context of opioid-antagonist administration, 8 articles documented mechanisms potentially related to OIH but without testing for the expression of OIH, 7 manuscripts were reviews of topics pertinent to the discussion of OIH, and 1 reference referred to a diagnostic guidebook. The 157 articles reporting OIH in the context of exogenous opioid administration consist of 120 animal and 37 human studies.
OIH during Maintenance and Withdrawal
Brief Historical Perspective.
For more than a century, clinical reports have listed hyperesthesia or an increased sensitivity to pain as one of the symptoms associated with opioid withdrawal. In an essay dating back to 1880, Rossbach wrote, “[W] hen dependence on opioids finally becomes an illness of itself, opposite effects like restlessness, sleep disturbance, hyperesthesia, neuralgia and irritability become manifest.”6
Six decades later, Himmelsbach gave a comprehensive description of the opioid abstinence syndrome and stated that “aching referred to the bones, joints, and muscles is probably the most common symptom of withdrawal.”7
Today, pain symptoms are part of the criteria used for diagnosing opioid withdrawal.8
Although strictly observational in nature, these clinical reports provide early cues for a significant alteration of pain modulating neuronal systems as a consequence of opioid therapy.
During the last decade, several clinical scientists became interested in exploring OIH as a consequence of withdrawal and/or maintenance therapy. In contrast to early work in the field of addiction, recent studies focused on OIH in the context of pain management. The renewed interest in OIH was triggered by dozens of animal studies conducted since the early 1970s suggesting that administration of opioids paradoxically may increase the sensitivity to pain and potentially may aggravate preexisting pain. This quite disturbing prospect triggered a series of controlled clinical trials examining expression and potential clinical impact of OIH in humans.
Evidence so far suggests that OIH does develop in humans and may have important clinical implications. Data supporting this notion has been collected in three distinct experimental settings: (1) in former opioid addicts maintained on methadone, (2) in patients undergoing surgery, and (3) in human volunteers tested in experimental pain paradigms. These studies are discussed in more detail in the following paragraphs.
Former Opioid Addicts Maintained on Methadone.
Different clinical investigators have measured pain sensitivity in former opioid addicts with aid of the cold pressor test and an electrical and/or a pressure pain model.9–15
Results of these studies are summarized in table 1
and suggest that former opioid addicts maintained on a stable dose of methadone are more sensitive to cold pressor pain than former opioid addicts not maintained on methadone or healthy controls.9–13
Hyperalgesia to electrical stimulation was less pronounced or not detectable at all, suggesting that OIH develops differentially for different types of pain.9,12,14
Similarly, hyperalgesia to mechanical pressure was not detected.15
It is noteworthy that the two studies reporting negative results for electrically and mechanically evoked pain measured the pain threshold, which is less sensitive than the pain tolerance for detecting OIH.9,12
Findings in former opioid addicts maintained on methadone are compatible with the concept that hyperalgesia was caused by chronic opioid therapy. However, the cited studies were cross-sectional rather than prospective in design and do not allow establishing a cause-and-effect relationship. It can not be excluded that former opioid addicts receiving methadone maintenance seemed to be relatively hyperalgesic because increased pain sensitivity may predispose to both becoming an addict and requiring methadone to prevent relapse after detoxification. The fact that current users of both substances, an opioid or cocaine, are more sensitive to cold pressor pain than former users of either drug is compatible with this latter view.11
Patients Undergoing Surgery.
Two controlled studies reported aggravated postoperative pain despite increased postoperative opioid consumption in patients receiving a high rather than a low systemic opioid dose during surgery.16,17
Similarly, a study of women undergoing cesarean section under spinal anesthesia documented increased postoperative opioid consumption if intrathecal opioids rather than saline placebo was injected before the surgery.18
In contrast, a fourth study failed to detect increased pain or exaggerated opioid consumption in the postoperative period if patients had received a high rather than a low systemic opioid dose during surgery.19
This study explored the same opioid analgesic in a similar patient population as Guignard et al.
who reported positive findings. However, the intraoperative opioid dose administered to patients in the high-dose group was approximately 3.4 times higher in the study by Guignard et al.
(infusion rate and duration), suggesting dose dependency of the observed phenomenon (table 2
The finding of increased postoperative pain and postoperative opioid consumption in patients receiving a high rather than a low intraoperative opioid dose is compatible with the view that OIH developed in these patients. Alternatively, these patients may have experienced acute tolerance to analgesic opioid effects. Although it is tempting to speculate that increased postoperative pain despite augmented opioid consumption points toward OIH, no firm conclusions can be drawn. Differentiation between OIH and tolerance requires a method directly assessing pain sensitivity. Implementation of such a method into a clinical trial is difficult and has not yet been attempted.
Experimental Pain Studies in Human Volunteers.
Two sets of experiments have been performed to document OIH in human volunteers. A first set explored the effect of a short-term opioid infusion on an experimental skin lesion rendered hyperalgesic before starting the drug infusion.20–23
A second set explored the effects of opioid antagonist precipitated withdrawal on cold pressor pain in volunteers made acutely dependent on opioids.24
Several investigators observed aggravation of preexisting mechanical hyperalgesia after a 30- to 90-min infusion with the ultra–short-acting opioid agonist remifentanil. Aggravation was reflected by a 1.4- to 2.2-fold enlargement of the hyperalgesic skin area compared with preinfusion measurements, and the magnitude of this effect was related directly to the infusion duration and the opioid dose.20–22,25
Aggravation of preexisting hyperalgesia was observed up to 4 h after stopping the remifentanil infusion, but was no longer evident when assessed on the subsequent day.21
These changes are consistent with an expanded area of secondary hyperalgesia thought to be the result of enhanced nociceptive signal processing at the level of the spinal cord. Two studies also assessed the effect of remifentanil exposure on heat pain sensitivity.20,21
Contrasting with results obtained in hyperalgesic skin, heat pain sensitivity in normal skin was not different before and after remifentanil exposure, suggesting that OIH develops differentially for different types of pain. Two studies documented that coadministration of ketamine abolished remifentanil-induced aggravation of preexisting hyperalgesia, thereby implying an N
-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor-dependent underlying mechanism.20,22
Finally, one report suggested that coadministration of the α-2-receptor agonist clonidine attenuated remifentanil-induced aggravation of preexisting hyperalgesia.22
A single study examined pain sensitivity to cold pressor pain in a model of acute physical opioid dependence in a small number of human volunteers. Two to 4 h after a single injection of morphine or hydromorphone, withdrawal was precipitated with the intravenous administration of the opioid antagonist naloxone. Subjective and objective signs of withdrawal became evident in all subjects and were accompanied by a significantly increased sensitivity to cold pressor pain.24,26
Finally, a single study reported hyperalgesia to pressure-evoked pain after a short-term infusion of remifentanil in volunteers.27
However, these investigators exposed volunteers to significantly higher nociceptive input during remifentanil than during saline placebo administration. It can not be excluded that postinfusion hyperalgesia resulted from more intense noxious stimulation during the remifentanil infusion rather than the opioid administration itself.
In summary, studies in human volunteers involving the short-term administration of opioids provide the only currently available direct evidence for the existence of OIH in humans using models of secondary hyperalgesia and cold pressor pain.
Small and Anecdotal Reports.
Our search also revealed a series of isolated reports perhaps consistent with OIH in patients. In the first, a patient underwent three separate withdrawal episodes while being evaluated and treated for chronic back and radicular pain with an intrathecal morphine pump.28
Withdrawal signs and symptoms included fever, vomiting, diarrhea, disturbed sense of smell, and ataxia. Painful paresthesias to brush on all four extremities also were noted. In the second study, investigators compared the analgesic effects of morphine between human volunteers and pain patients on chronic opioid therapy. This provided the first quantitative evidence for OIH.29
The authors observed that study patients undergoing withdrawal had a significantly lower tolerance to heat-evoked pain (outside the 95% confidence interval) compared with healthy volunteers. Last, a single report by Seymour et al.30
described enhanced pain after third molar extraction in patients given regular doses of dihydrocodeine after surgery, although other reports documented modest analgesic effectiveness of dihydrocodeine for postoperative pain.31
Early Studies: OIH as a Measure of Physical Dependence.
For more than three decades, it has been recognized that systemic administration of opioids to rodents can lead to a hyperalgesic response during withdrawal. Early studies documented that such hyperalgesia can be observed after precipitating withdrawal with the injection of an opioid antagonist as well as during spontaneous withdrawal after cessation of opioid administration.32–34
The objective of these studies was to examine whether the hyperalgesic response was useful as a quantitative measure of opioid dependence. They did not emphasize the potential impact of OIH on pain management. This not only may reflect the primary research focus of the investigators on questions relating to addiction rather than pain management, but also may reflect a more restricted medical use of opioids for the treatment of chronic pain at that time.
The Mechanistic Exploration of OIH.
More recent investigations have focused on OIH as a phenomenon relevant to clinical pain management. Many animal studies describing various aspects of the pharmacology, biochemistry, and functional neuroanatomy of this phenomenon were identified in our literature search. The phenomenon of OIH as it is studied during consistent opioid dosing or after abrupt discontinuation of opioid administration can be described in terms of several dimensions, including the nociceptive modality rendered hyperalgesic, the time course of hyperalgesia, the opioid receptor system implicated, and the neuroanatomical structures and signaling pathways involved. Table 3
provides a comprehensive listing of all studies describing OIH in rodent model systems. Excluded from this table are studies specifically addressing the phenomenon of associative hyperalgesia and studies examining hyperalgesia in the context of administering κ-opioid receptor agonists. These types of hyperalgesia reflect special entities and are addressed in separate sections of this review.
The increased pain sensitivity induced by exposure to opioids has been demonstrated in many different nociceptive assays. Table 3
lists these methods separately for each study. Although all assays using heat, mechanical stimuli, or chemical irritants relied on the activation of peripheral nociceptors, there was a single study demonstrating OIH after nociceptive stimulation at the level of the spinal cord via
intrathecal neurotransmitter injections.35
Examining the data of all these studies suggests variable susceptibility of different pain signaling pathways to express OIH. Probably best documented is a greater susceptibility of pathways activated by mechanical (punctuated pressure) rather than thermal (heat) noxious stimuli.
Few studies have attempted to go beyond assays using brief noxious stimuli to better mimic clinical pain. Virtually lacking are investigations examining the potential impact of OIH in models of chronic pain. One study used a hind paw incision, a model of postsurgical pain. Animals chronically treated with morphine experienced much more marked hyperalgesia in response to the hind paw incision than opioid-naïve animals.36
Findings of this study fit well with human data suggesting that patients receiving a high rather than a low intraoperative opioid dose experience increased pain after surgery despite higher postoperative opioid consumption.16–18
Two fundamental patterns characterizing the onset and resolution of OIH can be distinguished. The first is observed after the acute administration of an opioid, that is, the systemic administration of one to four relatively high opioid doses within 1 h. Morphine, heroin, and fentanyl have been administered acutely to mice and rats and evoked a consistent, biphasic, and dose-dependent response. Intense antinociceptive effects were followed by a 2- to 3-h period of mechanical hyperalgesia.37–42
However, one of these studies demonstrated prolonged hyperalgesia that lasted up to 5days after a very high dose of fentanyl.43
A second experiment administering a similarly high dose of fentanyl before injecting carrageenan into the hind paw demonstrated that hyperalgesia associated with hind paw inflammation was prolonged from 2 to 10 days.44
Thus acute opioid administration typically has evoked a transient hyperalgesic response lasting for hours, except for some instances of prolonged hyperalgesia lasting for days. The duration of acute OIH clearly is related to the opioid dose.
More commonly investigators have exposed animals to opioids on a more chronic time course (3–12 days) via
repeated subcutaneous injections, implantation of subcutaneous opioid containing pellets or pumps, or intermittent administration or continuous infusions through indwelling intrathecal catheters. If animals were given opioids by continuous techniques, antinociception typically was measurable for the first day, which was followed by a loss of this effect or even by a hyperalgesic state during ongoing drug administration.36,45–47
Animals given repeated systemic or intrathecal boluses of opioids developed progressive hyperalgesia to thermal or mechanical stimuli over the course of several days.37,48
Where studied, the time course of resolution of OIH was similar to the time course of its development.36,37,46,49
Of particular interest is a study by Celerier et al.37
documenting that animals with normal noxious sensitivity after recovering from OIH expressed recurrent and robust hyperalgesia if challenged with a single bolus of either drug, an opioid agonist or antagonist. These findings have two important implications. First, animals apparently recovered from OIH remained sensitized to the hyperalgesic effects of opioids. Second, this sensitization most likely was opposed by an endogenous opioidergic system, because the injection of an opioid antagonist unmasked hyperalgesia. This implies that OIH resolved because of upregulated inhibitory pathways opposing activity of sensitized excitatory pathways rather than the desensitization of excitatory pathways. According to this concept, resolution of OIH occurred at a new equilibrium of high neuronal activity between excitatory and inhibitory pathways (fig. 1
). It is conceivable that an equilibrium achieved at a high level of neuronal activity is prone to derangements, which in a clinical context may translate into increased vulnerability to pain.
Site of Action and Signaling Systems.
Studies examining OIH can be characterized by the route of opioid administration. Because drugs are distributed differently after peripheral, intrathecal, or systemic administration, interpretation can be made about potential mechanisms underlying observed OIH. This section of the manuscript summarizes studies investigating signaling systems mediating OIH because anatomical site and signaling systems often have been explored within the same set of experiments. Figure 2
provides a diagram summarizing the neuroanatomical sites implicated in the expression of OIH.
Opioids have been administered locally in very small volumes to rodent hind paw tissue. In a series of studies, it was demonstrated that the repeated local injection of the selective μ-opioid agonist Tyr-D-Ala-Gly-(me) Phe-Gly-ol (DAMGO) followed by the local administration of the opioid antagonist naloxone caused mechanical hyperalgesia.50–55
This hyperalgesic state seemed to be dependent on protein kinase C activity as well as the activation of guanosine triphosphate binding proteins.51,55
Mao et al.48
conducted one of the earliest and most complete studies examining the role of the spinal cord in the genesis of OIH. Rats receiving intrathecal morphine for 8 days developed thermal hyperalgesia in association with antinociceptive tolerance, suggesting similar underlying mechanisms. The excitatory amino acid (EAA) neurotransmitter and receptor system was implicated because coadministration of the NMDA receptor antagonist MK-801 or the non-NMDA EAA-receptor antagonist 6-cyano-7-nitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione with intrathecal morphine fully or partially blocked the development of OIH and tolerance. A critical role of the intracellular messenger phosphokinase C (PKC) for developing OIH and tolerance was suggested by the fact that both phenomena were prevented by the PKC inhibitor GM1 ganglioside. Studies in a cultured neuronal cell line also suggested a modulating role of GM1 ganglioside in opioid-related neuroplasticity.56
Mao et al.57–59
demonstrated that the EAA receptor and neurotransmitter systems not only are relevant for hyperalgesia observed in conjunction with opioid administration, but also for hyperalgesia associated with chronic pain states.
Dunbar et al.60
demonstrated independently that NMDA receptor antagonists reduce thermal hyperalgesia caused by intrathecal morphine administration. An increased content of EAA in spinal cord tissue has been verified directly in the context of chronic intrathecal morphine administration.61
An increased availability of spinal EAA may be caused in part by a decreased activity of spinal glutamate transport systems associated with intrathecal opioid administration.62
Spinal injection of the EAA glutamate but also of the neurokinin-1 agonist substance P in mice chronically exposed to morphine evoked an exaggerated pain response.46
Others have demonstrated increased expression of several primary neurotransmitters in dorsal root ganglion neurons when chronically exposed to opioids.63
Therefore, OIH has been linked to enhanced EAA availability and receptor sensitivity in spinal cord tissue, although other neurotransmitter systems may play a role as well.
Vanderah et al.64
demonstrated that chronic intrathecal administration of the selective μ-opioid receptor agonist DAMGO enhanced spinal expression of dynorphin and suggested that the release of dynorphin was a critical step in propagating OIH. Spinal prostaglandins may be of some importance, because intrathecal administration of the cyclooxygenase inhibitor ibuprofen reversed hyperalgesia associated with opioid antagonist precipitated withdrawal.65
Finally, spinal cytokines (interleukin 1β) and chemokines (fractalkine) may be relevant for the development of OIH.66
The role of neuronal systems other than the EAA system and likely interactions between relevant neuronal systems in the expression of OIH are not yet well understood and need further clarification.
Experiments discussed so far used behavioral data to support a role of the spinal cord in the genesis of OIH. However, studies using c-fos protein immunocytochemistry to quantify neuronal activity have been consistent with the view that chronic exposure to morphine can sensitize neurons in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord. Opioid antagonists precipitated not only physical signs of withdrawal in rats chronically exposed to morphine, but also increased c-fos expression in sensory neurons of the spinal cord.67,68
Injection of noxious formalin into the hind paw also resulted in an accentuated expression of c-fos in the spinal cord if rats had been chronically treated with morphine.69
Li et al.35
found a similarly enhanced expression of spinal c-fos in response to noxious mechanical stimulation if mice had been chronically exposed to morphine.
The systemic delivery of opioids has been used most often to study OIH in animals. Much of the work centered on the EAA system, and the NMDA receptor in particular. Results are consistent with those obtained after intrathecal opioid administration. The systemic administration of the NMDA receptor antagonist MK-801, or ketamine, reversed opioid-induced thermal and mechanical hyperalgesia after acute (one injection or multiple injections on a single day) and chronic opioid administration (5 days continuously).37,38,40–44,46
A role for the intracellular messenger PKC has been suggested by several groups. Administration of an opioid evoked OIH in wild-type mice but not in mice lacking the PKC-γ gene.39,70
Also, Sweitzer et al.
used selective PKC antagonists to demonstrate a role for both PKC-γ and PKC-ϵ for the expression of hyperalgesia during morphine withdrawal in rat pups.71
Other mechanisms have been implicated in OIH. Blocking the monoxide signaling systems heme oxygenase and nitric oxide synthase reversed OIH in mice chronically treated with morphine.46
Similar to the EAA-system, both of the monoxide signaling systems also have been implicated in opioid tolerance, and the link between NMDA receptor activation and enhanced NOS activity supporting opioid tolerance has received significant attention.72–74
Both the heme oxygenase and nitric oxide synthase systems are also involved in modulating chronic pain states, again suggesting that similar pathways mediate hyperalgesia observed in OIH and chronic pain. Although probably underappreciated for their roles in nociceptive neurotransmission, glial cells in the spinal cord become activated and produce enhanced levels of cytokines in rats rendered hyperalgesic with systemic morphine treatment.75
One set of studies suggested involvement of the brainstem in OIH.47,76
Experiments used stereotactic injections of local anesthetics into the rostral ventromedial medulla or surgical lesioning of the dorsolateral funiculus to demonstrate that descending pain facilitating pathways play a role in the genesis of OIH. These pathways may trigger the release of dynorphin and calcitonin gene-related peptide at the level of the spinal cord. Considering the results of all the studies examining different anatomical sites and structures for their involvement in OIH, it is most likely that relevant changes occur at multiple levels of the nervous system, including the brainstem nuclei, spinal cord neurons, glia, and primary afferent neurons.
It should be recognized that the doses of morphine used in the aforementioned studies were generally far higher than those used in the management of pain in humans. Also, the period of exposure generally was quite short compared with common human scenarios. This raises the possibility that the mechanisms responsible for rodent OIH are different to some extent from those responsible for the phenomena in humans.
Opioid Receptor Subtypes.
Many different μ-opioid receptor agonists elicit OIH. Most investigators administered morphine, but, as summarized in table 3
, others explored opioids included heroin, fentanyl, DAMGO, pentazocine, nalbuphine, and butorphanol. Some of these compounds, like fentanyl and DAMGO, show selectivity for the μ-opioid receptor, whereas others are less selective for various opioid receptor subtypes. However, CXBK mice, a strain expressing μ-opioid receptors at a very low density, did not develop OIH in a protocol rendering wild-type mice hyperalgesic.46
This suggests that the μ-opioid receptor system plays a relevant role in the development of OIH.
Exogenous administration or enhanced endogenous release of κ-opioid receptor agonists can result in both hyperalgesic and antinociceptive effects.77
Factors determining the net effect of κ-agonist administration are complex, incompletely understood, and likely include the site of drug administration and the nociceptive method tested. Given the scope of this review, studies predominantly reporting on the hyperalgesic effects of κ-agonist are briefly discussed in the next paragraph.
Intrathecal lumbar injections of κ-agonists resulted in thermal and mechanical hyperalgesia and aggravated allodynia in dogs, guinea pigs, and rats tested in models of acute and chronic pain.78–80
Microinjections of κ-agonists into the rat brain stem caused heat hyperalgesia at the mesencephalic tegmentum but antinociception at the lower medulla.81
Blocking the endogenous κ-agonist dynorphin at the level of the mesencephalic tegmentum enhanced antinociception, suggesting that tonic nociceptive facilitation mediated by κ-receptor originates from this site.82,83
A role for κ-receptor–mediated medullary hyperalgesia also was suggested by experiments injecting κ-agonist into the forth ventricle of rats.84
Finally, a single study reported heat hyperalgesia after the peripheral, subcutaneous administration of dynorphin in rats.85
Contrary to the biphasic, analgesic-hyperalgesic temporal response observed after administering μ-opioid agonists, the response elicited by κ-opioid agonists seems to be monophasic, that is, either analgesic or hyperalgesic. Although the μ-opioid receptor is a likely candidate for triggering events leading to OIH, it is entirely possible that κ-opioid receptors play a role in the manifestation of OIH. The increased expression and release of spinal dynorphin during chronic exposure to μ-opioid agonists recently has been cited as a mechanism supporting OIH in rats.64,76
Although most of the work investigating mechanisms supporting OIH has been biochemical in its orientation, several laboratories have focused on learning and conditioning as factors contributing to the expression of OIH. These studies were conducted pursuant to the hypothesis that animals associate opioid injections and opioid effects with environmental cues. As a consequence of such association, animals express a conditioned drug response that is triggered by environmental cues and typically antagonizes the original opioid effect. According to this concept, OIH in the setting of repetitive dosing can be viewed as a conditioned drug response opposing antinociceptive opioid effects. Although reasonable consensus exists about the role of a conditioned drug response in the development of antinociceptive opioid tolerance, it is less clear whether a conditioned drug response contributes to the expression of OIH. Data from several studies support this concept.86–92
However, other studies found no evidence for the development of associative hyperalgesia.93–96
Several investigators pointed out that the specific drug administration algorithm and nociceptive assay may be decisive factors determining whether associative hyperalgesia is expressed.86,97,98
Mechanisms underlying associative hyperalgesia are poorly understood, although one study suggested that NMDA receptors may mediate it.99
Based on existing animal data, it remains controversial whether an associative hyperalgesic component significantly contributes to the expression of OIH. In fact, most studies exploring OIH were not designed to clarify this question because they neither systematically excluded nor intentionally provided environmental clues to control for an associative component.
OIH versus Tolerance to Analgesic Effects.
Exposure to opioids can result in a need to increase the dose over time to maintain a desired analgesic effect. Typically, this has been attributed to the development of tolerance. However, dose escalation can also be expected as a result of OIH. Pharmacologically, tolerance is characterized by a loss of drug potency or a right-shift of the dose versus
effect relationship, while OIH is characterized by increased pain sensitivity or a downward-shift of the dose versus
effect relationship. Figure 3
illustrates why both of these pharmacologically distinct phenomena share the same net effect on dose requirements. Mechanistically, tolerance reflects a desensitization of antinociceptive pathways to opioids, whereas hyperalgesia involves a sensitization of pronociceptive pathways. Such a distinction is not trivial and becomes relevant when attempting to overcome a loss of treatment effect. Tolerance may be addressed by increasing the opioid dose, whereas the same intervention may result in aggravated pain in case of OIH. Furthermore, some of the mechanisms underlying the two phenomena may be distinct and amenable to different preventive or therapeutic strategies.
Tolerance and OIH can be demonstrated and distinguished in animal behavioral studies by measuring baseline pain sensitivity and antinociceptive potency of an opioid over time. In a clinical setting, distinguishing the two phenomena is much more challenging and often is impossible. The assumption that the two conditions are likely to coexist is probably safe, because both involve stimulation of opioid receptors and share some neurotransmitter and receptor systems, including dynorphin, PKC, NMDA receptors, nitric oxide synthase, hemoxygenase, and others. However, two sets of observations suggest that OIH and tolerance may not contribute in strict proportion to a loss of treatment effect or the need for dose escalation. First, intermittent administration of the opioid-receptor antagonist naloxone during ongoing, intrathecal administration of morphine in rats aggravated OIH, whereas the degree of opioid tolerance remained unaffected.100
Second, experiments using repeated heroin administration in rats suggested that there was only an apparent loss of antinociceptive potency over time, which was no longer present when accounting for changes in baseline pain sensitivity. In other words, these experiments documented a lowered noxious threshold to mechanical stimulation with repeated heroin injections but maintained antinociceptive potency of heroin when considering relative rather than absolute changes of the mechanical pain threshold in response to drug administration.37
Although OIH and tolerance may share certain mechanistic components, the relative expression of both phenomena may vary depending on the opioid treatment protocol and the nociceptive assay used.
Considerations and Recommendations
Above, we addressed OIH as it has been most commonly explored in laboratory and clinical studies. With respect to rodent studies, many investigators using a variety of opioids, dosing schedules, routes of administration, and nociceptive paradigms have demonstrated hyperalgesia between opioid doses and during withdrawal. Studies in higher mammals are virtually lacking, thus creating uncertainty about how generalizable these results may be. The available human data are far more limited in terms of the types of opioids administered, dosing schedules, and nociceptive paradigms used, although the results are compatible with the rodent findings. It is also important to recognize that most of the human studies provide only indirect evidence for OIH in clinically relevant settings. The few human studies suggesting a cause-and-effect relationship only demonstrated an aggravation of preexisting hyperalgesia by opioids.
Based on the available evidence, we need to give serious consideration to the possibility that OIH is a significant consequence of opioid therapy in humans. Paradoxically, the aggressive treatment of pain with opioids may predispose patients to greater levels of pain at later times. For example, patients chronically consuming opioids experience increased levels of postoperative pain despite consuming larger amounts of postoperative pain medications.101,102
In addition, there seems to be a prevailing belief that patients currently or formerly using opioids display much heightened pain responses to minor procedures like venipuncture. Conceivably, the long-term use of opioids also may exacerbate rather than ameliorate chronic pain. The possibility of OIH limiting the usefulness of opioids emphasizes the value of alternative methods of pain control.
OIH with Dose Escalation and Ultra-high Doses
Severe allodynia, that is, pain evoked by stimuli, such as touch, that normally are not painful, is a rare complication in patients treated for intractable pain with high and escalating opioid doses.103
Nine reports document allodynia in 22 patients (table 4
). In eight patients, allodynia was accompanied by myocloni. Taken together, these reports provide evidence that systemic or neuraxial administration of large doses of morphine can produce a generalized tenderness of skin and soft tissue that makes patients hurt when touched or gently moved. Escalating the morphine dose in patients already suffering from opioid-induced allodynia typically aggravated the symptoms.104–106
Reducing the morphine dose or substituting for it with an alternative opioid (fentanyl, sufentanil, methadone, ketobemidone) alleviated or abolished observed allodynia.104,107–110
A few reports are not entirely consistent with the general characteristics of high-dose, opioid-induced allodynia as outlined in the previous paragraph. Allodynia after typical rather than very high morphine doses was reported in two patients.104,111
One patient experienced central pain and segmental allodynia after intrathecal morphine administration. It is possible that some forms of central pain are particularly sensitive to excitatory opioid effects. The second patient had cancer-related back pain and, for reasons currently unclear, experienced generalized allodynia after a dose of oral morphine. Second, allodynia was reported in two patients receiving escalating doses of methadone in combination with morphine.112
The relative contribution of methadone for producing allodynia remains uncertain, particularly when considering reports suggesting that substituting morphine with methadone can abolish high-dose, morphine-induced allodynia.104,108,109
It should be noted that the possibility of spinal granulomas surrounding the intrathecal catheters used to administer opioids in some patients contributing to the observed segmental hyperalgesia cannot be excluded.
Animal studies documented that administration of a high opioid dose can evoke an allodynic/hyperalgesic state and shed some light on potential underlying mechanisms. Rats receiving intrathecal morphine at a dose 10 times higher than that required to produce antinociception displayed a biting and scratching behavior and an extreme aversion to touch at dermatomes in close proximity to the subarachnoid injection site.113–115
A role for the opioid-receptor system in mediating this allodynic/hyperalgesic state is unlikely because the phenomenon was (1) not reversed by opioid-receptor antagonists, (2) not produced by all opioid agonists tested at a high dose, (3) evoked in a nonstereospecific fashion by various enantiomers, and (4) not cross-tolerant with effects known to be mediated by opioid receptors.113–117
An intrathecal injection of strychnine produced an allodynic/hyperalgesic state quite similar to that observed after administering a high opioid dose.114
Strychnine depresses glycinergic neuronal inhibition and electrophysiological evidence obtained in single-cell recordings of the rodent spinal cord indicates that high opioid concentrations can act similarly.118,119
Intrathecal injection of glycine dose-dependently attenuated allodynia evoked by a high opioid dose, further pointing toward impaired glycinergic inhibitory control as an underlying mechanism.117
Recent evidence suggests that the excitatory phenomena observed in conjunction with a high opioid dose are mediated by the NMDA receptor system.116,117
Considerations and Recommendations
For practical reasons, it is important to consider work suggesting that not all opioids produce an allodynic/hyperalgesic state when given at high doses.115
Yaksh et al.115
explored 33 opioid-related alkaloids in rats and concluded that opioids need the following structural characteristics to produce an allodynic/hyperalgesic state: (1) phenantrene structure, (2) hydrogen at position 14, (3) ether bond, (4) one or no methyl group on the nitrogen, and (5) free 3-OH position or glucuronide/sulfate conjugate in this position. Available clinical data are consistent with the suggestion of Yaksh et al
. Convincing clinical evidence for the development of high-dose, opioid-induced allodynia/hyperalgesia exists only for the phenantrene morphine (table 4
). Switching patients to the piperidine derivatives fentanyl or sufentanil attenuated or abolished such allodynia/hyperalgesia.104,109
In this context, two apparently contradictory case reports are worth mentioning. The first report describes the occurrence of acute hyperalgesia in a patient receiving a 50-fold overdose of intravenous fentanyl.120
This report needs to be interpreted carefully, because the portrayed patient was confused and unresponsive to verbal commands at the time of showing signs of motor hyperactivity in response to touch and noise. It is questionable whether observed behavior truly reflects presence of allodynia/hyperalgesia. The second report describes a patient with radiating neuropathic pain in her left leg as a result of chronic arachnoiditis who experienced aggravated spontaneous burning pain in both legs after intrathecal injection of sufentanil.121
However, this patient did not experience measurable allodynia or hyperalgesia, making the report of unclear relevance to OIH.
In summary, administration of very high doses of certain opioids can produce allodynia and possibly hyperalgesia on rare clinical occasions. The allodynic/hyperalgesic state is not reversed by opioid antagonists and can become aggravated when the dose of the causative opioid agonist is further escalated. As soon as a high-dose, opioid-induced allodynic/hyperalgesic state is suspected, dose reduction of the causative agent and/or substitution of the causative agent with an opioid agonist less likely to cause such symptoms are appropriate next steps aiming at attenuating or eliminating these symptoms. In this regard, experimental evidence backed by limited clinical data suggests that switching from a phenantrene (e.g., morphine) to a piperidine derivative (e.g., fentanyl or sufentanil) is a valid strategy.
OIH with Ultra-low Doses
Although several laboratories performed animal studies to explore whether ultra-low opioid doses exert hyperalgesic effects, very little experimental work has been carried out in humans. A single anecdotal report dating back to the early 1940s was identified and describes the inadvertent finding of a dose-dependent biphasic response to morphine in 7 of 57 studied former addicts. These seven patients became mildly hyperalgesic to heat pain at the lowest morphine dose, but experienced analgesia at higher doses.122
However, some human studies attempted to exploit the idea that an ultra-low opioid dose causes excitatory or hyperalgesic effects, which typically are overshadowed by inhibitory effects exerted by higher opioid doses. These studies tested the reverse concept, that is, whether an ultra-low dose of an opioid antagonist selectively could block excitatory opioid effects and, as a consequence, augment analgesic opioid effects obtained with higher and clinically used doses. Early clinical studies in humans indeed provide some support for the idea that opioid antagonists may exert analgesic effects at low doses, while aggravating pain at higher doses.123
Two studies in patients undergoing hysterectomy suggested that coadministration of a very low dose of an opioid antagonist reduced postoperative opioid consumption or postoperative pain.124,125
However, subsequent studies in patients undergoing surgery could not confirm these findings, and it remains controversial whether coadministration of ultra-low doses of an opioid antagonist with an opioid agonist augments opioid analgesia.126,127
The administration of μ-opioid receptor agonists at doses far below those predicted to be effective caused a hyperalgesic response in animals. Kayser et al.128
measured the effects of systemic morphine in arthritic rats when administered a dose approximately 1000-fold lower than that typically used to study antinociceptive effects and demonstrated a paradoxically enhanced sensitivity to noxious pressure in the arthritic paw. Similar results were obtained by Crain et al.129
using mice and a thermal nociceptive test. In a paradigm measuring cardiovascular reactivity under anesthesia, a very low dose of the μ-opioid receptor agonist sufentanil aggravated the hemodynamic response to noxious stimuli, further suggesting that systemic subanalgesic opioid doses may cause hyperalgesia.130
Finally, the opioid etorphine injected locally caused hyperalgesia at very low doses, but evoked an antinociceptive effect at higher doses.131
Both effects were sensitive to antagonists, suggesting that both were mediated by opioid receptors.
Shen and Crain132
suggested that the naloxone-reversible hyperalgesic effects of ultra-low dose morphine may be the result of bimodal effects on dorsal root ganglion opioid receptors. According to this theory, opioid receptors trigger an excitatory signaling cascade when exposed to very low opioid agonist concentrations but activate inhibitory pathways when exposed to higher agonist concentrations. This concept is supported by the observation that very low opioid antagonist concentrations produced antinociceptive effects, whereas higher antagonist concentrations caused hyperalgesia.133,134
The antinociceptive effects observed at very low opioid antagonist concentrations are likely mediated by opioid receptors, because they showed cross-tolerance to the antinociceptive effects evoked by higher concentrations of an opioid agonist.135
At a molecular level, GM1-ganglioside has been implicated in mediating these excitatory opioid effects.136
Considerations and Recommendations
At this point, significant evidence in the animal literature suggests that rodents exposed to very low opioid doses show signs of hyperalgesia, whereas larger doses produce antinociceptive effects. No controlled studies were identified that directly examined whether very low opioid doses cause hyperalgesia in humans. Studies in humans providing some indirect evidence for an hyperalgesic effect of very low opioid doses explored the reversed hypothesis, that is, whether very low doses of an opioid antagonists would provide enhanced postoperative pain control. However, results of these studies are conflicting.
The concept that ultra low doses of opioids cause hyperalgesia may have some relevance to OIH as observed during periods of abstinence (see above). Presumably, very low opioid concentrations may still be present in experiments testing animals and humans during abstinence. A single report documenting that naloxone reversed hyperalgesia as observed during opioid abstinence in mice is compatible with this idea.137
However, naloxone enhanced the degree of OIH displayed by rats in other paradigms.37
These latter studies are in line with the many studies using naloxone to precipitate opioid withdrawal and OIH. Although we cannot exclude some contribution of low opioid concentrations to OIH during periods of abstinence, it is unlikely that this is a predominant mechanism.
The fundamental capacity of the opioid receptor system to elicit hyperalgesia is especially apparent in species inert to antinociceptive opioid effects. Such species, including the fowl and the mole-rat, display a monotonic, naloxone-reversible hyperalgesic response to thermal and chemical stimuli after opioid administration.138–141
Thus, the overall effect of a given opioid dose is likely the composite response resulting from activation of opioid-dependent pronociceptive and antinociceptive systems.
General Implications and Future Directions
Administration of opioids typically results in analgesia. However, the opioid receptor system signals and modulates a multitude of effects, and under certain conditions mediates hyperalgesia rather than analgesia. In this systematic review, we divided opioid-induced hyperalgesia into three major categories based on the opioid dose and further subdivided these categories by distinguishing various types of pain as well as route and pattern of opioid administration. It can be reasonably concluded from the available literature that opioidergic mechanisms can counteract analgesia and enhance pain sensitivity. Such mechanisms have been identified as originating in afferent neurons, in spinal cord tissue, and in supraspinal centers of the central nervous system. Although opioids have enjoyed widespread use in the management of acute and cancer-related pain for many decades, the increasingly popular use of opioids for alleviating chronic, nonmalignant pain stresses the importance of gaining a thorough understanding of potential limitations of the clinical usefulness of these drugs.
It is clear from our systematic review of the literature that OIH in the context of maintenance therapy and periods of withdrawal or abstinence has received the most attention. This is not particularly surprising, because OIH in these settings may be clinically most relevant for a large number of patients. Particularly concerning is the possibility that chronic pain and pain associated with interventional procedures could be worsened by virtue of ongoing and possibly even acute opioid therapy.
The body of laboratory data using behavioral assays is robust, although human studies in this area are far less numerous. The animal studies predominantly provide evidence for sensitization to acute noxious stimuli after acute and chronic opioid dosing. Lacking are animal studies examining OIH in models of chronic pain. Human studies have used patients and volunteers. Patient data provide evidence for aggravation of postoperative pain in the setting of acute and chronic opioid administration. Increased sensitivity to acute experimental pain also was seen in patients receiving methadone maintenance therapy. Most data from human volunteer studies demonstrates exacerbation of secondary hyperalgesia after short-term administration of short-acting opioids. Lacking are prospective studies exploring the possible role of OIH in exacerbating clinical pain states.
We believe that there are two primary areas on which to focus future studies:
1. Mechanisms of OIH. Existing data suggest that peripheral, spinal cord, and higher central nervous system structures may be involved in OIH, but many specifics are missing from our understanding. Such topics include the sensitization of primary afferents, the overall understanding of the neurotransmitter systems involved, the participating intracellular second messenger systems, and the genetic susceptibility to OIH. Ultimately, these mechanistic studies will need to be integrated into a model accounting for the likely complex interactions. Such a model would be useful in developing strategies to optimize opioid therapy.
2. Clinical studies. Existing human data generally support the existence of OIH in a few specific settings. Future studies will need to clarify the conditions under which OIH is expressed and its clinical significance. Such studies would include evaluating the impact of OIH on our ability to control chronic pain with opioids, exploring whether OIH may facilitate the development of chronic pain, developing opioid administration algorithms minimizing OIH, identifying patients at particular risk for developing OIH, and evaluating approaches for reducing OIH after it is established.
As for ultra-high opioid doses, a series of case reports indicates that certain opioids can produce allodynia and hyperalgesia particularly during rapid dose escalation. This condition is not reversed by administration of an opioid antagonist, but would be expected to respond to opioid dose reduction or rotation from a phenantrene (e.g., morphine) to a piperidine opioid derivative (e.g., fentanyl). From the currently available literature, there are no clear mechanistic commonalities between the hyperalgesia experienced during rapid opioid dose escalation and that experienced during opioid maintenance or withdrawal. Although some animal studies exist, there are no human studies prospectively exploring pain sensitization in humans during rapid opioid titration.
Although it has been observed that very low opioid doses can cause hyperalgesia in rodents, the human data are conflicting, and direct evidence for the existence of this condition in humans is lacking. Mechanistically, we do not at present have sufficient information to (1) determine in which clinical situations the phenomena may be relevant and (2) design clinical strategies to avoid any negative impact on pain control that this form of hyperalgesia might have. Prospective human studies clearly are required.
It needs to be recognized that our method of literature search does impose some limitations on the forgoing discussion. Specifically, our search algorithm was designed to identify studies that measured OIH as a primary endpoint. It is likely that studies reporting OIH as an incidental finding also were identified by the search. Although studies measuring OIH as a primary endpoint and reporting negative results likely were captured as well, studies providing incidental data suggesting absence of OIH might have been missed.
In summary, clinicians need to be aware of the possibility that opioid therapy, particularly if aggressive in nature, may cause heightened pain sensitivity and may aggravate preexisting pain. It would seem reasonable to discuss with patients the possible adverse impact of OIH when initiating opioid therapy. The disappearance of opioid treatment effects, particularly if coupled with the unexplained expansion of pain complaints, may signal the expression of OIH. In this setting, the use of alternative analgesics and detoxification from opioids may need to be considered. Specific recommendations for the management of patients at risk for OIH have been made by Carroll et al.102
Although these recommendations were made in the context of perioperative pain control, many of them would be applicable to the management of chronic pain patients receiving opioid therapy. Some of the relevant approaches would include the use of multimodal analgesia, using caution when rapidly titrating opioids, and avoiding periods of relative opioid abstinence. As our appreciation of the relevance of OIH improves, more recommendations may become available.
The authors thank Chris Stave, M.L.S., Lane Medical Library, Stanford University Medical Center, Stanford, California, for his advice end expertise on performing a systemic literature search.
1. Clark JD: Chronic pain prevalence and analgesic prescribing in a general medical population. J Pain Symptom Manage 2002; 23:131–7
2. Mao J: Opioid-induced abnormal pain sensitivity: Implications in clinical opioid therapy. Pain 2002; 100:213–7
3. Fine PG: Opioid insights: Opioid-induced hyperalgesia and opioid rotation. J Pain Palliat Care Pharmacother 2004; 18:75–9
4. Xu XJ, Colpaert F Wiesenfeld-Hallin Z: Opioid hyperalgesia and tolerance versus 5-HT1A receptor-mediated inverse tolerance. Trends Pharmacol Sci 2003; 24:634–9
5. Simonnet G, Rivat C: Opioid-induced hyperalgesia: Abnormal or normal pain? Neuroreport 2003; 14:1–7
6. Rossbach MJ: Ueber die Gewoehnung an Gifte. Pflugers Archieve Gesamte Physiologie des Menschen 1880; 21:213–25
7. Himmelsbach CK: The morphine abstinence syndrome, its nature and treatment. Ann Intern Med 1941; 15:829–39
8. Fist MB, Frances A, Pincus HA: DSM-IV-TR Guidebook: The Essential Companion to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition. Washington, American Psychiatric Publishing, Inc., 2004
9. Doverty M, Somogyi AA, White JM, Bochner F, Beare CH, Menelaou A, Ling W: Methadone maintenance patients are cross-tolerant to the antinociceptive effects of morphine. Pain 2001; 93:155–63
10. Compton P, Charuvastra VC, Kintaudi K, Ling W: Pain responses in methadone-maintained opioid abusers. J Pain Symptom Manage 2000; 20:237–45
11. Compton MA: Cold-pressor pain tolerance in opiate and cocaine abusers: Correlates of drug type and use status. J Pain Symptom Manage 1994; 9:462–73
12. Doverty M, White JM, Somogyi AA, Bochner F, Ali R, Ling W: Hyperalgesic responses in methadone maintenance patients. Pain 2001; 90:91–6
13. Compton P, Charuvastra VC, Ling W: Pain intolerance in opioid-maintained former opiate addicts: Effect of long-acting maintenance agent. Drug Alcohol Depend 2001; 63:139–46
14. Dyer KR, Foster DJ, White JM, Somogyi AA, Menelaou A, Bochner F: Steady-state pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics in methadone maintenance patients: Comparison of those who do and do not experience withdrawal and concentration-effect relationships. Clin Pharmacol Ther 1999; 65:685–94
15. Schall U, Katta T, Pries E, Kloppel A, Gastpar M: Pain perception of intravenous heroin users on maintenance therapy with levomethadone. Pharmacopsychiatry 1996; 29:176–9
16. Guignard B, Bossard AE, Coste C, Sessler DI, Lebrault C, Alfonsi P, Fletcher D, Chauvin M,: Acute opioid tolerance: Intraoperative remifentanil increases postoperative pain and morphine requirement. Anesthesiology 2000; 93:409–17
17. Chia YY, Liu K, Wang JJ, Kuo MC, Ho ST: Intraoperative high dose fentanyl induces postoperative fentanyl tolerance. Can J Anaesth 1999; 46:872–7
18. Cooper DW, Lindsay SL, Ryall DM, Kokri MS, Eldabe SS, Lear GA: Does intrathecal fentanyl produce acute cross-tolerance to i.v. morphine? Br J Anaesth 1997; 78:311–3
19. Cortinez LI, Brandes V, Munoz HR, Guerrero ME, Mur M: No clinical evidence of acute opioid tolerance after remifentanil-based anaesthesia. Br J Anaesth 2001; 87:866–9
20. Angst MS, Koppert W, Pahl I, Clark DJ, Schmelz M: Short-term infusion of the mu-opioid agonist remifentanil in humans causes hyperalgesia during withdrawal. Pain 2003; 106:49–57
21. Hood DD, Curry R, Eisenach JC: Intravenous remifentanil produces withdrawal hyperalgesia in volunteers with capsaicin-induced hyperalgesia. Anesth Analg 2003; 97:810–5
22. Koppert W, Sittl R, Scheuber K, Alsheimer M, Schmelz M, Schuttler J: Differential modulation of remifentanil-induced analgesia and postinfusion hyperalgesia by S-ketamine and clonidine in humans. Anesthesiology 2003; 99:152–9
23. Petersen KL, Jones B, Segredo V, Dahl JB, Rowbotham MC: Effect of remifentanil on pain and secondary hyperalgesia associated with the heat–capsaicin sensitization model in healthy volunteers. Anesthesiology 2001; 94:15–20
24. Compton P, Athanasos P, Elashoff D: Withdrawal hyperalgesia after acute opioid physical dependence in nonaddicted humans: A preliminary study. J Pain 2003; 4:511–9
25. Koppert W, Angst M, Alsheimer M, Sittl R, Albrecht S, Schuttler J, Schmelz M: Naloxone provokes similar pain facilitation as observed after short-term infusion of remifentanil in humans. Pain 2003; 106:91–9
26. Compton P, Miotto K, Elashoff D: Precipitated opioid withdrawal across acute physical dependence induction methods. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 2004; 77:263–8
27. Luginbuhl M, Gerber A, Schnider TW, Petersen-Felix S, Arendt-Nielsen L, Curatolo M: Modulation of remifentanil-induced analgesia, hyperalgesia, and tolerance by small-dose ketamine in humans. Anesth Analg 2003; 96:726–32
28. Devulder J, Bohyn P, Castille F, De Laat M, Rolly G: A case of uncommon withdrawal symptoms after a short period of spinal morphine administration. Pain 1996; 64:589–91
29. Lipman JJ, Blumenkopf B: Comparison of subjective and objective analgesic effects of intravenous and intrathecal morphine in chronic pain patients by heat beam dolorimetry. Pain 1989; 39:249–56
30. Seymour RA, Rawlins MD, Rowell FJ: The Lancet: Saturday, 26 June 1982. Lancet 1982; 1:1425–6
31. Edwards JE, McQuay HJ, Moore RA: Single dose dihydrocodeine for acute postoperative pain. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2000: CD002760.
32. Kayan S, Woods LA, Mitchell CL: Morphine-induced hyperalgesia in rats tested on the hot plate. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 1971; 177:509–13
33. Tilson HA, Rech RH, Stolman S: Hyperalgesia during withdrawal as a means of measuring the degree of dependence in morphine dependent rats. Psychopharmacologia 1973; 28:287–300
34. VonVoigtlander PF, Lewis RA: A withdrawal hyperalgesia test for physical dependence: Evaluation of mu and mixed-partial opioid agonists. J Pharmacol Meth 1983; 10:277–82
35. Li X, Clark JD: Hyperalgesia during opioid abstinence: mediation by glutamate and substance p. Anesth Analg 2002; 95:979–84
36. Li X, Angst MS, Clark JD: Opioid-induced hyperalgesia and incisional pain. Anesth Analg 2001; 93:204–9
37. Celerier E, Laulin J-P, Corcuff J-B, Le Moal M, Simonnet G: Progressive enhancement of delayed hyperalgesia induced by repeated heroin administration: A sensitization process. J Neurosci 2001; 21:4074–80
38. Celerier E, Laulin J, Larcher A, Le Moal M, Simonnet G: Evidence for opiate-activated NMDA processes masking opiate analgesia in rats. Brain Res 1999; 847:18–25
39. Celerier E, Simonnet G, Maldonado R: Prevention of fentanyl-induced delayed pronociceptive effects in mice lacking the protein kinase Cgamma gene. Neuropharmacology 2004; 46:264–72
40. Laulin JP, Celerier E, Larcher A, Le Moal M, Simonnet G: Opiate tolerance to daily heroin administration: An apparent phenomenon associated with enhanced pain sensitivity. Neuroscience 1999; 89:631–6
41. Laulin JP, Larcher A, Celerier E, Le Moal M, Simonnet G: Long-lasting increased pain sensitivity in rat following exposure to heroin for the first time. Eur J Neurosci 1998; 10:782–5
42. Laulin J-P, Maurette P, Corcuff J-B, Rivat C, Chauvin M, Simonnet G: The role of ketamine in preventing fentanyl-induced hyperalgesia and subsequent acute morphine tolerance. Anest Analg 2002; 94:1263–9
43. Celerier E, Rivat C, Jun Y, Laulin JP, Larcher A, Reynier P, Simonnet G,: Long-lasting hyperalgesia induced by fentanyl in rats: Preventive effect of ketamine. Anesthesiology 2000; 92:465–72
44. Rivat C, Laulin JP, Corcuff JB, Celerier E, Pain L, Simonnet G: Fentanyl enhancement of carrageenan-induced long-lasting hyperalgesia in rats: prevention by the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist ketamine. Anesthesiology 2002; 96:381–91
45. Ibuki T, Dunbar SA, Yaksh TL: Effect of transient naloxone antagonism on tolerance development in rats receiving continuous spinal morphine infusion. Pain 1997; 70:125–32
46. Li X, Angst MS, Clark JD: A murine model of opioid-induced hyperalgesia. Brain Res Mol Brain Res 2001; 86:56–62
47. Vanderah TW, Suenaga NM, Ossipov MH, Malan TP Jr., Lai J, Porreca F: Tonic descending facilitation from the rostral ventromedial medulla mediates opioid-induced abnormal pain and antinociceptive tolerance. J Neurosci 2001; 21:279–86
48. Mao J, Price DD, Mayer DJ: Thermal hyperalgesia in association with the development of morphine tolerance in rats: Roles of excitatory amino acid receptors and protein kinase C. J Neurosci 1994; 14:2301–12
49. Davies MF, Haimor F, Lighthall G, Clark JD: Dexmedetomidine fails to cause hyperalgesia after cessation of chronic administration. Anesth Analg 2003; 96:195–200
50. Aley KO, Green PG, Levine JD: Opioid and adenosine peripheral antinociception are subject to tolerance and withdrawal. J Neurosci 1995; 15:8031–8
51. Aley KO, Levine JD: Different mechanisms mediate development and expression of tolerance and dependence for peripheral mu-opioid antinociception in rat. J Neurosci 1997; 17:8018–23
52. Aley KO, Levine JD: Dissociation of tolerance and dependence for opioid peripheral antinociception in rats. J Neurosci 1997; 17:3907–12
53. Aley KO, Levine JD: Multiple receptors involved in peripheral alpha 2, mu, and A1 antinociception, tolerance, and withdrawal. J Neurosci 1997; 17:735–44
54. Arts KS, Holmes BB, Fujimoto JM: Differential contribution of descending serotonergic and noradrenergic systems to central Tyr-D-Ala2-Gly-NMePhe4-Gly-ol5 (DAMGO) and morphine-induced antinociception in mice. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 1991; 256:890–6
55. Khasar SG, Wang JF, Taiwo YO, Heller PH, Green PG, Levine JD: Mu-opioid agonist enhancement of prostaglandin-induced hyperalgesia in the rat: A G-protein beta gamma subunit-mediated effect? Neuroscience 1995; 67:189–95
56. Wu G, Fan SF, Lu ZH, Ledeen RW, Crain SM: Chronic opioid treatment of neuroblastoma X dorsal root ganglion neuron hybrid F11 cells results in elevated GM1 ganglioside and cyclic adenosine monophosphate levels and onset of naloxone-evoked decreases in membrane K+ currents. J Neurosci Res 1995; 42:493–503
57. Mao J, Mayer DJ, Hayes RL, Price DD: Spatial patterns of increased spinal cord membrane-bound protein kinase C and their relation to increases in 14C-2-deoxyglucose metabolic activity in rats with painful peripheral mononeuropathy. J Neurophysiol 1993; 70:470–81
58. Mao J, Price DD, Phillips LL, Lu J, Mayer DJ: Increases in protein kinase C gamma immunoreactivity in the spinal cord dorsal horn of rats with painful mononeuropathy. Neurosci Lett 1995; 198:75–8
59. Mao J, Price DD, Mayer DJ, Hayes RL: Pain-related increases in spinal cord membrane-bound protein kinase C following peripheral nerve injury. Brain Res 1992; 588:144–9
60. Dunbar SA, Pulai IJ: Repetitive opioid abstinence causes progressive hyperalgesia sensitive to N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor blockade in the rat. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 1998; 284:678–86
61. Ibuki T, Marsala M, Masuyama T, Yaksh TL: Spinal amino acid release and repeated withdrawal in spinal morphine tolerant rats. Br J Pharmacol 2003; 138:689–97
62. Mao J, Sung B, Ji RR, Lim G: Chronic morphine induces downregulation of spinal glutamate transporters: Implications in morphine tolerance and abnormal pain sensitivity. J Neurosci 2002; 22:8312–23
63. Belanger S, Ma W, Chabot JG, Quirion R: Expression of calcitonin gene-related peptide, substance P and protein kinase C in cultured dorsal root ganglion neurons following chronic exposure to mu, delta and kappa opiates. Neuroscience 2002; 115:441–53
64. Vanderah TW, Gardell LR, Burgess SE, Ibrahim M, Dogrul A, Zhong C-M, Zhang E-T, Malan TP Jr., Ossipov MH, Lai J, Porreca F: Dynorphin promotes abnormal pain and spinal opioid antinociceptive tolerance. J Neurosci 2000; 20:7074–9
65. Dunbar SA, Karamov IG, Buerkle H: The effect of spinal ibuprofen on opioid withdrawal in the rat. Anesth Analg 2000; 91:417–22
66. Johnston IN, Milligan ED, Wieseler-Frank J, Frank MG, Zapata V, Campisi J, Langer S, Martin D, Green P, Fleshner M, Leinwand L, Maier SF, Watkins LR: A role for proinflammatory cytokines and fractalkine in analgesia, tolerance, and subsequent pain facilitation induced by chronic intrathecal morphine. J Neurosci 2004; 24:7353–65
67. Rohde DS, Detweiler DJ, Basbaum AI: Spinal cord mechanisms of opioid tolerance and dependence: Fos-like immunoreactivity expression increases in subpopulations of spinal cord neurons during withdrawal. Neuroscience 1996; 72:233–42
68. Rohde DS, McKay WR, Abbadie C, Basbaum AI: Contribution of sacral spinal cord neurons to the autonomic and somatic consequences of withdrawal from morphine in the rat. Brain Res 1997; 745:83–95
69. Rohde DS, Detweiler DJ, Basbaum AI: Formalin-evoked Fos expression in spinal cord is enhanced in morphine-tolerant rats. Brain Res 1997; 766:93–100
70. Zeitz KP, Malmberg AB, Gilbert H, Basbaum AI: Reduced development of tolerance to the analgesic effects of morphine and clonidine in PKC gamma mutant mice. Pain 2001; 94:245–53
71. Sweitzer SM, Wong SME, Tjolsen A, Allen CP, Mochly-Rosen D, Kendig JJ: Exaggerated nociceptive responses on morphine withdrawal: roles of protein kinase C epsilon, and gamma. Pain 2004; 110:281–9
72. Dambisya YM, Lee TL: Role of nitric oxide in the induction and expression of morphine tolerance and dependence in mice. Br J Pharmacol 1996; 117:914–8
73. Liang D, Li X, Lighthall G, Clark JD: Heme oxygenase type 2 modulates behavioral and molecular changes during chronic exposure to morphine. Neuroscience 2003; 121:999–1005
74. Wong CS, Hsu MM, Chou YY, Tao PL, Tung CS: Morphine tolerance increases [3H]MK-801 binding affinity and constitutive neuronal nitric oxide synthase expression in rat spinal cord. Br J Anaesth 2000; 85:587–91
75. Raghavendra V, Tanga FY, DeLeo JA: Attenuation of morphine tolerance, withdrawal-induced hyperalgesia, and associated spinal inflammatory immune responses by propentofylline in rats. Neuropsychopharmacology 2004; 29:327–34
76. Gardell LR, Wang R, Burgess SE, Ossipov MH, Vanderah TW, Malan TP, Jr., Lai J, Porreca F: Sustained morphine exposure induces a spinal dynorphin-dependent enhancement of excitatory transmitter release from primary afferent fibers. J Neurosci 2002; 22:6747–55
77. Martin WR, Kumar S, Sloan JW: Opioid and nicotinic medullary hyperalgesic influences in the decerebrated rat. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 1988; 29:725–31
78. Hao J-X, Yu W, Wiesenfeld-Hallin Z, Xu X-J: Treatment of chronic allodynia in spinally injured rats: Effects of intrathecal selective opioid receptor agonists. Pain 1998; 75:209–17.
79. Wu KM, Martin WR, Kamerling SG, Wettstein JG: Possible medullary kappa hyperalgesic mechanism: 1. A new potential role for endogenous opioid peptides in pain perception. Life Sciences 1983; 33:1831–8
80. Leighton GE, Hill RG, Hughes J: Intrathecal injection of a kappa opioid agonist produces hyperalgesia in the guinea pig. Eur J Pharmacol 1988; 157:241–2
81. Hamann SR, Martin WR: Opioid and nicotinic analgesic and hyperalgesic loci in the rat brain stem. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 1992; 261:707–15
82. Hamann SR, Martin WR: Analgesic actions of dynorphin A(1-13) antiserum in the rat brain stem. Brain Res Bull 1992; 29:605–7
83. Hamann SR, Martin WR: Hyperalgesic and analgesic actions of morphine, U50-488, naltrexone, and (-)-lobeline in the rat brainstem. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 1994; 47:197–201
84. Parvini S, Hamann SR, Martin WR: Pharmacologic characteristics of a medullary hyperalgesic center. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 1993; 265:286–93
85. Apfel SC, Newel M, Dormia C, Kessler JA: Kappa opioid receptors participate in nerve growth factor-induced hyperalgesia. Neuroscience 1995; 68:1199–206
86. Kim JA, Siegel S, Patenall VR: Drug-onset cues as signals: Intraadministration associations and tolerance. J Exp Psychol Anim Behav Process 1999; 25:491–504
87. Krank MD, Hinson RE, Siegel S: Conditional hyperalgesia is elicited by environmental signals of morphine. Behav Neural Biol 1981; 32:148–57
88. Nakama-Kitamura M: The role of contextual cues on counterirritation in the development process of analgesic tolerance to morphine. Life Sci 2002; 72:531–40
89. Nakama-Kitamura M, Kawai N, Hayashi T, Imada H: An analysis of the effects of contextual cues on the development of morphine tolerance in rats. Nihon Shinkei Seishin Yakurigaku Zasshi 2002; 22:79–84
90. Siegel S: Evidence from rats that morphine tolerance is a learned response. J Comp Physiol Psychol 1975; 89:498–506
91. Sokolowska M, Siegel S, Kim JA: Intraadministration associations: Conditional hyperalgesia elicited by morphine onset cues. J Exp Psychol Anim Behav Process 2002; 28:309–20
92. Westbrook RF, Greeley JD: Conditioned tolerance to morphine hypoalgesia: Compensatory hyperalgesia in the experimental group or conditioned hypoalgesia in the control group? Q J Exp Psychol B 1992; 45:161–87
93. Falls WA, Kelsey JE: Procedures that produce context-specific tolerance to morphine in rats also produce context-specific withdrawal. Behav Neurosci 1989; 103:842–9
94. Cepeda-Benito A, Tiffany ST, Cox LS: Context-specific morphine tolerance on the paw-pressure and tail-shock vocalization tests: Evidence of associative tolerance without conditioned compensatory responding. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 1999; 145:426–32
95. Paul D, Phillips AG: Associative factors in tolerance to analgesia produced by electrical stimulation in the brainstem. Behav Neurosci 1990; 104:207–16
96. Maude-Griffin PM, Tiffany ST: Associative morphine tolerance in the rat: Examinations of compensatory responding and cross-tolerance with stress-induced analgesia. Behav Neural Biol 1989; 51:11–33
97. Grisel JE, Wiertelak EP, Watkins LR, Maier SF: Route of morphine administration modulates conditioned analgesic tolerance and hyperalgesia. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 1994; 49:1029–35
98. Krank MD: Conditioned hyperalgesia depends on the pain sensitivity measure. Behav Neurosci 1987; 101:854–7
99. McNally GP, Westbrook RF: Effects of systemic, intracerebral, or intrathecal administration of an N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist on associative morphine analgesic tolerance and hyperalgesia in rats. Behav Neurosci 1998; 112:966–78
100. Dunbar SA, Karamian IG: Periodic abstinence enhances nociception without significantly altering the antinociceptive efficacy of spinal morphine in the rat. Neurosci Lett 2003; 344:145–8
101. Rapp SE, Ready LB, Nessly ML: Acute pain management in patients with prior opioid consumption: A case-controlled retrospective review. Pain 1995; 61:195–201
102. Carroll IR, Angst MS, Clark JD: Management of perioperative pain in patients chronically consuming opioids. Reg Anesth Pain Med 2004; 29:576–91
103. Arner S, Rawal N, Gustafsson LL: Clinical experience of long-term treatment with epidural and intrathecal opioids—A nationwide survey. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand 1988; 32:253–9
104. Sjogren P, Jensen NH, Jensen TS: Disappearance of morphine-induced hyperalgesia after discontinuing or substituting morphine with other opioid agonists. Pain 1994; 59:313–6
105. Sjogren P, Jonsson T, Jensen NH, Drenck NE, Jensen TS: Hyperalgesia and myoclonus in terminal cancer patients treated with continuous intravenous morphine. Pain 1993; 55:93–7
106. Wilson GR, Reisfield GM: Morphine hyperalgesia: A case report. Am J Hosp Palliat Care 2003; 20:459–61
107. De Conno F, Caraceni A, Martini C, Spoldi E, Salvetti M, Ventafridda V: Hyperalgesia and myoclonus with intrathecal infusion of high-dose morphine. Pain 1991; 47:337–9
108. Lawlor P, Walker P, Bruera E, Mitchell S: Severe opioid toxicity and somatization of psychosocial distress in a cancer patient with a background of chemical dependence. J Pain Symptom Manage 1997; 13:356–61
109. Sjogren P, Thunedborg LP, Christrup L, Hansen SH, Franks J: Is development of hyperalgesia, allodynia and myoclonus related to morphine metabolism during long-term administration? Six case histories. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand 1998; 42:1070–5
110. Heger S, Maier C, Otter K, Helwig U, Suttorp M: Lesson of the week: Morphine induced allodynia in a child with brain tumour. BMJ 1999; 319:627–8
111. Parisod E, Siddall PJ, Viney M, McClelland JM, Cousins MJ: Allodynia after acute intrathecal morphine administration in a patient with neuropathic pain after spinal cord injury. Anesth Analg 2003; 97:183–6
112. Mercadante S, Ferrera P, Villari P, Arcuri E: Hyperalgesia: An emerging iatrogenic syndrome. J Pain Symptom Manage 2003; 26:769–75
113. Woolf CJ: Intrathecal high dose morphine produces hyperalgesia in the rat. Brain Res 1981; 209:491–5
114. Yaksh TL, Harty GJ, Onofrio BM,: High dose of spinal morphine produce a nonopiate receptor-mediated hyperesthesia: clinical and theoretic implications. Anesthesiology 1986; 64:590–7
115. Yaksh TL, Harty GJ: Pharmacology of the allodynia in rats evoked by high dose intrathecal morphine. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 1988; 244:501–7
116. Sakurada T, Watanabe C, Okuda K, Sugiyama A, Moriyama T, Sakurada C, Tan-No K, Sakurada S: Intrathecal high-dose morphine induces spinally-mediated behavioral responses through NMDA receptors. Brain Res Mol Brain Res 2002; 98:111–8
117. Hara N, Minami T, Okuda-Ashitaka E, Sugimoto T, Sakai M, Onaka M, Mori H, Imanishi T, Shingu K, Ito S: Characterization of nociceptin hyperalgesia and allodynia in conscious mice. Br J Pharmacol 1997; 121:401–8
118. Werz MA, Macdonald RL: Opiate alkaloids antagonize postsynaptic glycine and GABA responses: Correlation with convulsant action. Brain Res 1982; 236:107–19
119. Moran TD, Smith PA: Morphine-3beta-D-glucuronide suppresses inhibitory synaptic transmission in rat substantia gelatinosa. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 2002; 302:568–76
120. Bruera E, Pereira J: Acute neuropsychiatric findings in a patient receiving fentanyl for cancer pain. Pain 1997; 69:199–201
121. Devulder J: Hyperalgesia induced by high-dose intrathecal sufentanil in neuropathic pain. J Neurosurg Anesthesiol 1997; 9:146–8
122. Andrews HL: The effects of opiates on the pain threshold in post-addicts. J Clin Invest 1943; 22:511–6
123. Levine JD, Gordon NC, Fields HL: Naloxone dose dependently produces analgesia and hyperalgesia in postoperative pain. Nature 1979; 278:740–1
124. Joshi GP, Duffy L, Chehade J, Wesevich J, Gajraj N, Johnson ER: Effects of prophylactic nalmefene on the incidence of morphine-related side effects in patients receiving intravenous patient-controlled analgesia. Anesthesiology 1999; 90:1007–11
125. Gan TJ, Ginsberg B, Glass PS, Fortney J, Jhaveri R, Perno R: Opioid-sparing effects of a low-dose infusion of naloxone in patient-administered morphine sulfate. Anesthesiology 1997; 87:1075–81
126. Cepeda MS, Africano JM, Manrique AM, Fragoso W, Carr DB: The combination of low dose of naloxone and morphine in PCA does not decrease opioid requirements in the postoperative period. Pain 2002; 96:73–9
127. Cepeda MS, Alvarez H, Morales O, Carr DB: Addition of ultralow dose naloxone to postoperative morphine PCA: Unchanged analgesia and opioid requirement but decreased incidence of opioid side effects. Pain 2004; 107:41–6
128. Kayser V, Besson JM, Guilbaud G: Paradoxical hyperalgesic effect of exceedingly low doses of systemic morphine in an animal model of persistent pain (Freund's adjuvant-induced arthritic rats). Brain Res 1987; 414:155–7
129. Crain SM, Shen KF: Acute thermal hyperalgesia elicited by low-dose morphine in normal mice is blocked by ultra-low-dose naltrexone, unmasking potent opioid analgesia. Brain Res 2001; 888:75–82
130. Docquier MA, Lavand'homme P, Boulanger V, Collet V, De Kock M: Questioning the cardiocirculatory excitatory effects of opioids under volatile anaesthesia. Br J Anaesth 2004; 93:408–13
131. Van Der Kooy D, Nagy JI: Hyperalgesia mediated by peripheral opiate receptors in the rat. Behav Brain Res 1985; 17:203–12
132. Shen KF, Crain SM: Antagonists at excitatory opioid receptors on sensory neurons in culture increase potency and specificity of opiate analgesics and attenuate development of tolerance/dependence. Brain Res 1994; 636:286–97
133. Kayser V, Guilbaud G: Dose-dependent analgesic and hyperalgesic effects of systemic naloxone in arthritic rats. Brain Res 1981; 226:344–8
134. Woolf CJ: Analgesia and hyperalgesia produced in the rat by intrathecal naloxone. Brain Res 1980; 189:593–7
135. Kayser V, Guilbaud G: Cross-tolerance between analgesic low doses of morphine and naloxone in arthritic rats. Brain Res 1987; 405:123–9
136. Crain SM, Shen KF: Neuraminidase inhibitor, oseltamivir blocks GM1 ganglioside-regulated excitatory opioid receptor-mediated hyperalgesia, enhances opioid analgesia and attenuates tolerance in mice. Brain Res 2004; 995:260–6
137. Hendrie CA: Opiate dependence and withdrawal—A new synthesis? Pharmacol Biochem Behav 1985; 23:863–70
138. Hughes RA, Sufka KJ: Morphine hyperalgesic effects on the formalin test in domestic fowl (Gallus gallus). Pharmacol Biochem Behav 1991; 38:247–51
139. Hughes RA: Codeine analgesic and morphine hyperalgesic effects on thermal nociception in domestic fowl. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 1990; 35:567–70
140. Towett PK, Kanui TI: Hyperalgesia following administration of morphine and pethidine in the root rat (Tachyoryctes splendens). J Vet Pharmacol Ther 1995; 18:68–71
141. Towett PK, Kanui TI: Effects of pethidine, acetylsalicylic acid, and indomethacin on pain and behavior in the mole-rat. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 1993; 45:153–9
142. Bederson JB, Fields HL, Barbaro NM: Hyperalgesia during naloxone-precipitated withdrawal from morphine is associated with increased on-cell activity in the rostral ventromedial medulla. Somatosens Mot Res 1990; 7:185–203
143. Bie B, Fields HL, Williams JT, Pan ZZ: Roles of alpha1- and alpha2-adrenoceptors in the nucleus raphe magnus in opioid analgesia and opioid abstinence-induced hyperalgesia. J Neurosci 2003; 23:7950–7
144. Bie B, Pan ZZ: Presynaptic mechanism for anti-analgesic and anti-hyperalgesic actions of kappa-opioid receptors. J Neuroscience 2003; 23:7262–8
145. Burdin TA, Graeff FG, Pela IR: Opioid mediation of the antiaversive and hyperalgesic actions of bradykinin injected into the dorsal periaqueductal gray of the rat. Physiol Behav 1992; 52:405–10
146. Christensen D, Kayser V: The development of pain-related behaviour and opioid tolerance after neuropathy-inducing surgery and sham surgery. Pain 2000; 88:231–8
147. Colpaert FC, Tarayre JP, Koek W, Pauwels PJ, Bardin L, Xu XJ, Wiesenfeld-Hallin Z, Cosi C, Carilla-Durand E, Assie MB, Vacher B: Large-amplitude 5-HT1A receptor activation: A new mechanism of profound, central analgesia. Neuropharmacology 2002; 43:945–58
148. Doerr JC, Kristal MB: Amniotic-fluid ingestion enhances morphine analgesia during morphine tolerance and withdrawal in rats. Physiol Behav 1991; 50:633–5
149. Ekblom M, Hammarlund-Udenaes M, Paalzow L: Modeling of tolerance development and rebound effect during different intravenous administrations of morphine to rats. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 1993; 266:244–52
150. Galeotti N, Ghelardini C, Grazioli I, Uslenghi C: Indomethacin, caffeine and prochlorperazine alone and combined revert hyperalgesia in in vivo models of migraine. Pharmacol Res 2002; 46:245–50
151. Grilly DM, Nowak MJ, Walsh PA, Dugovics JP: Morphine dependence in rats assessed in a shock discrimination task. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 1981; 74:250–5
152. Grilly DM, Gowans GC: Acute morphine dependence: Effects observed in shock and light discrimination tasks. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 1986; 88:500–4
153. Harris AC, Hanes SL, Gewirtz JC: Potentiated startle and hyperalgesia during withdrawal from acute morphine: Effects of multiple opiate exposures. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 2004; 176:266–73
154. Heinzen EL, Pollack GM: Pharmacodynamics of morphine-induced neuronal nitric oxide production and antinociceptive tolerance development. Brain Res 2004; 1023:175–84
155. Hendrie CA: Naloxone-sensitive hyperalgesia follows analgesia induced by morphine and environmental stimulation. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 1989; 32:961–6
156. Hoffmann O, Plesan A, Wiesenfeld-Hallin Z: Genetic differences in morphine sensitivity, tolerance and withdrawal in rats. Brain Res 1998; 806:232–7
157. Kang YJ, Vincler M, Li X, Conklin D, Eisenach JC: Intrathecal ketorolac reverses hypersensitivity following acute fentanyl exposure. Anesthesiology 2002; 97:1641–4
158. Kaplan H, Fields HL: Hyperalgesia during acute opioid abstinence: Evidence for a nociceptive facilitating function of the rostral ventromedial medulla. J Neurosci 1991; 11:1433–9
159. Kayan S, Mitchell CL: The effects of chronic morphine administration on tooth pulp thresholds in dogs and cats. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 1968; 128:755–60
160. Kest B, Hopkins E, Palmese CA, Adler M, Mogil JS: Genetic variation in morphine analgesic tolerance: A survey of 11 inbred mouse strains. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 2002; 73:821–8
161. Kim DH, Fields HL, Barbaro NM: Morphine analgesia and acute physical dependence: Rapid onset of two opposing, dose-related processes. Brain Res 1990; 516:37–40
162. Kim JA, Siegel S: The role of cholecystokinin in conditional compensatory responding and morphine tolerance in rats. Behav Neurosci 2001; 115:704–9
163. Kissin I, Bright CA, Bradley EL Jr.: The effect of ketamine on opioid-induced acute tolerance: Can it explain reduction of opioid consumption with ketamine-opioid analgesic combinations? Anesth Analg 2000; 91:1483–8
164. Lane DA, Tortorici V, Morgan MM: Behavioral and electrophysiological evidence for tolerance to continuous morphine administration into the ventrolateral periaqueductal gray. Neuroscience 2004; 125:63–9
165. Larcher A, Laulin JP, Celerier E, Le Moal M, Simonnet G: Acute tolerance associated with a single opiate administration: involvement of N-methyl-D-aspartate-dependent pain facilitatory systems. Neuroscience 1998; 84:583–9
166. Manning BH, Mao J, Frenk H, Price DD, Mayer DJ: Continuous co-administration of dextromethorphan or MK-801 with morphine: Attenuation of morphine dependence and naloxone-reversible attenuation of morphine tolerance. Pain 1996; 67:79–88
167. McNally GP, Akil H: Role of corticotropin-releasing hormone in the amygdala and bed nucleus of the stria terminalis in the behavioral, pain modulatory, and endocrine consequences of opiate withdrawal. Neuroscience 2002; 112:605–17
168. Milne B, Cervenko FW, Jhamandas K, Sutak M: Intrathecal clonidine: Analgesia and effect on opiate withdrawal in the rat. Anesthesiology 1985; 62:34–8
169. Ohnishi T, Saito K, Maeda S, Matsumoto K, Sakuda M, Inoki R: Intracerebroventricular treatment of mice with pertussis toxin induces hyperalgesia and enhances 3H-nitrendipine binding to synaptic membranes: Similarity with morphine tolerance. Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol 1990; 341:123–7
170. Plesan A, Hoffmann O, Xu XJ, Wiesenfeld-Hallin Z: Genetic differences in the antinociceptive effect of morphine and its potentiation by dextromethorphan in rats. Neurosci Lett 1999; 263:53–6
171. Raghavendra V, Rutkowski MD, DeLeo JA: The role of spinal neuroimmune activation in morphine tolerance/hyperalgesia in neuropathic and sham-operated rats. J Neurosci 2002; 22:9980–9
172. Raghavendra V, Tanga FY, DeLeo JA: Attenuation of morphine tolerance, withdrawal-induced hyperalgesia, and associated spinal inflammatory immune responses by propentofylline in rats. Neuropsychopharmacology 2004; 29:327–34
173. Salimov R, Salimova N, Klodt P, Maisky A: Interaction between alcohol deprivation and morphine withdrawal in mice. Drug Alcohol Depend 1993; 34:59–66
174. Schmidt WK, Way EL: Hyperalgesic effects of divalent cations and antinociceptive effects of a calcium chelator in naive and morphine-dependent mice. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 1980; 212:22–7
175. Shen K-F, Crain SM: Cholera toxin-B subunit blocks excitatory opioid receptor-mediated hyperalgesic effects in mice, thereby unmasking potent opioid analgesia and attenuating opioid tolerance/dependence. Brain Res 2001; 919:20–30
176. Sweitzer SM, Allen CP, Zissen MH, Kendig JJ: Mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia upon acute opioid withdrawal in the neonatal rat. Pain 2004; 110:269–80
177. Tilson HA, Rech RH: The effects of p-chlorophenylalanine on morphine analgesia, tolerance and dependence development in two strain of rats. Psychopharmacologia 1974; 35:45–60
178. Welin M, Harro J, Yukhananov R, Nyberg F, Oreland L: Cholecystokinin receptor binding in morphine analgesia: Tolerance, withdrawal and abstinence. Neuropeptides 1994; 26:379–83
179. Wilcox RE, Mikula JA, Levitt RA: Periaqueductal gray naloxone microinjections in morphine-dependent rats: hyperalgesia without “classical” withdrawal. Neuropharmacology 1979; 18:639–41
180. Yu W, Hao JX, Xu XJ, Wiesenfeld-Hallin Z: The development of morphine tolerance and dependence in rats with chronic pain. Brain Res 1997; 756:141–6
This article has been cited 135 time(s).
Brain ResearchSpontaneous nociceptive behaviour in female mice with Freund's complete adjouvant- and carrageenan-induced monoarthritisBrain Research
PainPharmacologic management of neuropathic pain: Evidence-based recommendationsPain
Anesthesia and AnalgesiaOploid-induced hyperalgesia and rapid opiold detoxification after tacrolimus administrationAnesthesia and Analgesia
Anesthesia and AnalgesiaPerioperative management of patients with an intrathecal drug delivery system for chronic painAnesthesia and Analgesia
Journal of PainClinical Guidelines for the Use of Chronic Opioid Therapy in Chronic Noncancer PainJournal of Pain
Opioid Induced Hyperalgesia: Clinical Implications for the Pain Practitioner
Pain Physician, 12(3):
Douleur Et AnalgesieOpioids revisited: from analgesia to hyperalgesiaDouleur Et Analgesie
Journal of PainPredictors of Long-Term Opioid Use Among Patients With Painful Lumbar Spine ConditionsJournal of Pain
European Journal of NeuroscienceSpinal NK-1 receptor-expressing neurons and descending pathways support fentanyl-induced pain hypersensitivity in a rat model of postoperative painEuropean Journal of Neuroscience
ScienceInduction of Synaptic Long-Term Potentiation After Opioid WithdrawalScience
Drug and Alcohol DependenceGabapentin improves cold-pressor pain responses in methadone-maintained patientsDrug and Alcohol Dependence
Pain MedicineReduced Cold Pain Tolerance in Chronic Pain Patients Following Opioid DetoxificationPain Medicine
Annals of OncologyManagement of cancer pain: ESMO Clinical RecommendationsAnnals of Oncology
Journal of NeuroscienceProtein Kinase C Mediates the Synergistic Interaction Between Agonists Acting at alpha(2)-Adrenergic and Delta-Opioid Receptors in Spinal CordJournal of Neuroscience
Intrathecal therapy with ziconotide: clinical experience and considerations on its use
Minerva Anestesiologica, 74():
Javma-Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
Evaluation of epidural administration of morphine or morphine and bupivacaine for postoperative analgesia after premedication with an opioid analgesic and orthopedic surgery in dogs
Javma-Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, 229(7):
Annals of Emergency Medicine
Grounding frequent flyers, not abandoning them: Drug seekers in the ED
Annals of Emergency Medicine, 49(4):
Surgical Clinics of North AmericaThe role of total pancreatectomy and islet auto transplantation for chronic pancreatitisSurgical Clinics of North America
Brain ResearchNeonatal morphine enhances nociception and decreases analgesia in young ratsBrain Research
PainThe pro-nociceptive effects of remifentanil or surgical injury in mice are associated with a decrease in delta-opioid receptor mRNA levels: Prevention of the nociceptive response by on-site delivery of enkephalinsPain
Primary CarePalliative Care for the Cancer PatientPrimary Care
Profound Reduction in Sedation and Analgesic Requirements Using Extended Dexmedetomidine Infusions in a Patient With an Open Abdomen
Military Medicine, 174():
Canadian Journal of Anaesthesia-Journal Canadien D Anesthesie
Brief review: Perioperative management of the patient with chronic non-cancer pain
Canadian Journal of Anaesthesia-Journal Canadien D Anesthesie, 53():
Anasthesiologie Intensivmedizin Notfallmedizin Schmerztherapie
New possibilities of systemic analgesia
Anasthesiologie Intensivmedizin Notfallmedizin Schmerztherapie, 42(1):
PainSpinal NK-1 receptor expressing neurons mediate opioid-induced hyperalgesia and antinociceptive tolerance via activation of descending pathwaysPain
Drug and Alcohol DependenceAbnormal heat and pain perception in remitted heroin dependence months after detoxification from methadone-maintenanceDrug and Alcohol Dependence
Medical Clinics of North AmericaOpioids for persistent noncancer painMedical Clinics of North America
NeuropharmacologyNitrous oxide (N2O) prevents latent pain sensitization and long-term anxiety-like behavior in pain and opioid-experienced ratsNeuropharmacology
Journal of Clinical OncologyWhen Opioids cause painJournal of Clinical Oncology
Anesthesia and AnalgesiaA differential diagnosis of hyperalgesia, toxicity, and withdrawal from intrathecal morphine infusionAnesthesia and Analgesia
Neurocritical CareThe Perioperative Management of Pain from Intracranial SurgeryNeurocritical Care
Assessment of Celiac Plexus Block and Neurolysis Outcomes and Technique in the Management of Refractory Visceral Cancer Pain
Pain Medicine, 11(1):
Experimental and Clinical PsychopharmacologyEvaluation of Prescription Opioids Using Operant-Based Pain Measures in RatsExperimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology
Douleur Et AnalgesieExperimental and clinical data for postoperative hyperalgesia mechanismsDouleur Et Analgesie
Anesthesia and AnalgesiaLong-Term Pain Vulnerability After Surgery in Rats: Prevention by Nefopam, an Analgesic with Antihyperalgesic PropertiesAnesthesia and Analgesia
AnaesthesistEEG-adjusted target-controlled infusion. Propofol target concentration with different doses of remifentanilAnaesthesist
AnaesthesiaPostoperative analgesia for shoulder surgery: a critical appraisal and review of current techniquesAnaesthesia
European Journal of PainPhysical and psychosocial functioning following motor vehicle trauma: Relationships with chronic pain, posttraumatic stress, and medication useEuropean Journal of Pain
Molecular PharmacologyIncreased Spinal Dynorphin Levels and Phospho-Extracellular Signal-Regulated Kinases 1 and 2 and c-Fos Immunoreactivity after Surgery under Remifentanil Anesthesia in MiceMolecular Pharmacology
Drugs of the FutureNeuropeptide FF receptors as therapeutic targetsDrugs of the Future
Journal of PainKetamine as an adjuvant for treatment of cancer pain in children and adolescentsJournal of Pain
Palliative MedicineOpioid-induced hyperalgesia: fact or fiction?Palliative Medicine
Archives of Iranian Medicine
Duration of spinal anesthesia with bupivacaine in chronic opium abusers undergoing lower extremity orthopedic surgery
Archives of Iranian Medicine, 10(3):
HeadacheContinuous opioid therapy (COT) is rarely advisable for refractory chronic daily headache: Limited efficacy, risks, and proposed guidelinesHeadache
Canadian Journal of Anaesthesia-Journal Canadien D AnesthesieThe vexing problem of post-amputation pain: What is the optimal perioperative pain management for below-knee amputation?Canadian Journal of Anaesthesia-Journal Canadien D Anesthesie
Patient-controlled analgesia in the management of postoperative pain
NeuropharmacologyInduction of c-Fos and zif268 in the nociceptive amygdala parallel abstinence hyperalgesia in rats briefly exposed to morphineNeuropharmacology
Journal of Clinical OncologyOpioid-induced pain - In replyJournal of Clinical Oncology
Anesthesia and AnalgesiaUltra-low dose ketamine and memantine treatment for pain in an opioid-tolerant oncology patientAnesthesia and Analgesia
Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery-American VolumeHigher Opioid Doses Predict Poorer Functional Outcome in Patients with Chronic Disabling Occupational Musculoskeletal DisordersJournal of Bone and Joint Surgery-American Volume
Journal of PainHyperalgesia in Opioid-Managed Chronic Pain and Opioid-Dependent PatientsJournal of Pain
Current Pain and Headache ReportsThe management of sickle cell painCurrent Pain and Headache Reports
European Journal of PharmacologyCurative-like analgesia in a neuropathic pain model: Parametric analysis of the dose and the duration of treatment with a high-efficacy 5-HT1A receptor agonistEuropean Journal of Pharmacology
European Journal of PainEfficacy and safety of morphine-6-glucuronide (M6G) for postoperative pain relief: A randomized, double-blind studyEuropean Journal of Pain
PainNo evidence for the development of acute tolerance to analgesic, respiratory depressant and sedative opioid effects in humansPain
SchmerzHigh-dose buprenorphine for outpatient palliative pain therapySchmerz
AnaesthesistRemifentanil-based intraoperative anaesthesia and postoperative pain therapy. Is there an optimal treatment strategy?Anaesthesist
Journal of Clinical OncologyOpioid-nduced hyperalgesia may be more frequent than previously thought - ReplyJournal of Clinical Oncology
Journal of PainPerioperative pain management in the opioid-tolerant individualJournal of Pain
Current Pain and Headache Reports
Cancer pain: Perspectives of a medical oncologist
Current Pain and Headache Reports, 12(4):
Anaesthesia and Intensive Care
Continuous interscalene analgesia for rotator cuff repair: a retrospective comparison of effectiveness and cost in 205 patients from a multi-provider private practice setting
Anaesthesia and Intensive Care, 36(6):
Canadian Journal of Anaesthesia-Journal Canadien D AnesthesieEffects of sevoflurane on carrageenan- and fentanyl-induced pain hypersensitivity in Sprague-Dawley ratsCanadian Journal of Anaesthesia-Journal Canadien D Anesthesie
Annals Academy of Medicine Singapore
The Role of Opioids in Managing Chronic Non-cancer Pain
Annals Academy of Medicine Singapore, 38():
M S-Medecine Sciences
RF9, a powerful and selective antagonist of the neuropeptide FF receptors, prevents the development of the tolerance to opioids
M S-Medecine Sciences, 22():
Experimental and Clinical PsychopharmacologyOpioids and the Treatment of Chronic Pain: Controversies, Current Status, and Future DirectionsExperimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology
Critical Care ClinicsPharmacology of Sedative-Analgesic Agents: Dexmedetomidine, Remifentanil, Ketamine,Volatile Anesthetics, and the Role of Peripheral Mu AntagonistsCritical Care Clinics
Trends in NeurosciencesCritical role of nociceptor plasticity in chronic painTrends in Neurosciences
Pain Management NursingMechanisms of opioid-induced tolerance and hyperalgesiaPain Management Nursing
Naunyn-Schmiedebergs Archives of PharmacologyMagnesium modifies fentanyl-induced local antinociception and hyperalgesiaNaunyn-Schmiedebergs Archives of Pharmacology
Canadian Journal of Anaesthesia-Journal Canadien D AnesthesiePerioperative pain management in the patient treated with opioids: Continuing Professional DevelopmentCanadian Journal of Anaesthesia-Journal Canadien D Anesthesie
Anesthesia and AnalgesiaThe duration of spinal anesthesia with 5% lidocaine in chronic opium abusers compared with nonabusersAnesthesia and Analgesia
Molecular PainChronic morphine administration enhances nociceptive sensitivity and local cytokine production after incisionMolecular Pain
Regional Anesthesia and Pain MedicineThe effect of opioid dose and treatment duration on the perception of a painful standardized clinical stimulusRegional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine
Journal of PainResearch Gaps on Use of Opioids for Chronic Noncancer Pain: Findings From a Review of the Evidence for an American Pain Society and American Academy of Pain Medicine Clinical Practice GuidelineJournal of Pain
British Journal of PharmacologyLow doses of alpha(2)-adrenoceptor antagonists augment spinal morphine analgesia and inhibit development of acute and chronic toleranceBritish Journal of Pharmacology
Journal of NeuroscienceCa2+/Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase II alpha Is Required for the Initiation and Maintenance of Opioid-Induced HyperalgesiaJournal of Neuroscience
Journal of NeuroscienceControl of chronic pain by the ubiquitin-proteasome system in the spinal cordJournal of Neuroscience
General Hospital PsychiatryPharmacotherapy of chronic pain: a synthesis of recommendations from systematic reviewsGeneral Hospital Psychiatry
Clinica Veterinaria De Pequenos Animales
Preoperative morphine improves postoperative analgesia compared to intraoperative administration in the ovariohysterectomized bitch
Clinica Veterinaria De Pequenos Animales, 29(2):
Current Drug Targets
Clinical Uses of Low-Dose Ketamine in Patients Undergoing Surgery
Current Drug Targets, 10(8):
Opioids, Pain, the Brain, and Hyperkatifeia: A Framework for the Rational Use of Opioids for Pain
Pain Medicine, 11(7):
Medical and nonmedical use of prescription opioids: Epidemiology and prevalence
Psychiatric Annals, 36(6):
Annales Francaises D Anesthesie Et De ReanimationKetamine for paediatric anaesthesia: useful, fool or... ?Annales Francaises D Anesthesie Et De Reanimation
Behavioural Brain ResearchDelayed aversive effects of high-dose fentanyl prevention by a polyamine-deficient dietBehavioural Brain Research
SchmerzNew substances and applications for postoperative pain therapySchmerz
PainPolyamine deficient diet to relieve pain hypersensitivityPain
Anesthesia and AnalgesiaNon-Opioid Anesthesia with Esmolol Avoids Opioid-Induced Hyperalgesia and Reduces Fentanyl Requirement After LaparoscopyAnesthesia and Analgesia
Annales Francaises D Anesthesie Et De ReanimationManagement of transdermal therapeutics in perioperative careAnnales Francaises D Anesthesie Et De Reanimation
Mayo Clinic Proceedings
A Comparison of Long- and Short-Acting Opioids for the Treatment of Chronic Noncancer Pain: Tailoring Therapy to Meet Patient Needs
Mayo Clinic Proceedings, 84(7):
Polskie Archiwum Medycyny Wewnetrznej-Polish Archives of Internal Medicine
2009 Clinical Guidelines from the American Pain Society and the American Academy of Pain Medicine on the use of chronic opioid therapy in chronic noncancer pain What are the key messages for clinical practice?
Polskie Archiwum Medycyny Wewnetrznej-Polish Archives of Internal Medicine, 119():
British Journal of AnaesthesiaOpioid-induced hyperalgesia: a clinical challengeBritish Journal of Anaesthesia
Deutsche Medizinische WochenschriftDrug safety problems in association with the use of opioid containing patches for the management of painDeutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift
Journal of Pain and Symptom ManagementFentanyl-induced neurotoxicity and paradoxic painJournal of Pain and Symptom Management
PainAltered quantitative sensory testing outcome in subjects with opioid therapyPain
Pain MedicineAcute and Persistent Postoperative Pain after Breast SurgeryPain Medicine
Behavioural Brain ResearchThe beta 2 adrenergic receptor regulates morphine tolerance and physical dependenceBehavioural Brain Research
Spine JournalEvidence-informed management of chronic low back pain with opioid analgesicsSpine Journal
Addiction BiologyLack of effect of chronic dextromethorphan on experimental pain tolerance in methadone-maintained patientsAddiction Biology
European Journal of PainAntinociceptive effects of high dose remifentanil in male methadone-maintained patientsEuropean Journal of Pain
Brain Research ReviewsPeripheral mechanisms of pain and analgesiaBrain Research Reviews
Pain MedicineDo Opioids Induce Hyperalgesia in Humans? An Evidence-Based Structured ReviewPain Medicine
Pharmacogenetics and Genomics
Genetic variants of the P-glycoprotein gene Abcb1b modulate opioid-induced hyperalgesia, tolerance and dependence
Pharmacogenetics and Genomics, 16():
Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica
Does chronic opioid management change pain processing?
Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica, 51():
NeuropsychopharmacologyNon-nociceptive environmental stress induces hyperalgesia, not analgesia, in pain and opioid-experienced ratsNeuropsychopharmacology
European Journal of Pain
Medical use of opioids: what drives the debate? A brief commentary
European Journal of Pain, ():
Medicina ClinicaHyperalgesia in patients treated with opioids with cancer painMedicina Clinica
British Journal of AnaesthesiaOpioid-induced hyperalgesia in a mice model of orthopaedic pain: preventive effect of ketamineBritish Journal of Anaesthesia
Annals of OncologyManagement of cancer pain: ESMO Clinical Practice GuidelinesAnnals of Oncology
PainOpioid dependence and addiction during opioid treatment of chronic painPain
Journal of PainOxycodone plus ultra-low-dose naltrexone attenuates neuropathic pain and associated mu-opioid receptor-G(s) couplingJournal of Pain
The Clinical Journal of PainOpioid-induced Hyperalgesia in Humans: Molecular Mechanisms and Clinical ConsiderationsThe Clinical Journal of Pain
European Journal of Anaesthesiology (EJA)No hyperalgesia following opioid withdrawal after the oripavine derivative etorphine compared to remifentanil and sufentanilEuropean Journal of Anaesthesiology (EJA)
Journal of Trauma and Acute Care SurgeryDifferences in Prescription of Narcotic Pain Medication Between Hospitals in Different CountriesJournal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
AnesthesiologyPreemptive Antihyperalgesia to Improve Preemptive AnalgesiaAnesthesiology
The Clinical Journal of PainEfficacy of Opioids for Chronic Pain: A Review of the EvidenceThe Clinical Journal of Pain
The Clinical Journal of PainPredicting Opioid Misuse by Chronic Pain Patients: A Systematic Review and Literature SynthesisThe Clinical Journal of Pain
The Clinical Journal of PainIndividual Differences in Opioid Efficacy for Chronic Noncancer PainThe Clinical Journal of Pain
Current Opinion in AnesthesiologySomething new about ketamine for pediatric anesthesia?Current Opinion in Anesthesiology
Current Opinion in Organ TransplantationIslet autotransplantation to prevent or minimize diabetes after pancreatectomyCurrent Opinion in Organ Transplantation
Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and NutritionOutcome After Pancreatectomy and Islet Autotransplantation in a Pediatric PopulationJournal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
Pharmacogenetics and GenomicsFrom mouse to man: the 5-HT3 receptor modulates physical dependence on opioid narcoticsPharmacogenetics and Genomics
© 2006 American Society of Anesthesiologists, Inc.
Publication of an advertisement in Anesthesiology Online does not constitute endorsement by the American Society of Anesthesiologists, Inc. or Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc. of the product or service being advertised.