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Practice Guidelines for Management of the Difficult Airway: An Updated Report by the American Society of Anesthesiologists Task Force on Management of the Difficult Airway

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PRACTICE guidelines are systematically developed recommendations that assist the practitioner and patient in making decisions about health care. These recommendations may be adopted, modified, or rejected according to clinical needs and constraints.
Practice guidelines are not intended as standards or absolute requirements. The use of practice guidelines cannot guarantee any specific outcome. Practice guidelines are subject to revision as warranted by the evolution of medical knowledge, technology, and practice. They provide basic recommendations that are supported by analysis of the current literature and by a synthesis of expert opinion, open forum commentary, and clinical feasibility data.
This revision includes data published since the “Practice Guidelines for Management of the Difficult Airway” were adopted by the American Society of Anesthesiologists in 1992; it also includes data and recommendations for a wider range of management techniques than was previously addressed.
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A. Definition

A standard definition of the difficult airway cannot be identified in the available literature. For these Guidelines, a difficult airway is defined as the clinical situation in which a conventionally trained anesthesiologist experiences difficulty with face mask ventilation of the upper airway, difficulty with tracheal intubation, or both.
The difficult airway represents a complex interaction between patient factors, the clinical setting, and the skills of the practitioner. Analysis of this interaction requires precise collection and communication of data. The Task Force urges clinicians and investigators to use explicit descriptions of the difficult airway. Descriptions that can be categorized or expressed as numerical values are particularly desirable, as this type of information lends itself to aggregate analysis and cross-study comparisons. Suggested descriptions include (but are not limited to):
1. Difficult face mask ventilation: (a) It is not possible for the anesthesiologist to provide adequate face mask ventilation due to one or more of the following problems: inadequate mask seal, excessive gas leak, or excessive resistance to the ingress or egress of gas. (b) Signs of inadequate face mask ventilation include (but are not limited to) absent or inadequate chest movement, absent or inadequate breath sounds, auscultatory signs of severe obstruction, cyanosis, gastric air entry or dilatation, decreasing or inadequate oxygen saturation (SpO2), absent or inadequate exhaled carbon dioxide, absent or inadequate spirometric measures of exhaled gas flow, and hemodynamic changes associated with hypoxemia or hypercarbia (e.g., hypertension, tachycardia, arrhythmia).
2. Difficult laryngoscopy: (a) It is not possible to visualize any portion of the vocal cords after multiple attempts at conventional laryngoscopy.
3. Difficult tracheal intubation: (a) Tracheal intubation requires multiple attempts, in the presence or absence of tracheal pathology.
4. Failed intubation: (a) Placement of the endotracheal tube fails after multiple intubation attempts.
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B. Purpose of the Guidelines for Difficult Airway Management

The purpose of these Guidelines is to facilitate the management of the difficult airway and to reduce the likelihood of adverse outcomes. The principal adverse outcomes associated with the difficult airway include (but are not limited to) death, brain injury, cardiopulmonary arrest, unnecessary tracheostomy, airway trauma, and damage to teeth.
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C. Focus

The primary focus of these Guidelines is the management of the difficult airway encountered during administration of anesthesia and tracheal intubation. Some aspects of the Guidelines may be relevant in other clinical contexts. The Guidelines do not represent an exhaustive consideration of all manifestations of the difficult airway or all possible approaches to management.
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D. Application

The Guidelines are intended for use by anesthesiologists and by individuals who deliver anesthetic care and airway management under the direct supervision of an anesthesiologist. The Guidelines apply to all types of anesthetic care and airway management delivered in anesthetizing locations and is intended for all patients of all ages.
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E. Task Force Members and Consultants

The American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) appointed a Task Force of 10 members to (1) review the published evidence, (2) obtain the opinions of anesthesiologists selected by the Task Force as consultants, and (3) build consensus within the community of practitioners likely to be affected by the Guidelines. The Task Force included anesthesiologists in both private and academic practices from various geographic areas of the United States and consulting methodologists from the ASA Committee on Practice Parameters.
These Practice Guidelines update and revise the 1993 publication of the ASA “Guidelines for Management of the Difficult Airway.”* The Task Force revised and updated the Guidelines by means of a five-step process. First, original published research studies relevant to the revision and update were reviewed and analyzed. Second, the panel of expert consultants was asked to (1) participate in a survey related to the effectiveness and safety of various methods and interventions that might be used during management of the difficult airway, and (2) review and comment on draft reports. Third, the Task Force held an open forum at a major national anesthesia meeting to solicit input from attendees on a draft of the Guidelines. Fourth, the consultants were surveyed to assess their opinions on the feasibility and financial implications of implementing the Guidelines. Finally, all of the available information was used by the Task Force to finalize the Guidelines.
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F. Availability and Strength of Evidence

Evidence-based guidelines are developed by a rigorous analytic process (Appendix). To assist the reader, these Guidelines make use of several descriptive terms that are easier to understand than the technical terms and data that are used in the actual analyses. These descriptive terms are defined below.
The following terms describe the strength of scientific data obtained from the scientific literature.
Supportive: There is sufficient quantitative information from adequately designed studies to describe a statistically significant relationship (P < 0.01) between a clinical intervention and a clinical outcome, using meta-analysis.
Suggestive: There is enough information from case reports and descriptive studies to provide a directional assessment of the relationship between a clinical intervention and a clinical outcome. This type of qualitative information does not permit a statistical assessment of significance.
Equivocal: Qualitative data have not provided a clear direction for clinical outcomes related to a clinical intervention, and (1) there is insufficient quantitative information, or (2) aggregated comparative studies have found no quantitatively significant differences among groups or conditions.
The following terms describe the lack of available scientific evidence in the literature.
Inconclusive: Published studies are available, but they cannot be used to assess the relationship between a clinical intervention and a clinical outcome because the studies either do not meet predefined criteria for content, as defined in the “Focus” of these Guidelines, or do not provide a clear causal interpretation of findings because of research design or analytic concerns.
Insufficient: There are too few published studies to investigate a relationship between a clinical intervention and clinical outcome.
Silent: No studies that address a relationship of interest were found in the available published literature.
The following terms describe survey responses from the consultants for any specified issue.
Responses are assigned a numeric value of agree = +1, undecided = 0, or disagree = −1. The average weighted response represents the mean value for each survey item.
Agree: The average weighted response must be equal to or greater than +0.30 (on a scale of −1 to 1) to indicate agreement.
Equivocal: The average weighted response must be between −0.30 and +0.30 (on a scale of −1 to 1) to indicate an equivocal response.
Disagree: The average weighted response must be equal to or less than −0.30 (on a scale of −1 to 1) to indicate disagreement.
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Guidelines

I. Evaluation of the Airway
1. History.
There is insufficient published evidence to evaluate the effect of a bedside medical history on predicting the presence of a difficult airway. Similarly, there is insufficient evidence to evaluate the effect of reviewing prior medical records on predicting the presence of a difficult airway. There is suggestive evidence that some features of a patient's medical history or prior medical records may be related to the likelihood of encountering a difficult airway. This support is based on recognized associations between a difficult airway and a variety of congenital, acquired, or traumatic disease states. In addition, the Task Force believes that the description of a difficult airway on a previous anesthesia record or anesthesia document offers clinically suggestive evidence that difficulty may recur. The consultants and Task Force agree that a focused bedside medical history and a focused review of medical records may improve the detection of a difficult airway.
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Recommendations.
An airway history should be conducted, whenever feasible, prior to the initiation of anesthetic care and airway management in all patients. The intent of the airway history is to detect medical, surgical, and anesthetic factors that may indicate the presence of a difficult airway. Examination of previous anesthetic records, if available in a timely manner, may yield useful information about airway management.
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II. Physical Examination
In patients with no gross upper airway pathology or anatomical anomaly, there is insufficient published evidence to evaluate the effect of a physical examination on predicting the presence of a difficult airway. However, there are suggestive data that findings obtained from an airway physical examination may be related to the presence of a difficult airway. This support is based on recognized associations between the difficult airway and a variety of airway characteristics. The consultants and Task Force agree that an airway physical examination may improve the detection of a difficult airway.
Specific features of the airway physical examination have been incorporated into rating systems intended to predict the likelihood of a difficult airway. Existing rating systems have been shown to exhibit modest sensitivity and specificity. The specific effect of the airway physical examination on outcome has not been clearly defined in the literature.
There is insufficient published evidence to evaluate the predictive value of single features of the airway physical examination versus multiple features in predicting the presence of a difficult airway. The consultants and Task Force agree that prediction of a difficult airway may be improved by the assessment of multiple features. The Task Force does not regard any rating system as fail-safe.
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Recommendations.
Table 1
Table 1
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An airway physical examination should be conducted, whenever feasible, prior to the initiation of anesthetic care and airway management in all patients. The intent of this examination is to detect physical characteristics that may indicate the presence of a difficult airway. Multiple airway features should be assessed (table 1).
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III. Additional Evaluation
The airway history or physical examination may provide indications for additional diagnostic testing in some patients. The literature suggests that certain diagnostic tests may identify features associated with a difficult airway. The literature does not provide a basis for using specific diagnostic tests as routine screening tools in the evaluation of the difficult airway.
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Recommendations.
Additional evaluation may be indicated in some patients to characterize the likelihood or nature of the anticipated airway difficulty. The findings of the airway history and physical examination may be useful in guiding the selection of specific diagnostic tests and consultation.
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IV. Basic Preparation for Difficult Airway Management
The literature is silent regarding the benefits of informing the patient of a known or suspected difficult airway, the availability of equipment for difficult airway management, or the availability of an individual to provide assistance when a difficult airway is encountered. However, there is strong agreement among consultants that preparatory efforts enhance success and minimize risk.
The literature suggests that either traditional preoxygenation (3 or more minutes of tidal volume ventilation) or fast-track preoxygenation (i.e., four maximal breaths in 30 s) is effective in delaying arterial desaturation during subsequent apnea. The literature supports the greater efficacy of traditional preoxygenation when compared to fast-track preoxygenation in delaying arterial desaturation during apnea.
The literature supports the efficacy of supplemental oxygen in reducing hypoxemia after extubation of the trachea.
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Recommendations.
Table 2
Table 2
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At least one portable storage unit that contains specialized equipment for difficult airway management should be readily available. Specialized equipment suggested by the Task Force is listed in table 2.
If a difficult airway is known or suspected, the anesthesiologist should
1. Inform the patient (or responsible person) of the special risks and procedures pertaining to management of the difficult airway.
2. Ascertain that there is at least one additional individual who is immediately available to serve as an assistant in difficult airway management.
3. Administer face mask preoxygenation before initiating management of the difficult airway. The uncooperative or pediatric patient may impede opportunities for preoxygenation.
4. Actively pursue opportunities to deliver supplemental oxygen throughout the process of difficult airway management. Opportunities for supplemental oxygen administration include (but are not limited to) oxygen delivery by nasal cannulae, face mask, laryngeal mask airway (LMA), insufflation, or jet ventilation during intubation attempts; and oxygen delivery by face mask, blow-by, or nasal cannulae after extubation of the trachea.
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V. Strategy for Intubation of the Difficult Airway
The literature suggests that the use of specific strategies facilitates the intubation of the difficult airway. Although the degree of benefit for any specific strategy cannot be determined from the literature, there is strong agreement among consultants that a preplanned strategy may lead to improved outcome.
Preplanned strategies can be linked together to form airway management algorithms. The Task Force considers the technical and physiologic complexity of life-threatening airway events to be sufficiently similar to life-threatening cardiac events to encourage the use of algorithms in difficult airway management.
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Recommendations.
Fig. 1
Fig. 1
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The anesthesiologist should have a preformulated strategy for intubation of the difficult airway. The algorithm shown in figure 1 is a strategy recommended by the Task Force. This strategy will depend, in part, on the anticipated surgery, the condition of the patient, and the skills and preferences of the anesthesiologist.
The strategy for intubation of the difficult airway should include
1. An assessment of the likelihood and anticipated clinical impact of four basic problems that may occur alone or in combination:
a. difficult ventilation
b. difficult intubation
c. difficulty with patient cooperation or consent
d. difficult tracheostomy
2. A consideration of the relative clinical merits and feasibility of three basic management choices: a. awake intubation versus intubation after induction of general anesthesia b. use of noninvasive techniques for the initial approach to intubation versus the use of invasive techniques (i.e., surgical or percutaneous tracheostomy or cricothyrotomy) c. preservation of spontaneous ventilation during intubation attempts versus ablation of spontaneous ventilation during intubation attempts
3. The identification of a primary or preferred approach to:
a. awake intubation
b. the patient who can be adequately ventilated but is difficult to intubate
c. the life-threatening situation in which the patient cannot be ventilated or intubated
4. The identification of alternative approaches that can be employed if the primary approach fails or is not feasible:
Table 3
Table 3
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a. Table 3 displays options for difficult airway management.
b. The uncooperative or pediatric patient may restrict the options for difficult airway management, particularly options that involve awake intubation. Airway management in the uncooperative or pediatric patient may require an approach (e.g., intubation attempts after induction of general anesthesia) that might not be regarded as a primary approach in a cooperative patient.
c. The conduct of surgery using local anesthetic infiltration or regional nerve blockade may provide an alternative to the direct management of the difficult airway, but this approach does not represent a definitive solution to the presence of a difficult airway, nor does it obviate the need for a preformulated strategy for intubation of the difficult airway.
5. The use of exhaled carbon dioxide to confirm tracheal intubation.
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VI. Strategy for Extubation of the Difficult Airway
The literature does not provide a sufficient basis for evaluating the benefits of an extubation strategy for the difficult airway. The Task Force regards the concept of an extubation strategy as a logical extension of the intubation strategy. Consultant opinion strongly supports the use of an extubation strategy.
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Recommendations.
The anesthesiologist should have a preformulated strategy for extubation of the difficult airway. This strategy will depend, in part, on the surgery, the condition of the patient, and the skills and preferences of the anesthesiologist.
The preformulated extubation strategy should include
1. A consideration of the relative merits of awake extubation versus extubation before the return of consciousness.
2. An evaluation for general clinical factors that may produce an adverse impact on ventilation after the patient has been extubated.
3. The formulation of an airway management plan that can be implemented if the patient is not able to maintain adequate ventilation after extubation.
4. A consideration of the short-term use of a device that can serve as a guide for expedited reintubation. This type of device is usually inserted through the lumen of the tracheal tube and into the trachea before the tracheal tube is removed. The device may be rigid to facilitate intubation and/or hollow to facilitate ventilation.
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VII. Follow-up Care
Although the literature is insufficient to evaluate the benefits of follow-up care, this activity is strongly supported by consultant opinion. The Task Force has identified several fundamental concepts that merit consideration.
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Recommendations.
The anesthesiologist should document the presence and nature of the airway difficulty in the medical record. The intent of this documentation is to guide and facilitate the delivery of future care. Aspects of documentation that may prove helpful include (but are not limited to)
1. A description of the airway difficulties that were encountered. The description should distinguish between difficulties encountered in face mask or LMA ventilation and difficulties encountered in tracheal intubation.
2. A description of the various airway management techniques that were employed. The description should indicate the extent to which each of the techniques served a beneficial or detrimental role in management of the difficult airway.
The anesthesiologist should inform the patient (or responsible person) of the airway difficulty that was encountered. The intent of this communication is to provide the patient (or responsible person) with a role in guiding and facilitating the delivery of future care. The information conveyed may include (but is not limited to) the presence of a difficult airway, the apparent reasons for difficulty, how the intubation was accomplished, and the implications for future care. Notification systems, such as a written report or letter to the patient, a written report in the medical chart, communication with the patient's surgeon or primary caregiver, a notification bracelet or equivalent identification device, or chart flags, may be considered.
The anesthesiologist should evaluate and follow up with the patient for potential complications of difficult airway management. These complications include (but are not limited to) edema, bleeding, tracheal and esophageal perforation, pneumothorax, and aspiration. The patient should be advised of the potential clinical signs and symptoms associated with life-threatening complications of difficult airway management. These signs and symptoms include (but are not limited to) sore throat, pain or swelling of the face and neck, chest pain, subcutaneous emphysema, and difficulty swallowing.
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FOOTNOTES

* Practice guidelines for the difficult airway: A report by the American Society of Anesthesiologists Task Force on Management of the Difficult Airway. Anesthesiology 1993; 78:597–602 Cited Here...
† Readers with special interest in the statistical analysis used in establishing these Guidelines can receive further information by writing to the American Society of Anesthesiologists: 520 North Northwest Highway, Park Ridge, Illinois 60068-2573. Cited Here...
‡ Meta-analytic data for nondifficult airway patients can be obtained by writing to the American Society of Anesthesiologists. Cited Here...
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Appendix: Methods and Analyses
The scientific assessment of these Guidelines was based on the following statements or evidence linkages. These linkages represent directional statements about relationships between clinical care and clinical outcome in difficult airway management.
I. 1. Evaluation of the airway: (a) A directed history detects a difficult airway and reduces airway-related adverse outcomes. (b) A directed airway physical examination detects a difficult airway and reduces airway-related adverse outcomes. (c) Diagnostic tests (e.g., radiography) detect a difficult airway and reduce airway-related adverse outcomes.
II. 2. Basic preparation for difficult airway management: (a) Informing the patient with a known or suspected difficult airway reduces airway-related adverse outcomes. (b) Availability of equipment for management of a difficult airway (i.e., a portable storage unit) reduces airway-related adverse outcomes. (c) Availability of an assigned individual to provide assistance when a difficult airway is encountered reduces airway-related adverse outcomes. (d) Preanesthetic preoxygenation by face mask before induction of anesthesia delays arterial desaturation and prevents hypoxemia during subsequent apnea.
III. 3. Strategies for intubation and ventilation:
IV. a. Awake intubation improves intubation success and reduces airway-related adverse outcomes.
V. b. Adequate face mask ventilation after induction:
VI. (1) Rigid laryngoscopic blades of alternative design or size improve intubation success and reduce airway-related adverse outcomes.
VII. (2) Fiberoptic guided intubation improves intubation success and reduces airway-related adverse outcomes.
VIII. (3) An intubating stylet, tube changer, or gum elastic bougie improves intubation success and reduces airway-related adverse outcomes.
IX. (4) A lighted stylet or light wand improves intubation success and reduces airway-related adverse outcomes.
X. (5) Retrograde intubation improves intubation success and reduces airway-related adverse outcomes.
XI. (c) The laryngeal mask airway:
XII. (1) The laryngeal mask airway improves ventilation and reduces airway-related adverse outcomes.
XIII. (2) The laryngeal mask airway versus face mask improves ventilation and reduces airway-related adverse outcomes.
XIV. (3) The laryngeal mask airway versus tracheal intubation results in equivalent ventilation and reduces perioperative airway-related outcomes.
XV. (4) The laryngeal mask airway versus oropharyngeal airway results in equivalent ventilation and reduces perioperative airway-related outcomes.
XVI. (5) The laryngeal mask airway as an intubation conduit reduces airway-related adverse outcomes.
XVII. (d) Inadequate face mask ventilation after induction—cannot intubate:
XVIII. (1) The laryngeal mask airway for emergency ventilation reduces airway-related adverse outcomes.
XIX. (2) A rigid bronchoscope for difficult airway management reduces airway-related adverse outcomes.
XX. (3) The esophageal tracheal Combitube (Kendall-Sheridan Catheter Corp., Argyle, NY) for difficult airway management reduces airway-related adverse outcomes.
XXI. (4) Transtracheal jet ventilation reduces airway-related adverse outcomes.
XXII. 4. Confirmatory tests of tracheal intubation: (a) Capnography or end-tidal carbon dioxide detection verifies tracheal intubation and leads to fewer adverse outcomes. (b) Other confirmatory tests (i.e., esophageal detectors or self-inflating bulbs) verify tracheal intubation and lead to fewer adverse outcomes. (c) Fiberoptic confirmation of tracheal intubation
XXIII. 5. Awake extubation: (a) Awake extubation reduces airway-related adverse outcomes.
XXIV. 6. Supplemental oxygen: (a) Supplemental oxygen delivery before induction by face mask or insufflation reduces airway-related adverse outcomes. (b) Supplemental oxygen delivery after extubation by face mask, blow-by, or nasal cannulae of the trachea reduces airway-related adverse outcomes.
XXV. 7. Follow-up care: (a) Postextubation care and counseling reduces adverse airway-related outcomes. (b) Documentation of a difficult airway and management reduces subsequent adverse airway-related outcomes. (c) Registration with an emergency notification service reduces subsequent adverse airway-related outcomes.
Scientific evidence was derived from aggregated research literature and from surveys, open presentations, and other consensus-oriented activities. For purposes of literature aggregation, potentially relevant clinical studies were identified via electronic and manual searches of the literature. The electronic search covered a 37-yr period, from 1966 through 2002. The manual search covered a 60-yr period, from 1943 through 2002. More than 3,000 citations were initially identified, yielding a total of 1,106 non-overlapping articles that addressed topics related to the 30 evidence linkages. After review of the articles, 538 studies did not provide direct evidence and were subsequently eliminated. A total of 569 articles contained direct linkage-related evidence. Of these, 255 articles either used or included subjects with difficult airways.
Table 4
Table 4
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A directional result for each study was initially determined by a literature count, classifying each outcome as either supporting a linkage, refuting a linkage, or neutral. The results were then summarized to obtain a directional assessment of support for each linkage, with the intent of conducting meta-analyses where appropriate. Summary statistics for selected outcomes commonly reported in the literature are shown in table 4. These descriptive statistics separate the reported outcome data for difficult and nondifficult airway subjects.
There was an insufficient number of acceptable studies to conduct a meta-analysis for the difficult airway. However, two evidence linkages contained studies pertinent to the Guidelines with sufficient statistical information to conduct formal meta-analyses. These two linkages were as follows: linkage 2 days (preanesthetic preoxygenation for 3 min vs. 4 maximal breaths) and linkage 6b (supplemental oxygen delivery by mask, blow-by, or nasal cannulae after extubation of the trachea).
Weighted mean effect sizes were determined for continuous outcome measures, and Mantel–Haenszel odds ratios were determined for dichotomous outcome measures. An acceptable significance level was set at P < 0.01 (one-tailed). Tests for heterogeneity of the independent studies were conducted to assure consistency among the study results. DerSimonian–Laird random-effects odds ratios were considered when significant heterogeneity was found. To control for potential publishing bias, a “fail-safe N” value was calculated. No search for unpublished studies was conducted, and no reliability tests for locating research results were performed. For time to desaturation, the weighted mean effect size was d = 1.57 (CI, 0.98–2.14) for linkage 2 days (preanesthetic preoxygenation for 3 min vs. 4 maximal breaths). For reduced frequency of hypoxemia, the fixed-effects odds ratio was 5.98 (CI, 3.16–11.31) for linkage 6b (supplemental oxygen delivery by mask, blow-by, or nasal cannulae after extubation of the trachea).
Interobserver agreement among Task Force members and two methodologists was established by interrater reliability testing. Agreement levels using a kappa (κ) statistic for two-rater agreement pairs were as follows: (1) type of study design, κ = 0.64–0.78; (2) type of analysis, κ = 0.78–0.85; (3) evidence linkage assignment, κ = 0.89–0.95; and (4) literature inclusion for database, κ = 0.62–1.00. Three-rater chance-corrected agreement values were as follows: (1) study design, Sav = 0.73, Var (Sav) = 0.008; (2) type of analysis, Sav = 0.80, Var (Sav) = 0.008; (3) linkage assignment, Sav = 0.93, Var (Sav) = 0.003; and (4) literature database inclusion, Sav = 0.80, Var (Sav) = 0.032. These values represent moderate to high levels of agreement.
The findings from the literature were supplemented by the opinions of Task Force members, as well as by surveys of the opinions of 50 anesthesiologists selected as consultants on the basis of their recognized interest in airway management. The κ statistic was used to obtain a quantitative measure of agreement among consultants. Consultants exhibited strong agreement (κ ≥ 0.75) on the potential beneficial effects of the following activities: conduct of the airway history and physical examination, advance preparation of the patient and equipment, formulation of strategies for intubation and extubation of the difficult airway, and provision of follow-up care. Cited Here...

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Acta Clinica Croatica
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Acta Clinica Croatica
Difficult Airway Management With Bonfils Fiberscope in Case of Emergency: Acute Abdomen With Ileus
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Acta Clinica Croatica
Extubation Strategy Following Difficult Intubation
Goranovic, T; Maldini, B; Markic, A; Milic, M; Skuric, J
Acta Clinica Croatica, 51(3): 499-503.

Acta Clinica Croatica
Management of the Difficult Airway
Novak-Jankovic, V
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Acta Clinica Croatica
Airway Management in the Intensive Care Unit
Noppens, RR
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Revista Brasileira De Anestesiologia
Balancing the Benefits and Risks: Lessons Learned from the Therapeutic Interventions of a Case with Severe Preeclampsia
Xu, SQ; Shen, XF; Wang, FZ
Revista Brasileira De Anestesiologia, 63(3): 290-295.

British Journal of Anaesthesia
Assessment of anaesthetists' ability to predict difficulty of bag-mask ventilation
Roberts, S; Cyna, AM; Walsh, JP; Davis, JS
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Canadian Journal of Anesthesia-Journal Canadien D Anesthesie
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Journal of Clinical Anesthesia
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Wiener Klinische Wochenschrift
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British Journal of Anaesthesia
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Ho, CM; Yin, IW; Tsou, KF; Chow, LH; Tsai, SK
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Anaesthesia
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Cooper, R
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Anesthesia and Analgesia
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Journal of Clinical Anesthesia
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Anaesthesia
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Emergency Medicine Journal
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Anaesthesia
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Minerva Anestesiologica
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Medical Science Monitor
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Anaesthesia
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Anaesthesia
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Emergency Medicine Clinics of North America
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Anaesthesia
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Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica
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Anesthesia and Analgesia
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Annals of Emergency Medicine
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Anaesthesia and Intensive Care
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New England Journal of Medicine
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Emergency Medicine Australasia
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Emergency Medicine Australasia
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Anesthesia and Analgesia
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Anaesthesia
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Anasthesiologie & Intensivmedizin
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Anesthesia and Analgesia
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Anesthesia and Analgesia
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Anesthesia and Analgesia
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Anaesthesist
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Anaesthesia
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Anesthesia and Analgesia
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Anesthesia and Analgesia
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Anesthesia and Analgesia
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Journal of Clinical Anesthesia
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Emergency Medicine Clinics of North America
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Anesthesia and Analgesia
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Anaesthesia and Intensive Care
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Anaesthesia and Intensive Care, 37(3): 435-440.

Group'07: Proceedings of the 2007 International Acm Conference on Supporting Group Work
The Potential Impact of 3D Telepresence Technology on Task Performance in Emergency Trauma Care
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Revista Da Associacao Medica Brasileira
Tracheal Intubation and the Patient With A Full Stomach
Moro, ET; Modolo, NSP
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Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica
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Canadian Journal of Anaesthesia-Journal Canadien D Anesthesie
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Journal of Clinical Anesthesia
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Emergency Medicine Clinics of North America
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Anaesthesia
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Anaesthesia
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Anaesthesist
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Anaesthesia
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Journal of Clinical Anesthesia
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Canadian Journal of Anaesthesia-Journal Canadien D Anesthesie
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Anaesthesia and Intensive Care
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Anaesthesia and Intensive Care
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Anaesthesia, Pain, Intensive Care and Emergency: A.P.I.C.E
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Anesthesia and Analgesia
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Journal of Clinical Anesthesia
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Anaesthesia
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Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica
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Canadian Journal of Anaesthesia-Journal Canadien D Anesthesie
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Anaesthesist
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Anaesthesia, Pain, Intensive Care and Emergency Medicine
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Anaesthesia and Intensive Care
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American Journal of Emergency Medicine
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Canadian Journal of Anaesthesia-Journal Canadien D Anesthesie
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Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica
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Anaesthesist
Out-of-hospital airway management in northern Germany. Physician-specific knowledge, procedures and equipment
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Anaesthesist, 56(4): 328-334.
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Canadian Journal of Anaesthesia-Journal Canadien D Anesthesie
Brief report: Tracheal intubation using the Bonfils intubation fibrescope or direct laryngoscopy for patients with a simulated difficult airway
Byhahn, C; Nemetz, S; Breitkxeutz, R; Zwissler, B; Kaufmann, M; Meininger, D
Canadian Journal of Anaesthesia-Journal Canadien D Anesthesie, 55(4): 232-237.

Journal of the Chinese Medical Association
Things we should know when designing simulator-based teaching in difficult airway management
Lui, PW
Journal of the Chinese Medical Association, 71(4): 163-165.

Emergency Medicine Clinics of North America
Capnography: A valuable Tool for Airway Management
Nagler, J; Krauss, B
Emergency Medicine Clinics of North America, 26(4): 881-+.
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Minerva Anestesiologica
Recommendations for airway control and difficult airway management in thoracic anesthesia and lung separation procedures
Merli, G; Guarino, A; Della Rocca, G; Frova, G; Petrini, F; Sorbello, M; Coccia, C
Minerva Anestesiologica, 75(): 59-78.

Anesthesia and Analgesia
Unsuspected temporomandibular joint pathology leading to a difficult endotracheal intubation
Small, RH; Ganzberg, SI; Schuster, AW
Anesthesia and Analgesia, 99(2): 383-385.

Anaesthesia
Difficult Airway Society Guidelines
Cook, TM
Anaesthesia, 59(): 1243-1245.

Anesthesia and Analgesia
The LMA is a critical rescue device in airway emergencies
Atkins, RF
Anesthesia and Analgesia, 101(6): 1888-1889.

International Journal of Obstetric Anesthesia
Acute airway obstruction in the puerperium secondary to massive thyroid enlargement
Okeke, CI; Merah, NA; Atoyebi, OA; Adesida, A
International Journal of Obstetric Anesthesia, 15(1): 79-84.
10.1016/j.ijoa.2005.06.013
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Canadian Journal of Anaesthesia-Journal Canadien D Anesthesie
Postoperative tracheal rupture in a patient with a difficult airway
MacDougall, PC
Canadian Journal of Anaesthesia-Journal Canadien D Anesthesie, 53(4): 385-388.

Anaesthesia
Training in airway management - Reply
Cook, TM
Anaesthesia, 62(2): 191-192.

Annales Francaises D Anesthesie Et De Reanimation
Difficult airway algorithms and management - Question 5
Langeron, O; Bourgain, JL; Laccoureye, O; Legras, A; Orliaguet, G
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Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica
Two-person capnography-cum-vision-guided endotracheal intubation in a case of laryngeal growth covering the glottic opening
Anand, R; Gupta, K; Kumar, R; Wadhawan, S
Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica, 52(4): 580-581.
10.1111/j.1399-6576.2007.01548.x
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Anesthesia and Analgesia
Increasing the likelihood of successful insertion of "Laser Tubes" in patients with a known difficult airway
Tarnal, V; Molyneux, M; Tremper, K
Anesthesia and Analgesia, 106(6): 1927-1928.
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Anaesthesia and Intensive Care
Fentanyl dose for the insertion of Classic (TM) Laryngeal Mask Airways in non-paralysed patients induced with propofol 2.5 mg/kg
Tan, ASB; Wang, CY
Anaesthesia and Intensive Care, 38(1): 65-69.

Critical Care
Clinical review: Post-extubation laryngeal edema and extubation failure in critically ill adult patients
Wittekamp, BHJ; van Mook, WNKA; Tjan, DHT; Zwaveling, JH; Bergmans, DCJJ
Critical Care, 13(6): -.
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Emergency Medicine Clinics of North America
High-Risk Chief Complaints II: Disorders of the Head and Neck
Nentwich, L; Ulrich, AS
Emergency Medicine Clinics of North America, 27(4): 713-+.
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British Journal of Anaesthesia
Relationship of inspiratory and expiratory times to upper airway resistance during pulsatile needle cricothyrotomy ventilation with generic delivery circuit
Lim, MW; Benham, SW
British Journal of Anaesthesia, 104(1): 98-107.
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Canadian Journal of Anaesthesia-Journal Canadien D Anesthesie
Incomplete adherence to the ASA difficult airway algorithm is unchanged after a high-fidelity simulation session
Borges, BCR; Boet, S; Siu, LW; Bruppacher, HR; Naik, VN; Riem, N; Joo, HS
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Canadian Journal of Anaesthesia-Journal Canadien D Anesthesie
Use of the LMA in an unusual "impossible to ventilate" situation
Overdyk, FJ; Noone, M; Wingfield, M
Canadian Journal of Anaesthesia-Journal Canadien D Anesthesie, 51(9): 949-950.

Journal of Clinical Anesthesia
Airway exchange catheter and laser endotracheal tube
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Anesthesia and Analgesia
Laryngeal mask airway and bougie intubation failures: The combitube as a secondary rescue device for in-hospital emergency airway management
Mort, TC
Anesthesia and Analgesia, 103(5): 1264-1266.
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International Journal of Clinical Practice
Aspiration syndromes: 10 clinical pearls every physician should know
Paintal, HS; Kuschner, WG
International Journal of Clinical Practice, 61(5): 846-852.
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Anaesthesist
Ventilation hazard caused by a soft ventilation bag
Gehling, M; Lusebrink, T; Heier, BL; Tryba, M
Anaesthesist, 57(8): 803-804.
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Signa Vitae
Transtracheal jet ventilation in a porcine model
McHugh, R; Kumar, M; Sprung, J
Signa Vitae, 3(1): 39-42.

Anesthesia and Analgesia
The Effectiveness of Noninvasive Positive Pressure Ventilation to Enhance Preoxygenation in Morbidly Obese Patients: A Randomized Controlled Study
Delay, JM; Sebbane, M; Jung, B; Noccal, D; Verzilli, D; Pouzeratte, Y; El Kamel, M; Fabre, JM; Eledjam, JJ; Jaber, S
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Resuscitation
A 12-month audit of laryngeal mask airway (LMA) use in a South Australian ambulance service
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Anaesthesia and Intensive Care
Video and optic laryngoscopy assisted tracheal intubation - the new era
Thong, SY; Lim, Y
Anaesthesia and Intensive Care, 37(2): 219-233.

Anaesthesia
The formulation and introduction of a 'can't intubate, can't ventilate' algorithm into clinical practice
Heard, AMB; Green, RJ; Eakins, P
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Military Medicine
The combitube, self-inflating bulb, and colorimetric carbon dioxide detector to advance airway management in the first echelon of the battlefield
Rich, JM; Thierbach, A; Frass, M
Military Medicine, 171(5): 389-395.

Laryngo-Rhino-Otologie
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Respiratory Care
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Wratney, AT; Cheifetz, IM
Respiratory Care, 52(1): 81-93.

New England Journal of Medicine
Video on orotracheal intubation
Kheterpal, S; Mashour, GA
New England Journal of Medicine, 357(6): 619-620.

Anaesthesia
Evaluation of clinical effectiveness of the Frova single-use tracheal tube introducer
Hodzovic, I; Wilkes, AR; Stacey, M; Latto, IP
Anaesthesia, 63(2): 189-194.
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Anaesthesist
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Anaesthesist, 57(8): 779-781.
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Texas Heart Institute Journal
Emergency percutaneous tracheostomy after unsuccessful orotracheal intubation
Kincade, RC; Cooper, JR
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Journal of Clinical Anesthesia
The airway approach algorithm: A decision tree for organizing preoperative airway information
Rosenblatt, WH
Journal of Clinical Anesthesia, 16(4): 312-316.
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British Medical Journal
Risks of general anaesthesia in people with obstructive sleep apnoea
den Herder, C; Schmeck, J; Appelboom, DJK; de Vries, N
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Pediatrics
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Canadian Journal of Anaesthesia-Journal Canadien D Anesthesie
The Proseal (TM) LMA is a useful rescue device during failed rapid sequence intubation: two additional cases
Cook, TM; Brooks, TS; Van der Westhuizen, J; Clarke, M
Canadian Journal of Anaesthesia-Journal Canadien D Anesthesie, 52(6): 630-633.

Canadian Journal of Anaesthesia-Journal Canadien D Anesthesie
Use of the Aintree intubation catheter (R) in a patient with an unexpected difficult airway
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Canadian Journal of Anaesthesia-Journal Canadien D Anesthesie, 52(6): 646-649.

Canadian Respiratory Journal
Directives of the Canadian Thoracology Society : Diagnosis and treatment of respiratory troubles in adult sleep
Fleetham, J; Ayas, N; Bradley, D; Ferguson, K; Fitzpatrick, M; George, C; Hanly, P; Hill, F; Kirnoff, J; Kryger, M; Morrison, D; Series, F; Tsai, W
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Journal of Anesthesia
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Anesthesia and Analgesia
PRO: Manometry Should Routinely Be Used During Central Venous Catheterization
Leibowitz, AB; Rozner, MA
Anesthesia and Analgesia, 109(1): 3-5.
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Anaesthesia and Intensive Care
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Gibbs, NM
Anaesthesia and Intensive Care, 37(4): 523-524.

Emergency Medicine Clinics of North America
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Vissers, RJ; Gibbs, MA
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Journal of Clinical Anesthesia
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Journal of Laryngology and Otology
Failed tracheostomy under local anaesthesia ... plan B?
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European Journal of Anaesthesiology
Securing the airway of a 'super sized' patient: another use for the Aintree Catheter (R)
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European Journal of Anaesthesiology, 23(): 1064-1066.

Medical Clinics of North America
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Minerva Anestesiologica
The unanticipated difficult intubation. Rigid or flexible endoscope?
Rudolph, C; Henn-Beilharz, A; Gottschall, R; Wallenborn, J; Schaffranietz, L
Minerva Anestesiologica, 73(): 567-574.

Anaesthesia
Randomised crossover comparison of the Ambu (R) AuraOnce (TM) Laryngeal Mask with the LMA Classic (TM) laryngeal mask airway in paralysed anaesthetised patients
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New England Journal of Medicine
A girl with an advanced neck contracture after a burn - Dermal scarring with severe contractures of the neck and face after a burn injury
Sheridan, RL; Ryan, DP; Fuzaylov, G; Nimkin, K; Martyn, JAJ
New England Journal of Medicine, 358(7): 729-735.

Anasthesiologie Intensivmedizin Notfallmedizin Schmerztherapie
The difficult airway. Anesthetic Care of Children
Laschat, M; Kaufmann, J; Wappler, F
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Orl-Journal for Oto-Rhino-Laryngology and Its Related Specialties
Laryngeal Mask Airway in Laryngoscopies: A Safer Alternative for the Difficult Airway
Hashmi, NK; Mandel, JE; Mirza, N
Orl-Journal for Oto-Rhino-Laryngology and Its Related Specialties, 71(6): 342-346.
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British Journal of Anaesthesia
Teaching airway management to novices: a simulator manikin study comparing the 'sniffing position' and 'win with the chin' analogies
Brindley, PG; Simmonds, MR; Needham, CJ; Simmonds, KA
British Journal of Anaesthesia, 104(4): 496-500.
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Anesthesia and Analgesia
A Comparison of Four Techniques of Emergency Transcricoid Oxygenation in a Manikin
Salah, N; Mhuircheartaigh, RN; Hayes, N; McCaul, C
Anesthesia and Analgesia, 110(4): 1083-1085.
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Surgical Clinics of North America
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Hassan, ZU; Fahy, BG
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Canadian Journal of Anaesthesia-Journal Canadien D Anesthesie
Advances in airway management
Hung, O; Law, JA
Canadian Journal of Anaesthesia-Journal Canadien D Anesthesie, 53(6): 628-631.

Emergency Medicine Clinics of North America
Challenges and Advances in Intubation: Rapid Sequence Intubation
Mace, SE
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Canadian Journal of Anaesthesia-Journal Canadien D Anesthesie
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Boet, S; Naik, VN; Diemunsch, PA
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Journal of Anesthesia
Management of difficult airway in pediatric patients with right ventricular outflow tract obstruction
Yuki, K; Casta, A
Journal of Anesthesia, 23(2): 281-283.
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Resuscitation
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American Journal of Emergency Medicine
Determination of difficult intubation in the ED
Soyuncu, S; Eken, C; Cete, Y; Bektas, F; Akcimen, M
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Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
Management of a Difficult Airway With Direct Ventilation Through Nasal Airway Without Facemask
Williams, WB; Jiang, YD
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Anaesthesia
Evaluation of the Airtraq (R) and Macintosh laryngoscopes in patients at increased risk for difficult tracheal intubation
Maharaj, CH; Costello, JF; Harte, BH; Laffey, JG
Anaesthesia, 63(2): 182-188.
10.1111/j.1365-2044.2007.05316.x
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Canadian Journal of Anaesthesia-Journal Canadien D Anesthesie
Brief review: The Cobra Perilaryngeal Airway (CobraPLA (R)) and the Streamlined Liner of Pharyngeal Airway (SLIPA (TM)) supraglottic airways
Hooshangi, H; Wong, DT
Canadian Journal of Anaesthesia-Journal Canadien D Anesthesie, 55(3): 177-185.

Notfall & Rettungsmedizin
Airway management of the emergency patient
Thierbach, A; Piepho, T; Kreimeier, U
Notfall & Rettungsmedizin, 10(7): 469-+.
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Anaesthesia
Lightwand guided intubation in paediatric patients with a known difficult airway: a report of four cases
Xue, FS; Yang, QY; Liao, X; He, N; Liu, HP
Anaesthesia, 63(5): 520-525.
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Anaesthesist
Aspiration syndrome - Epidemiology, pathophysiology, and therapy
Bartusch, O; Finkl, M; Jaschinski, U
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Anesthesia and Analgesia
Teaching Lifesaving Procedures: The Impact of Model Fidelity on Acquisition and Transfer of Cricothyrotomy Skills to Performance on Cadavers
Friedman, Z; You-Ten, KE; Bould, MD; Naik, V
Anesthesia and Analgesia, 107(5): 1663-1669.
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Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica
Use of a new intubating laryngeal mask - CTrach (TM) - in patients with known difficult airways
Bjerkelund, CE
Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica, 50(3): 388.
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Anesthesia and Analgesia
Unanticipated difficult endotracheal intubations in patients with cervical spine instrumentation
Schoenhage, KO; Koenig, HM
Anesthesia and Analgesia, 102(3): 960-963.
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Anesthesia and Analgesia
Cricoid pressure impedes insertion of, and ventilation through, the ProSeal laryngeal mask airway in anesthetized, paralyzed patients
Li, CW; Xue, FS; Xu, YC; Liu, Y; Mao, P; Liu, KP; Yang, QY; Zhang, GH; Sun, HT
Anesthesia and Analgesia, 104(5): 1195-1198.
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Anaesthesia
A comparison of the Truview((R)) blade with the Macintosh blade in adult patients
Barak, M; Philipchuck, P; Abecassis, P; Katz, Y
Anaesthesia, 62(8): 827-831.
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Anesthesia and Analgesia
Staged extubatloon strategy: Is an airway exchange cathetew the answer?
Biro, P; Priebe, HJ
Anesthesia and Analgesia, 105(5): 1182-1185.
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Anesthesia and Analgesia
Continuous airway access for the difficult extubation: The efficacy of the airway exchange catheter
Mort, TC
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Pediatric Anesthesia
Emergency jet ventilation in children
Bolton, P
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Anesthesia and Analgesia
Airway Management in Patients Who Develop Neck Hematomas After Carotid Endarterectomy
Shakespeare, WA; Lanier, WL; Perkins, WJ; Pasternak, JJ
Anesthesia and Analgesia, 110(2): 588-593.
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Journal of Emergency Medicine
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Manthous, CA
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Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica
Residents lack knowledge and practical skills in handling the difficult airway
Rosenstock, C; Ostergaard, D; Kristensen, MS; Lippert, A; Ruhnau, B; Rasmussen, LS
Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica, 48(8): 1014-1018.
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Obesity Research
Best practice recommendations for anesthetic perioperative care and pain management in weight loss surgery
Schumann, R; Jones, SB; Ortiz, VE; Connor, K; Pulai, I; Ozawa, ET; Harvey, AM; Carr, DB
Obesity Research, 13(2): 254-266.

Canadian Journal of Anaesthesia-Journal Canadien D Anesthesie
"The critical airway"
Matioc, AA
Canadian Journal of Anaesthesia-Journal Canadien D Anesthesie, 52(9): 993-995.

Journal of Surgical Education
Nonsurgical airway management training for surgeons
Silverman, E; Dunkin, BJ; Todd, SR; Turner, K; Fahy, BN; Sukumaran, A; Hagberg, C; Bass, B
Journal of Surgical Education, 65(2): 101-108.
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Pediatric Anesthesia
Modified Trachlight (TM) for management of difficult pediatric airway
Sharma, R; Kumar, R; Kumar, S
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Canadian Journal of Anaesthesia-Journal Canadien D Anesthesie
Combitube((TM)) rescue for Cesarean delivery followed by ninth and twelfth cranial nerve dysfunction
Zamora, JE; Saha, TK
Canadian Journal of Anaesthesia-Journal Canadien D Anesthesie, 55(): 779-784.

Resuscitation
Emergency cricothyrotomy-A comparative study of different techniques in human cadavers
Schober, P; Hegemann, MC; Schwarte, LA; Loer, SA; Noetges, P
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Journal of Emergency Medicine
Prehospital Management of the Difficult Airway: A Prospective Cohort Study
Warner, KJ; Sharar, SR; Copass, MK; Bulger, EM
Journal of Emergency Medicine, 36(3): 257-265.
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Anaesthesia
Tracheal intubation and alternative airway management devices used by healthcare professionals with different level of pre-existing skills: a manikin study
Wahlen, BM; Roewer, N; Lange, M; Kranke, P
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Canadian Journal of Anaesthesia-Journal Canadien D Anesthesie
Endotracheal intubation through a laryngeal mask/supraglottic airway - Reply
Turkstra, TP; Pellerin, HG
Canadian Journal of Anaesthesia-Journal Canadien D Anesthesie, 54(6): 491.

Anaesthesia
The use of propofol and remifentanil for the anaesthetic management of a super-obese patient
La Colla, L; La Colla, G; Albertin, A; Poli, D; Preis, FWB; Mangano, A
Anaesthesia, 62(8): 842-845.
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Anaesthesia
Comparison of cricothyroidotomy on manikin vs. simulator: a randomised cross-over study
John, B; Suri, I; Hillermann, C; Mendonca, C
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Pediatric Anesthesia
Percutaneous transtracheal emergency ventilation with a self-made device in an animal model
Schaefer, R; Hueter, L; Preussler, NP; Schreiber, T; Schwarzkopf, K
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Respiratory Care
Airway management during a mass casualty event
Talmor, D
Respiratory Care, 53(2): 226-231.

Anesthesia and Analgesia
Poor visualization during direct laryngoscopy and high upper lip bite test score are predictors of difficult intubation with the GlideScope (R) videolaryngoscope
Tremblay, MH; Williams, S; Robitaille, A; Drolet, P
Anesthesia and Analgesia, 106(5): 1495-1500.
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American Journal of Emergency Medicine
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Chest
Airway management of the critically ill patient - Rapid-sequence intubation
Reynolds, SF; Heffner, J
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Journal of Clinical Anesthesia
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Heringlake, M; Ocker, H
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Journal of Clinical Anesthesia
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Spine
Anterior cervical screw extrusion leading to acute upper airway obstruction - Case report
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Canadian Journal of Anaesthesia-Journal Canadien D Anesthesie
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Nimmagadda, U; Salem, MR; Joseph, NJ; Miko, I
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Clinics in Chest Medicine
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Minerva Anestesiologica
Training resident anesthesiologists in adult challenging intubation comparing Truview EVO2 (TM) and Macintosh laryngoscope: a preliminary study
Carlino, C; Pastore, JC; Battistini, GM; Cancellieri, F; De Caria, D; Ruggieri, N; Bordone, G; Bellato, V
Minerva Anestesiologica, 75(): 563-567.

Anesthesia and Analgesia
Context-Sensitive Airway Management
Hung, O; Murphy, M
Anesthesia and Analgesia, 110(4): 982-983.
10.1213/ANE.0b013e3181d48bbb
CrossRef
Anesthesia and Analgesia
Rigid bronchoscope-assisted endotracheal intubation: Yet another use of the gum elastic bougie
Nekhendzy, V; Simmonds, PK
Anesthesia and Analgesia, 98(2): 545-547.
10.1213/01.ANE.0000097184.55842.C2
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Anesthesia and Analgesia
Radiologic-assisted endotracheal intubation
Reier, CE; Reier, AR
Anesthesia and Analgesia, 98(5): 1496-1498.
10.1213/01.ANE.0000114074.15577.88
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Anaesthesia
Comparison of fibreoptic-guided orotracheal intubation through classic and single-use laryngeal mask airways
Danha, RF; Thompson, JL; Popat, MT; Pandit, JJ
Anaesthesia, 60(2): 184-188.

Canadian Journal of Anaesthesia-Journal Canadien D Anesthesie
Neck auscultation: a simple new method for confirming tracheal intubation
Christodoulou, C
Canadian Journal of Anaesthesia-Journal Canadien D Anesthesie, 54(): 854-855.

Anaesthesia and Intensive Care
Comparison of airway management during anaesthesia using the laryngeal mask airway CTrach (TM) and Glidescope (TM)
Ng, SY; Ithnin, F; Lim, Y
Anaesthesia and Intensive Care, 35(5): 736-742.

Journal of Anesthesia
Direct laryngoscopy and endotracheal intubation in the prone position following traumatic thoracic spine injury
van Zundert, A; Kuczkowski, KM; Tijssen, F; Weber, E
Journal of Anesthesia, 22(2): 170-172.
10.1007/s00540-007-0596-9
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Pediatric Anesthesia
Pediatric transtracheal and cricothyrotomy airway devices for emergency use: which are appropriate for infants and children?
Cote, CJ; Hartnick, CJ
Pediatric Anesthesia, 19(): 66-76.
10.1111/j.1460-9592.2009.02996.x
CrossRef
Anesthesia and Analgesia
Effective Communication of Difficult Airway Management to Subsequent Anesthesia Providers
Schaeuble, JC; Caldwell, JE
Anesthesia and Analgesia, 109(2): 684-686.
10.1213/ane.0b013e3181abc915
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Anesthesia and Analgesia
The Success of Emergency Endotracheal Intubation in Trauma Patients: A 10-Year Experience at a Major Adult Trauma Referral Center
Stephens, CT; Kahntroff, S; Dutton, RP
Anesthesia and Analgesia, 109(3): 866-872.
10.1213/ane.0b013e3181ad87b0
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Anaesthesist
Simulation and airway management
Timmermann, A; Eich, C; Nickel, E; Russo, S; Barwing, J; Heuer, JF; Braun, U
Anaesthesist, 54(6): 582-587.
10.1007/s00101-005-0842-1
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Emergency Medicine Journal
Potential cervical spine injury and difficult airway management for emergency intubation of trauma adults in the emergency department - a systematic review
Ollerton, JE; Parr, MJA; Harrison, K; Hanrahan, B; Sugrue, M
Emergency Medicine Journal, 23(1): 3-11.
10.1136/emj.2004.020552
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Anasthesiologie & Intensivmedizin
Airway management during dilatational tracheostomy
Grundling, M; Kuhn, SO; Pavlovic, D; Feyerherd, F; Wendt, M
Anasthesiologie & Intensivmedizin, 47(): 505-+.

Canadian Journal of Anaesthesia-Journal Canadien D Anesthesie
Endotracheal intubation through a laryngeal mask/supraglottic airway
Wong, DT; McGuire, GP
Canadian Journal of Anaesthesia-Journal Canadien D Anesthesie, 54(6): 489-491.

Anesthesia and Analgesia
A comparison of a new indicator-guided with a conventional wire-guided percutaneous cricothyroidotomy device in mannequins
Assmann, NM; Wong, DT; Morales, E
Anesthesia and Analgesia, 105(1): 148-154.
10.1213/01.ane.0000266439.43797.9e
CrossRef
Anaesthesist
Infrastructure of emergency medical services. Comparison of physician-staffed ambulance equipment in the state of Baden-Wuerttemberg in 2001 and 2005
Genzwurker, H; Lessing, P; Ellinger, K; Viergutz, T; Hinkelbein, J
Anaesthesist, 56(7): 665-672.
10.1007/s00101-007-1194-9
CrossRef
Anasthesiologie Intensivmedizin Notfallmedizin Schmerztherapie
Videolaryngoscope for endotracheal intubation New developments for the management of difficult respiratory tract
Wasem, S; Roewer, N; Lange, M
Anasthesiologie Intensivmedizin Notfallmedizin Schmerztherapie, 44(): 502-508.

Anesthesia and Analgesia
Need for Emergency Surgical Airway Reduced by a Comprehensive Difficult Airway Program
Berkow, LC; Greenberg, RS; Kan, KH; Colantuoni, E; Mark, LJ; Flint, PW; Corridore, M; Bhatti, N; Heitmiller, ES
Anesthesia and Analgesia, 109(6): 1860-1869.
10.1213/ane.0b013e3181b2531a
CrossRef
British Journal of Anaesthesia
Achieving an adequate minute volume through a 2 mm transtracheal catheter in simulated upper airway obstruction using a modified industrial ejector
Hamaekers, AEW; Gotz, T; Borg, PAJ; Enk, D
British Journal of Anaesthesia, 104(3): 382-386.
10.1093/bja/aep391
CrossRef
Minerva Anestesiologica
Successful emergent reintubation using the Aintree intubation catheter and a laryngeal mask airway
Farag, E; Bhandary, S; Deungria, M; Zura, A; Seif, J; Borkowski, R; Doyle, DJ
Minerva Anestesiologica, 76(2): 148-150.

Pediatric Anesthesia
A comparison of bonfils fiberscope-assisted laryngoscopy and standard direct laryngoscopy in simulated difficult pediatric intubation: a manikin study
Vlatten, A; Aucoin, S; Litz, S; MacManus, B; Soder, C
Pediatric Anesthesia, 20(6): 559-565.
10.1111/j.1460-9592.2010.03298.x
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Critical Care Clinics
Airway problems in pregnancy
Munnur, U; Suresh, MS
Critical Care Clinics, 20(4): 617-+.
10.1016/j.ccc.2004.05.011
CrossRef
Emergency Medicine Journal
Comparison of the GlideScope video laryngoscope and Macintosh laryngoscope in simulated tracheal intubation scenarios
Kim, HJ; Chung, SP; Park, IC; Cho, J; Lee, HS; Park, YS
Emergency Medicine Journal, 25(5): 279-282.
10.1136/emj.2007.052803
CrossRef
Journal of the Chinese Medical Association
Instructor-based real-time multimedia medical simulation to update concepts of difficult airway management for experienced airway practitioners
Chen, PT; Cheng, HW; Yen, CR; Yin, IW; Huang, YC; Wang, CC; Tsou, MY; Chang, WK; Yien, HW; Kuo, CD; Chan, KH
Journal of the Chinese Medical Association, 71(4): 174-179.

Canadian Journal of Anaesthesia-Journal Canadien D Anesthesie
Tracheal intubation using the Bonfils intubation fibrescope inpatients with a difficult airway
Liao, X; Xue, FS; Zhang, YM
Canadian Journal of Anaesthesia-Journal Canadien D Anesthesie, 55(9): 655-656.

Pediatric Anesthesia
Maxillary tumor in child improvization of airway assist device to aid intubation
Sharma, A
Pediatric Anesthesia, 18(): 1124-1126.
10.1111/j.1460-9592.2008.02623.x
CrossRef
Emergency Medicine Clinics of North America
Needle Cricothyrotomy
Mace, SE; Khan, N
Emergency Medicine Clinics of North America, 26(4): 1085-+.
10.1016/j.emc.2008.09.004
CrossRef
Anales Del Sistema Sanitario De Navarra
Airtraq (R) optical laryngoscopy
Castaneda, M; Batllori, M; Ayechu, MG; Iza, J; Unzue, P; Martin, MP
Anales Del Sistema Sanitario De Navarra, 32(1): 75-83.

Anaesthesia
A randomised, crossover study of the Dorges, McCoy and Macintosh laryngoscope blades in a simulated difficult intubation scenario
Sethuraman, D; Darshane, S; Guha, A; Charters, P
Anaesthesia, 61(5): 482-487.
10.1111/j.1365-2044.2006.04613.x
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Pediatric Anesthesia
Complete upper airway obstruction after induction of anesthesia in a child with undiagnosed lingual tonsil hypertrophy
Arrica, M; Crawford, MW
Pediatric Anesthesia, 16(5): 584-587.
10.1111/j.1460-9592.2005.01802.x
CrossRef
Anaesthesia
The LMA CTrach (TM) in airway resuscitation: six case reports
Goldman, AJ; Rosenblatt, WH
Anaesthesia, 61(): 975-977.
10.1111/j.1365-2044.2006.04787.x
CrossRef
Anaesthesia and Intensive Care
Comparison of the AMBU (R) Laryngeal Mask and the LMA Classic in anaesthetised, spontaneously breathing patients
Ng, SY; Teoh, WHL; Lim, Y; Cheong, VG
Anaesthesia and Intensive Care, 35(1): 57-61.

Resuscitation
Prehospital fiberoptic intubation
Gemes, G; Heydar-Fadai, J; Boessner, T; Wildner, G; Prause, G
Resuscitation, 76(3): 468-470.
10.1016/j.resuscitation.2007.08.013
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Canadian Medical Association Journal
Emergency battlefield cricothyrotomy
Macdonald, JC; Tien, MHCN
Canadian Medical Association Journal, 178(9): 1133-1135.
10.1503/cmaj.080036
CrossRef
International Journal of Obstetric Anesthesia
Dexmedetomidine for awake fiberoptic intubation in a parturient with spinal muscular atrophy type III for cesarean delivery
Neumann, MM; Davio, MB; Macknet, MR; Applegate, RL
International Journal of Obstetric Anesthesia, 18(4): 403-407.
10.1016/j.ijoa.2009.05.002
CrossRef
Canadian Journal of Anaesthesia-Journal Canadien D Anesthesie
The Fastrach (TM) Intubating Laryngeal Mask Airway (R): an overview and update
Gerstein, NS; Braude, DA; Hung, O; Sanders, JC; Murphy, MF
Canadian Journal of Anaesthesia-Journal Canadien D Anesthesie, 57(6): 588-601.
10.1007/s12630-010-9272-x
CrossRef
Canadian Journal of Anaesthesia-Journal Canadien D Anesthesie
The incidence of gastroesophageal reflux and tracheal aspiration detected with pH electrodes is similar with the laryngeal mask airway (R) and Esophageal Tracheal Combitube (R) - a pilot study
Hagberg, CA; Vartazarian, TN; Chelly, JE; Ovassapian, A
Canadian Journal of Anaesthesia-Journal Canadien D Anesthesie, 51(3): 243-249.

Annals of Emergency Medicine
Limitations of difficult airway prediction in patients intubated in the emergency department
Levitan, RM; Everett, WW; Ochroch, EA
Annals of Emergency Medicine, 44(4): 307-313.
10.1016/j.annemergmed.2004.05.006
CrossRef
Intensive Care Medicine
Online vs live methods for teaching difficult airway management to anesthesiology residents
Bello, G; Pennisi, MA; Maviglia, R; Maggiore, SM; Bocci, MG; Montini, L; Antonelli, M
Intensive Care Medicine, 31(4): 547-552.
10.1007/s00134-005-2561-0
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Pediatric Anesthesia
Anesthesia in a patient with chromosome 11;22 translocation: a case report and literature review
Drum, ET; Herlich, A; Levine, B; Mayhew, JF
Pediatric Anesthesia, 15(): 985-987.
10.1111/j.1460-9592.2004.01561.x
CrossRef
British Journal of Anaesthesia
Complications of awake fibreoptic intubation without sedation in 200 healthy anaesthetists attending a training course
Woodall, NM; Harwood, RJ; Barker, GL
British Journal of Anaesthesia, 100(6): 850-855.
10.1093/bja/aen076
CrossRef
Anaesthesist
Anesthesiological co-diagnosis aEurozdifficult intubation"
Brammen, D; Junger, A; Martmuller, M; Hachenberg, T
Anaesthesist, 57(): 1161-1166.
10.1007/s00101-008-1456-1
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British Journal of Anaesthesia
Expected difficult tracheal intubation: a prospective comparison of direct laryngoscopy and video laryngoscopy in 200 patients
Jungbauer, A; Schumann, M; Brunkhorst, V; Borgers, A; Groeben, H
British Journal of Anaesthesia, 102(4): 546-550.
10.1093/bja/aep013
CrossRef
Journal of Clinical Anesthesia
Predicting difficult airways using the intubation difficulty scale: a study comparing obese and non-obese patients
Lavi, R; Segal, D; Ziser, A
Journal of Clinical Anesthesia, 21(4): 264-267.
10.1016/j.jclinane.2008.08.021
CrossRef
British Journal of Anaesthesia
Avoidance of neuromuscular blocking agents may increase the risk of difficult tracheal intubation: a cohort study of 103 812 consecutive adult patients recorded in the Danish Anaesthesia Database
Lundstrom, LH; Moller, AM; Rosenstock, C; Astrup, G; Gatke, MR; Wetterslev, J
British Journal of Anaesthesia, 103(2): 283-290.
10.1093/bja/aep124
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Pediatrics
A Videolaryngoscopy Technique for the Intubation of the Newborn: Preliminary Report
Vanderhal, AL; Berci, G; Simmons, CF; Hagiike, M
Pediatrics, 124(2): E339-E346.
10.1542/peds.2008-3653
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Anaesthesia
A complication of transtracheal jet ventilation and use of the Aintree intubation catheter (R) during airway resuscitation
Cook, TM; Bigwood, B; Cranshaw, J
Anaesthesia, 61(7): 692-697.
10.1111/j.1365-2044.2006.04686.x
CrossRef
Anesthesia and Analgesia
Difficult intubation in thyroid surgery: Myth or reality?
Amathieu, R; Smail, N; Catineau, J; Poloujadoff, MP; Samii, K; Adnet, F
Anesthesia and Analgesia, 103(4): 965-968.
10.1213/01.ane.0000237305.02465.ee
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Canadian Journal of Anaesthesia-Journal Canadien D Anesthesie
Case report: Management of life-threatening oro-pharyngeal bleeding with recombinant factor VIIa
Riazi, S; Karkouti, K; Heggie, J
Canadian Journal of Anaesthesia-Journal Canadien D Anesthesie, 53(9): 881-884.

Canadian Journal of Anaesthesia-Journal Canadien D Anesthesie
Retrograde intubation with epidural catheter and Cook airway exchange catheter
Leissner, KB
Canadian Journal of Anaesthesia-Journal Canadien D Anesthesie, 54(5): 400-401.

Canadian Journal of Anaesthesia-Journal Canadien D Anesthesie
Fibreoptic airway training: correlation of simulator performance and clinical skill
Crabtree, NA; Chandra, DB; Weiss, ID; Joo, HS; Naik, VN
Canadian Journal of Anaesthesia-Journal Canadien D Anesthesie, 55(2): 100-104.

Pediatric Anesthesia
Undiagnosed cervical cystic hygroma as a cause of airway obstruction and difficult intubation in a child
Fernandez-Alcantud, J; Hortelano-Araque, A; Aranda-Romero, C; Reinoso-Barbero, F; Lahoz, AI; Rabanal, I
Pediatric Anesthesia, 18(5): 442-446.
10.1111/j.1460-9592.2008.02454.x
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Canadian Journal of Anaesthesia-Journal Canadien D Anesthesie
Effect of manual in-line stabilization of the cervical spine in adults on the rate of difficult orotracheal intubation by direct laryngoscopy: a randomized controlled trial
Thiboutot, F; Nicole, PC; Trepanier, CA; Turgeon, AF; Lessard, MR
Canadian Journal of Anaesthesia-Journal Canadien D Anesthesie, 56(6): 412-418.
10.1007/s12630-009-9089-7
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Canadian Journal of Anaesthesia-Journal Canadien D Anesthesie
Management of the anticipated difficult airway-a systematic approach: Continuing Professional Development
Drolet, P
Canadian Journal of Anaesthesia-Journal Canadien D Anesthesie, 56(9): 683-701.
10.1007/s12630-009-9144-4
CrossRef
Anaesthesia
The airway
Popat, M
Anaesthesia, 58(): 1166-1171.

Anesthesia and Analgesia
The LMA ProSeal (TM) may not be the best option for difficult to intubate/ventilate patients - In response
Rosenblatt, WH
Anesthesia and Analgesia, 99(1): 311.

Canadian Journal of Anaesthesia-Journal Canadien D Anesthesie
Preemptive vessel dilator cricothyrotomy aids in the management of upper airway obstruction
Boyce, JR; Peters, GE; Carroll, WR; Magnuson, JS; McCrory, A; Boudreaux, AM
Canadian Journal of Anaesthesia-Journal Canadien D Anesthesie, 52(7): 765-769.

Anaesthesia and Intensive Care
Evaluation of the SLIPA (TM) (Streamlined Liner of the Pharynx Airway), a single use supraglottic airway device, in 60 anaesthetized patients undergoing minor surgical procedures
Hein, C; Plummer, J; Owen, H
Anaesthesia and Intensive Care, 33(6): 756-761.

Minerva Anestesiologica
Airway management in Greece: a nationwide postal survey
Dimitriou, V; Iatrou, C; Douma, A; Athanassiou, L; Voyagis, GS
Minerva Anestesiologica, 74(9): 453-458.

Journal of Clinical Anesthesia
Re: Soft palate perforation during orotracheal intubation facilitated by the GlideScope (R) videolaryngoscope
Manickam, BR; Adhikary, SD
Journal of Clinical Anesthesia, 20(5): 401-402.
10.1016/j.jclinane.2008.01.009
CrossRef
Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology
Exploring the Potential of Video Technologies for Collaboration in Emergency Medical Care: Part I. Information Sharing
Sonnenwald, DH; Soderholm, HM; Manning, JE; Cairns, B; Welch, G; Fuchs, H
Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology, 59(): 2320-2334.
10.1002/asi.20934
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Anesthesia and Analgesia
Crisis Resource Management of the Airway in a Patient with Klippel-Feil Syndrome, Congenital Deafness, and Aortic Dissection
Khawaja, OM; Reed, JT; Shaefi, S; Chitilian, HV; Sandberg, WS
Anesthesia and Analgesia, 108(4): 1220-1225.
10.1213/ane.0b013e3181957d9b
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Minerva Anestesiologica
Algorithms for difficult airway management: a review
Frova, G; Sorbello, M
Minerva Anestesiologica, 75(4): 201-209.

Pediatric Anesthesia
The importance of flow and pressure release in emergency jet ventilation devices
Hamaekers, A; Borg, P; Enk, D
Pediatric Anesthesia, 19(5): 452-457.
10.1111/j.1460-9592.2008.02830.x
CrossRef
Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica
Airway management practices at German university and university-affiliated teaching hospitals - equipment, techniques and training: results of a nationwide survey
Goldmann, K; Braun, U
Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica, 50(3): 298-305.
10.1111/j.1399-6576.2005.00853.x
CrossRef
Anasthesiologie Intensivmedizin Notfallmedizin Schmerztherapie
Airway management - Invasive respiratory management
Byhahn, C; Meininger, D
Anasthesiologie Intensivmedizin Notfallmedizin Schmerztherapie, 41(9): 576-584.

Critical Care
Clinical review: Management of difficult airways
Langeron, O; Amour, J; Vivien, B; Aubrun, F
Critical Care, 10(6): -.
10.1186/cc5112
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Journal of Clinical Anesthesia
Dental injury associated with anesthesia: a report of 161,687 anesthetics given over 14 years
Newland, MC; Ellis, SJ; Peters, KR; Simonson, JA; Durham, TM; Ullrich, FA; Tinker, JH
Journal of Clinical Anesthesia, 19(5): 339-345.
10.1016/j.jclinane.2007.02.007
CrossRef
Anaesthesia, Pain, Intensive Care and Emergency: A.P.I.C.E
Practical aspects for managing extubation of the difficult airway
Sorbello, M; Guarino, A; Morello, G
Anaesthesia, Pain, Intensive Care and Emergency: A.P.I.C.E, (): 81-92.

2007 6Th International Special Topic Conference on Information Technology Applications in Biomedicine
Reproducing difficulties of airway management on patients with restricted mouth opening using the WKA-1
Noh, Y; Segawa, M; Shimomura, A; Ishii, H; Solis, J; Hatake, K; Takanishi, A
2007 6Th International Special Topic Conference on Information Technology Applications in Biomedicine, (): 49-52.

Anaesthesist
An unexpected difficult intubation. Bonfils rigid fiberscope
Maybauer, MO; Maier, S; Thierbach, AR
Anaesthesist, 54(1): 35-39.
10.1007/s00101-004-0772-3
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Canadian Journal of Anaesthesia-Journal Canadien D Anesthesie
Apnea during induction of anesthesia with sevoflurane is related to its mode of administration
Pancaro, C; Giovannoni, S; Toscano, A; Peduto, VA
Canadian Journal of Anaesthesia-Journal Canadien D Anesthesie, 52(6): 591-594.

Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica
Inter-observer agreement of tests used for prediction of difficult laryngoscopy/tracheal intubation
Rosenstock, C; Gillesberg, I; Gatke, MR; Levin, D; Kristensen, MS; Rasmussen, LS
Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica, 49(8): 1057-1062.
10.1111/j.1399-6576.2005.00792.x
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European Journal of Anaesthesiology
Comparison of etomidate and propofol for fibreoptic intubation as part of an airway management algorithm: a prospective, randomized, double-blind study
Schaeuble, J; Heidegger, T; Gerig, HJ; Ulrich, B; Schnider, TW
European Journal of Anaesthesiology, 22(): 762-767.

Anaesthesia
Use of ProSeal laryngeal mask airway as a dedicated airway for fibreoptic-guided tracheal intubation
Cranshaw, J; Shewry, E
Anaesthesia, 61(2): 199-201.

Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica
Qualitative analysis of unanticipated difficult airway management
Rosenstock, C; Hansen, EG; Kristensen, MS; Rasmussen, LS; Skak, C; Ostergaard, D
Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica, 50(3): 290-297.
10.1111/j.1399-6576.2005.00970.x
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Anesthesia and Analgesia
Forces Applied to the Maxillary Incisors During Video-Assisted Intubation
Lee, RA; van Zundert, AAJ; Maassen, RLJG; Willems, RJ; Beeke, LP; Schaaper, JN; van Dobbelsteen, J; Wieringa, PA
Anesthesia and Analgesia, 108(1): 187-191.
10.1213/ane.0b013e31818d1904
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Seminars in Pediatric Surgery
Outcomes of pediatric anesthesia
Hoffman, GM
Seminars in Pediatric Surgery, 17(2): 141-151.
10.1053/j.sempedsurg.2008.02.010
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American Journal of Emergency Medicine
Faster intubation with direct laryngoscopy vs handheld videoscope in uncomplicated manikin airways
Varney, SM; Dooley, M; Bebarta, VS
American Journal of Emergency Medicine, 27(3): 259-261.
10.1016/j.ajem.2008.02.603
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Journal of Clinical Anesthesia
The adult ergonomic face mask concept: historical and theoretical perspectives
Matioc, AA
Journal of Clinical Anesthesia, 21(4): 300-304.
10.1016/j.jclinane.2008.08.018
CrossRef
Anaesthesist
Extraglottic airway devices in the intensive care unit
Russo, SG; Moerer, O; Nickel, EA; Goetze, B; Timmermann, A; Quintel, M
Anaesthesist, 59(6): 555-563.
10.1007/s00101-010-1728-4
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Clinical Toxicology
Early laryngeal injury and complications because of endotracheal intubation in acutely poisoned patients: a prospective observational study
Megarbane, B; Hong, TB; Kania, R; Herman, P; Baud, FJ
Clinical Toxicology, 48(4): 331-336.
10.3109/15563651003801117
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Journal of Emergency Medicine
The laryngeal mask airway at altitude
Wilson, GD; Sittig, SE; Schears, GJ
Journal of Emergency Medicine, 34(2): 171-174.
10.1016/j.jemermed.2007.04.026
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Minerva Anestesiologica
Year in Review in Minerva Anestesiologica, 2007. II Anesthesia and Analgesia: experimental and clinical studies
Cavaliere, F; Mascia, L; Terragni, P
Minerva Anestesiologica, 74(3): 87-91.

Jornal De Pediatria
Tracheal intubation
Matsumoto, T; de Carvalho, WB
Jornal De Pediatria, 83(2): S83-S90.
10.2223/JPED.1626
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Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
Prevalence and prediction of difficult intubation in maxillofacial surgery patients
Tuzuner-Oncul, AM; Kucukyavuz, Z
Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, 66(8): 1652-1658.
10.1016/j.joms.2008.01.062
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Journal of Clinical Anesthesia
Fiberoptic-guided intubation via the Laryngeal Mask Airway Supreme
Mathes, AM; Wrobel, M; Rensing, H; Grundmann, U; Reus, E
Journal of Clinical Anesthesia, 20(4): 322-323.
10.1016/j.jclinane.2008.03.002
CrossRef
Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology
Exploring the Potential of Video Technologies for Collaboration in Emergency Medical Care: Part II. Task Performance
Soderholm, HM; Sonnenwald, DH; Manning, JE; Cairns, B; Welch, G; Fuchs, H
Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology, 59(): 2335-2349.
10.1002/asi.20939
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Resuscitation
Prehospital airway management: A prospective evaluation of anaesthesia trained emergency physicians
Timmermann, A; Eich, C; Russo, SG; Natge, U; Brauer, A; Rosenblatt, WH; Braun, U
Resuscitation, 70(2): 179-185.
10.1016/j.resuscitation.2006.01.010
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Anesthesia and Analgesia
Educating anesthesiology residents to perform percutaneous cricothyrotomy, retrograde intubation, and fiberoptic bronchoscopy using preserved cadavers
Hatton, KW; Price, S; Craig, L; Grider, JS
Anesthesia and Analgesia, 103(5): 1205-1208.
10.1213/01.ane.0000237328.94837.62
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Anesthesia and Analgesia
Tube exchanger for laryngeal mask-based percutaneous tracheostomy in the intensive care unit
Bilotta, F; Giovannini, F; Conforto, F; Pinto, R; Rosa, G
Anesthesia and Analgesia, 103(6): 1629-1630.
10.1213/01.ane.0000247190.19850.48
CrossRef
Journal of Cardiothoracic and Vascular Anesthesia
Case 1 - 2007 - Morbidly obese patient undergoing cardiac surgery
Minhaj, MM; Zvara, DA; Nayyar, P; Maslow, A
Journal of Cardiothoracic and Vascular Anesthesia, 21(1): 133-143.
10.1053/j.jvca.2006.04.018
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Anaesthesist
Laryngeal masks. Possibilities and limits
Hillebrand, H; Motsch, J
Anaesthesist, 56(6): 617-630.
10.1007/s00101-007-1198-5
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Journal of Clinical Anesthesia
Self-reported changes in attitude and behavior after attending a simulation-aided airway management course
Russo, SG; Eich, C; Barwing, J; Nickel, EA; Braun, U; Graf, BM; Timmermann, A
Journal of Clinical Anesthesia, 19(7): 517-522.
10.1016/j.jclinane.2007.04.007
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Journal of Anesthesia
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Hung, KC; Tan, PH; Lin, VCH; Wang, HK; Chen, HS
Journal of Anesthesia, 27(2): 205-210.
10.1007/s00540-012-1491-6
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Journal of Anesthesia
Ultrasound-guided superior laryngeal nerve block and translaryngeal block for awake tracheal intubation in a patient with laryngeal abscess
Iida, T; Suzuki, A; Kunisawa, T; Iwasaki, H
Journal of Anesthesia, 27(2): 309-310.
10.1007/s00540-012-1492-5
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Scottish Medical Journal
Difficult airway communication between anaesthetists and general practitioners
Wilkes, M; Beattie, C; Gardner, C; McNarry, AF
Scottish Medical Journal, 58(1): 2-6.
10.1177/0036933012474554
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British Journal of Anaesthesia
Does the site of anterior tracheal puncture affect the success rate of retrograde intubation?
Harris, EA; Fischler, KE
British Journal of Anaesthesia, 110(6): 1064-1065.
10.1093/bja/aet144
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Anticipation of the difficult airway: preoperative airway assessment, an educational and quality improvement tool
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British Journal of Anaesthesia, 111(2): 276-285.
10.1093/bja/aet029
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Pulmonary Migration of A Fragment of Plastic Coating Sheared From A Stylet
Chalhoub, V; Richa, F; El-Rassi, I; Dagher, C; Yazbeck, P
Journal of Emergency Medicine, 44(6): 1097-1100.
10.1016/j.jemermed.2012.11.004
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Trauma Airway Management: Transition From Anesthesia to Emergency Medicine
Varga, S; Shupp, JW; Maher, D; Tuznik, I; Sava, JA
Journal of Emergency Medicine, 44(6): 1190-1195.
10.1016/j.jemermed.2012.11.074
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Pneumothorax, an underappreciated complication with an airway exchange catheter
Rashid, AM; Williams, C; Noble, J; Rashid, OM; Takabe, K; Anand, RJ
Journal of Thoracic Disease, 4(6): 659-662.
10.3978/j.issn.2072-1439.2012.11.03
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European Archives of Oto-Rhino-Laryngology
NBI flexible laryngoscopy targeted tissue sampling in head and neck cancer patients with difficult airways
Pan, CT; Lee, LA; Fang, TJ; Li, HY; Liao, CT; Chen, IH
European Archives of Oto-Rhino-Laryngology, 270(1): 263-269.
10.1007/s00405-012-1989-4
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Resuscitation, 84(4): 446-449.
10.1016/j.resuscitation.2012.08.326
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Pre-operative tracheostomy does not impact on stomal recurrence and overall survival in patients undergoing primary laryngectomy
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European Archives of Oto-Rhino-Laryngology, 270(5): 1729-1735.
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Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica
Incidence of transient hypoxia during pre-hospital rapid sequence intubation by anaesthesiologists
Helm, M; Kremers, G; Lampl, L; Hossfeld, B
Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica, 57(2): 199-205.
10.1111/aas.12032
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Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica, 57(2): 263.
10.1111/j.1399-6576.2012.02784.x
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Training for cricothyroidotomy
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A Study of Flexible Fiberoptic Bronchoscopy Aided Tracheal Intubation for Patients Undergoing Elective Surgery Under General Anesthesia
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Acute Airway Obstruction Caused by the New Single Use Laryngeal Mask Airway Supreme™
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Practice Guidelines for the Perioperative Management of Patients with Obstructive Sleep Apnea: A Report by the American Society of Anesthesiologists Task Force on Perioperative Management of Patients with Obstructive Sleep Apnea

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A Series of Anesthesia-related Maternal Deaths in Michigan, 1985–2003
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