Skip Navigation LinksHome > December 2002 - Volume 97 - Issue 6 > Conventional Mechanical Ventilation Is Associated with Bronc...
Anesthesiology:
Clinical Investigation

Conventional Mechanical Ventilation Is Associated with Bronchoalveolar Lavage-induced Activation of Polymorphonuclear Leukocytes: A Possible Mechanism to Explain the Systemic Consequences of Ventilator-induced Lung Injury in Patients with ARDS

Zhang, Haibo M.D., Ph.D.*; Downey, Gregory P. M.D.†; Suter, Peter M. M.D.‡; Slutsky, Arthur S. M.D.§; Ranieri, V. Marco M.D.∥

Free Access
Article Outline
Collapse Box

Author Information

Collapse Box

Abstract

Background: Protective ventilatory strategies have resulted in a decreased mortality rate in acute respiratory distress syndrome, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. The authors hypothesized that (1) mechanical ventilation modulates activation of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs), (2) the consequent release of proteinases is correlated with a systemic inflammatory response and with multiple organ dysfunction, and (3) these deleterious effects can be minimized by a protective ventilatory strategy.
Methods: Human PMNs were incubated with bronchoalveolar lavage fluid obtained from patients at entry or 36 h after randomization to ventilation with either a conventional (control) or a lung-protective strategy. PMN oxidant production and surface expression of adhesion molecules and granule markers, including CD18, CD63, and L-selectin, were measured by flow cytometry. Extracellular elastase activity was quantified using a fluorescent substrate.
Results: Bronchoalveolar lavage obtained from both groups of patients at entry showed similar effects on PMN oxidant production and expression of surface markers. At 36 h, exposure of PMNs to bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from the control group resulted in increased PMN activation as manifested by a significant increase in oxidant production, CD18, and CD63 surface expression, and shedding of L-selectin. By contrast, these variables were unchanged at 36 h in the lung-protective group. There was a significant correlation between the changes of the variables and changes in interleukin-6 level and the number of failing organs.
Conclusions: Polymorphonuclear leukocytes can be activated by mechanical ventilation, and the consequent release of elastase was correlated with the degree of systemic inflammatory response and multiple organ failure. This result may possibly explain the decreased mortality in acute respiratory distress syndrome patients treated with a lung-protective strategy.
THE acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is an inflammatory syndrome characterized by acute neutrophilic alveolitis in association with increased alveolar-capillary permeability, bilateral pulmonary infiltrates, and severe hypoxemia. Our current understanding of the pathogenesis of ARDS suggests that the degree of inflammatory response and its sustained leukocyte activation may determine the clinical evolution of ARDS. 1,2
Most patients with ARDS require mechanical ventilation to maintain adequate systemic oxygenation. Conventional respiratory support for ARDS has used large tidal volumes (VT) ranging from 10 to 14 ml/kg and minimal positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) to maintain adequate oxygenation at low inspiratory oxygen fraction (Fio2). While these ventilator settings are usually able to maintain oxygenation, mortality has ranged from 35 to 65%, 3 with patients usually dying from progressive dysfunction of vital organs—so-called multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS)—rather than from respiratory failure. 3–5 A recent randomized, controlled trial showed that mortality rate could be reduced by 22% when a tidal volume of 6 ml/kg (predicted body weight) was used to ventilate patients with ARDS compared with a control group ventilated with 12 ml/kg. 6 This result confirmed a large body of experimental data showing that conventional mechanical ventilation can initiate or augment pulmonary injury by a process that is indistinguishable from ARDS. 7–10 One mechanism proposed to explain these results is that mechanical ventilation can augment the pulmonary inflammatory response and exacerbate the increased alveolar capillary permeability. 8–11 Inflammatory mediators produced in this milieu and then released into the systemic circulation could be responsible for the development of MODS. 11–14 In support of this hypothesis, we have previously shown that (1) conventional mechanical ventilation of patients with ARDS contributes to the pulmonary inflammation and systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) 13 and (2) plasma concentrations of proinflammatory mediators correlate with the development of MODS. 15 However, little information is currently available regarding the mechanisms by which reduction of stress applied to the lung during mechanical ventilation modulates the inflammatory response not only within the lung, but also on a systemic level.
Neutrophils are a central component of host defense but may also cause tissue damage in many lung diseases. During the development of ARDS, neutrophils cross the alveolar-capillary endothelium, cross the interface, and transmigrate into the alveolar space; excessive accumulation and activation of neutrophils may worsen lung damage. It has been suggested that neutrophils may be further activated by the physical stress that occurs during mechanical ventilation in the treatment of ARDS. Conventional mechanical ventilation has been shown to cause hyaline membrane formation in the lung and alter alveolar-capillary permeability in a surfactant-depleted animal model of ARDS; the use of the same ventilatory strategy in neutrophil-depleted animals resulted in a higher arterial oxygen tension (Pao2), a marked reduction in hyaline membrane formation, and a decrease in alveolar-capillary permeability. 16 We therefore tested the hypothesis that mechanical ventilation in humans may lead to activation of neutrophils and the release of cytotoxic products, including reactive oxygen species and proteolytic enzymes. These products could lead to further damage of the alveolar-capillary barrier and thus could lead to spillover of the inflammatory response from the lung into the systemic circulation. Minimization of the systemic spread of the inflammatory response may present a predominant mechanism for the decreased mortality in ARDS with protective ventilatory strategies.
Back to Top | Article Outline

Methods

Patient Selection
The study was carried out in 26 patients with ARDS recruited in the intensive care units of the University Hospitals of Bari (Italy) and Geneva (Switzerland). Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) samples obtained from these patients were the remaining material collected from a randomized trial in which a total of 37 patients were recruited. 15 In that trial, a lung-protective strategy was found to decrease BAL fluid and blood cytokines compared with a conventional ventilatory strategy.
The protocol was approved by the Institutional Review Boards and informed consent was obtained. Patients were cared for by attending physicians who were not involved in the protocol, and all decisions regarding patient care management were made at these physician's discretion.
Back to Top | Article Outline
Study Protocol
Protocol, inclusion, exclusion, and withdrawal criteria have been previously described. 15 Briefly, patients were sedated, paralyzed, and ventilated (Servo 300; Siemens-Elema, Stockholm, Sweden). A volume-pressure (V-P) curve on zero end-expiratory pressure was measured. The V-P curve of the respiratory system of patients with early ARDS has a characteristic sigmoidal shape with lower (LIP) and upper (UIP) inflection points thought to approximate the pressure required to initiate recruitment of collapsed alveoli, and the pressure at which overdistension of some lung units occurs, respectively. 15,17 After the V-P curve was measured, PEEP was restored to its previous level, and BAL and plasma samples were collected 20–30 min later (entry). Patients were then randomly assigned either to a control strategy using a conventional ventilatory strategy (VT and PEEP targeted to maintain the arterial carbon dioxide tension [Paco2] between 35 and 40 mmHg and PEEP to obtain the greatest improvement in arterial oxygen saturation [Sao2] without worsening hemodynamics) or to a lung-protective strategy (VT set to obtain a value of plateau pressure [Pplat] < pressure at the UIP regardless of Paco2, and PEEP 2–3 cm H2O above the pressure at LIP). 15 All measurements were repeated 36–40 h (36 h) after randomization. 15
Bronchoalveolar lavage was performed using a telescoping catheter (Ballard, Draper, UT) with two aliquots of 40–50 ml sterile isotonic saline. Lavage with a third aliquot was performed if there was less than 30–40 ml recovered fluid from the first 100 ml. The first aliquot was discarded, and the remaining BAL fluid was rapidly filtered through sterile gauze and then spun at 4°C at 400 g for 15 min. The supernatant was centrifuged at 80,000 g for 30 min at 4°C to remove the surfactant-rich fraction and then concentrated 10-fold on a 5,000 molecular weight cutoff filter (Amicon, Beverly, MA) under nitrogen. The concentrated supernatant was then frozen at −70°C for later analysis.
Cytokine concentrations from the two groups of patients were analyzed by ELISA in Geneva and have been previously reported. 15 The remaining samples were thawed in Toronto where this study was carried out in blinded fashion. BAL fluid from each individual patient analyzed separately and all experiments were performed in duplicate.
Back to Top | Article Outline
Study Procedures and Outcome Measures
Human Neutrophil Isolation.
Neutrophils were isolated from heparinized whole blood drawn by venipuncture from normal volunteers. Isolation was performed using 3% dextran sedimentation and discontinuous plasma-Percoll (Amersham Pharmacia Biotech, Inc., Baie d'Urfe, Quebec, Canada) gradients as described previously. 18 The separation procedure required 2 h. The neutrophils were resuspended at a cell density of 9 × 106 cells/ml in endotoxin-free DMEM (Life Technologies, Burlington, Ontario, Canada) and were used immediately after isolation. Neutrophil viability exceeded 97% as assessed by trypan blue exclusion.
Back to Top | Article Outline
Flow Cytometry
Oxidant production and surface expression of CD18, CD63, and L-selectin were measured using flow cytometry. Neutrophils were incubated in the patient's BAL fluid at a density of 8 × 106 cells/ml for 2 h at 37°C. For measurement of oxidant production, cells were then incubated with 5 μm dihydrorhodamine (DhR; Molecular Probes, Inc., Eugene, OR) in HEPES-buffered saline containing Ca2+ and Mg2+. After a 5-min incubation, neutrophils were fixed with 1% paraformaldehyde. In separate experiments, neutrophils were incubated in BAL fluid, fixed with 1% paraformaldehyde, and washed twice. Neutrophils were then labeled with mouse antihuman FITC-CD18 antibody or mouse antihuman L-selectin phycoerythrin-labeled antibodies (Serotec Ltd., Oxford, England) for 30 min and washed twice in PBS. Neutrophils were also labeled with mouse antihuman CD63 antibody (Serotec Ltd.) for 30 min, washed, and resuspended in PBS with FITC-labeled secondary antibody (1:500). After a 30-min incubation, neutrophils were washed and resuspended in PBS. Stained cells were analyzed on a FACScan (Becton Dickinson, Palo Alto, CA) using FL1 detector (488-nm excitation and 530-nm emission wavelengths). Cells were gated on the forward and right-angle light scatters to exclude debris and cell clumps. Typically, 1 × 105 cells were analyzed per condition, and the specific fluorescence was determined by subtracting the fluorescence after staining with secondary antibodies in the absence of primary antibody. Values are expressed as relative fluorescence index by dividing the linear fluorescence of the experimental groups by the values obtained from the unstimulated control cells.
Back to Top | Article Outline
Extracellular Elastase Release
Extracellular release of elastase from neutrophils was quantified by measuring the degradation of elastin in cell supernatants using an Elastase Assay Kit (EnzChek; Molecular Probes). Elastin was prepared by reductive alkylation of soluble bovine neck ligament elastin and labeled with BODIPY®FL dye such that the conjugate's fluorescence is quenched. Upon digestion by elastase, the fluorescence is revealed. The resulting increase in fluorescence was monitored with a fluorescence microplate reader (CytoFluor 2300; Millipore, Bedford, MA) at 530 nm.
Back to Top | Article Outline
Interleukin 6
Plasma concentration of interleukin 6 (IL-6) was measured using an enzyme-linked immunoabsorbent assay (Medgenix, Fleures, Belgium).
Back to Top | Article Outline
Statistical Analysis
To evaluate differences over time within each group, repeated-measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) by Bonferroni method was used. To evaluate differences between the two groups, the Fisher exact test for categorical variables, the t test with unequal variance for continuous variables, and the Mann-Whitney rank-sum test for ordinal variables were used.
All tests of significance were two-tailed, and P < 0.05 was considered as significant. Data are presented as mean ± SD.
Back to Top | Article Outline

Results

Table 1
Table 1
Image Tools
Baseline characteristics and underlying conditions responsible for ARDS in the patients included in the study are presented in table 1. Sepsis, pneumonia, and multiple trauma were the underlying conditions responsible for ARDS.
Table 2
Table 2
Image Tools
Values of ventilator settings and of arterial blood gases immediately (2 to 3 h) after randomization are presented in table 2. In the control group, PEEP levels were lower, while tidal volume and Pplat were higher than in the lung-protective-strategy group. Pao2 did not differ between groups, although Fio2 was higher in the control group. A significant increase in Paco2 (permissive hypercapnia) was observed in the lung-protective-strategy group.
The cell pellets obtained from the BAL fluids were analyzed for cell distribution, and there was an increased percentage of polymorphonuclear leukocytes in the control group, but not in the protective group. 15
Back to Top | Article Outline
Neutrophil Oxygen Burst
Fig. 1
Fig. 1
Image Tools
Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid obtained from the two groups of patients at entry resulted in a similar degree of stimulation of neutrophil oxidant production as determined by oxidation of dihydrorhodamine. BAL fluid obtained from the control group 36 h after mechanical ventilation resulted in significantly increased oxidant production by neutrophils as compared with the values at entry. In contrast, incubation of neutrophils with BAL fluid obtained from the lung-protective-strategy ventilation group at 36 h did not induce any further change in oxidant production. The value of oxidant production in the lung-protective-strategy group was significantly lower (P < 0.001) than in the control group at 36 h (fig. 1).
Back to Top | Article Outline
Neutrophil Surface Antigen Expression
Fig. 2
Fig. 2
Image Tools
Fig. 3
Fig. 3
Image Tools
Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid obtained from both groups at entry had similar effects on the expression of neutrophil surface markers of CD18, CD63, and L-selectin. BAL fluid obtained from patients ventilated with the control strategy for 36 h resulted in significantly increased expression of CD18 and CD63 (fig. 2), and enhanced shedding of L-selectin compared with the BAL fluid obtained at entry (fig. 3). In contrast, these variables remained unchanged when neutrophils were incubated with BAL fluid obtained from the lung-protective-strategy-ventilated patients at 36 h.
Back to Top | Article Outline
Neutrophil Elastase Release
Fig. 4
Fig. 4
Image Tools
We also examined whether incubation of neutrophils with the BAL fluid would increase extracellular release of elastase, a potent tissue-damaging proteolytic enzyme contained in primary granules and released by activated neutrophils. 19 BAL fluid obtained from both groups at entry had similar effects on elastase release by neutrophils. BAL fluid obtained from the control ventilatory strategy at 36 h induced a significant increase in neutrophil elastase release (fig. 4). In contrast, the level of elastase release remained low when neutrophils were incubated with BAL fluid obtained form the lung-protective-strategy patients at 36 h.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5
Image Tools
The percentage change of neutrophil elastase release stimulated by BAL obtained at 36 h and entry was correlated with the change of plasma concentration (36 h − entry) of IL-6 (fig. 5).
Fig. 6
Fig. 6
Image Tools
Several studies have reported that neutrophil elastase plays a key role in developing MSOF in patients with head injury 20 and at the early stage of acute pancreatitis. 21 We examined the relation between the number of failing organs in these ARDS patients and neutrophil elastase release (percent of baseline) stimulated by BAL fluid at 36 h, and a significant correlation was observed (fig. 6).
Back to Top | Article Outline

Discussion

Acute respiratory distress syndrome is the most severe form of acute lung injury affecting both medical and surgical patients. It is characterized by a protein- and cell-rich pulmonary edema fluid due to increased vascular permeability in the lung. Neutrophils constitute up to 70–80% of the cells in BAL fluid of ARDS patients compared with approximately only 1–3% in normal subjects. 22 Neutrophil-derived proteases have been suggested to be potent mediators involved in the increased lung permeability. 23,24 The results of the current study demonstrate that BAL fluid obtained from patients ventilated with a conventional ventilatory strategy activates neutrophils and induces release of the proteolytic enzyme elastase to a greater extent than BAL from patients ventilated with a protective ventilatory strategy. Furthermore, the high plasma concentrations of IL-6, a pivotal inflammatory cytokine in the pathogenesis of MODS, 25,26 correlates well with increased release of neutrophil elastase. These results suggest that the activation of neutrophils and the subsequent release of proteases may be an important mechanism of ventilator-induced lung injury during conventional strategies that overdistend the lung and/or allow repeated alveolar recruitment and derecruitment. 8,27 These observations may at least in part explain the decreased incidence of MODS 6 and the improved survival observed with protective ventilatory strategies. 6,17
In response to an inflammatory stimulus, there is a rapid and often massive transmigration of neutrophils from the blood across the endothelium and alveolar epithelium into the alveolar space. Neutrophils are a pivotal component of the innate immune response and essential in host defense against invading microorganisms. 28 However, under certain pathologic conditions, such as ARDS, 29 chronic bronchitis, 30 asthma, 31 and cystic fibrosis, 32 these inflammatory cells can cause cellular injury by a number of mechanisms, including excessive production of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species and release of proteolytic enzymes.
In ARDS, the initial acute pulmonary inflammatory response may become systemic and self-propagating even after removal of the initiatory events. This can lead to diffuse endothelial injury, organ hypoperfusion (or malperfusion), and ultimately, MODS. 14 The persistence of the inflammatory response in ARDS has been associated with poor prognosis. This concept is supported by clinical studies showing that (1) the concentration of inflammatory cytokines in the BAL and plasma on entry is higher in nonsurvivors than in survivors 2; (2) plasma concentrations of inflammatory mediators remain persistently elevated in nonsurvivors compared with survivors in whom the concentration of the mediators decreased over time 1; and (3) the severity of lung injury is correlated with the extent of neutrophil influx and the accumulation of neutrophil-derived cytotoxic products in the alveolar space. 33 By way of contrast, the inflammatory response is remarkably different in an uncomplicated pneumonia in which inflammation proceeds in a more regular fashion and is resolved when inciting causes, such as bacteria, are removed. 34 The regulatory mechanisms that limit inflammatory damage and facilitate repair of injured tissues may be lost in ARDS, 35 and/or insults subsequent to the predisposing factors causing ARDS may continue to actively provoke the inflammatory response. 13,36 Efforts to modulate this inflammatory response have met with mixed success, 37,38 and thus, it is important to understand the mechanisms underlying this response.
The potential role of neutrophils as major effector cells in the generation of ventilator-induced lung injury has been clearly demonstrated by several experimental studies. 16,39 In animals with intact circulating neutrophils, conventional mechanical ventilation increases alveolar-endothelial barrier permeability, impairs oxygenation, and alters lung morphology. Importantly, this damage is abrogated in animals with neutrophil depletion. 16,39
We found that the release of elastase was correlated with the degree of SIRS and MODS. Such “ventilator-induced” neutrophil activation and the consequent release of elastase may represent the underlying mechanisms by which injurious ventilatory strategies spread inflammatory mediators from the lung into the systemic circulation, possibly leading to MODS. In general, the mechanisms by which mechanical ventilation induces neutrophil activation may include direct physical stress by mechanical ventilation as well as cytotoxic mediators released in the lung. In addition to optimizing ventilatory strategies, several therapies targeting inflammatory mediators have been evaluated in patients with ARDS. Our study may provide a rationale for future therapies directed at controlling the inflammatory response, perhaps with modulators directed at neutrophil function.
Back to Top | Article Outline

References

1. Meduri GU, Headley S, Kohler G, Stentz F, Tolley E, Umberger R, Leeper K: Persistent elevation of inflammatory cytokines predicts a poor outcome in ARDS: Plasma IL-1 beta and IL-6 levels are consistent and efficient predictors of outcome over time. Chest 1995; 107: 1062–73

2. Meduri GU, Kohler G, Headley S, Tolley E, Stentz F, Postlethwaite A: Inflammatory cytokines in the BAL of patients with ARDS: Persistent elevation over time predicts poor outcome. Chest 1995; 108: 1303–14

3. Milberg JA, Davis DR, Steinberg KP, Hudson LD: Improved survival of patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS): 1983–1993. JAMA 1995; 273: 306–9

4. Suchyta MR, Clemmer TP, Orme JF Jr, Morris AH, Elliott CG: Increased survival of ARDS patients with severe hypoxemia (ECMO criteria). Chest 1991; 99: 951–5

5. Ranieri VM, Giunta F, Suter PM, Slutsky AS: Mechanical ventilation as a mediator of multisystem organ failure in acute respiratory distress syndrome. JAMA 2000; 284: 43–4

6. The Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome Network: Ventilation with lower tidal volumes as compared with traditional tidal volumes for acute lung injury and the acute respiratory distress syndrome. N Engl J Med 2000; 342: 1301–8

7. Tremblay L, Valenza F, Ribeiro SP, Li J, Slutsky AS: Injurious ventilatory strategies increase cytokines and c-fos m-RNA expression in an isolated rat lung model. J Clin Invest 1997; 99: 944–52

8. Chiumello D, Pristine G, Slutsky AS: Mechanical ventilation affects local and systemic cytokines in an animal model of acute respiratory distress syndrome. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 1999; 160: 109–16

9. Imanaka H, Shimaoka M, Matsuura N, Nishimura M, Ohta N, Kiyono H: Ventilator-induced lung injury is associated with neutrophil infiltration, macrophage activation, and TGF-beta 1 mRNA upregulation in rat lungs. Anesth Analg 2001; 92: 428–36

10. Haitsma JJ, Uhlig S, Goggel R, Verbrugge SJ, Lachmann U, Lachmann B: Ventilator-induced lung injury leads to loss of alveolar and systemic compartmentalization of tumor necrosis factor-alpha. Intensive Care Med 2000; 26: 1515–22

11. Wrigge H, Zinserling J, Stuber F, von Spiegel T, Hering R, Wetegrove S, Hoeft A, Putensen C: Effects of mechanical ventilation on release of cytokines into systemic circulation in patients with normal pulmonary function. A nesthesiology 2000; 93: 1413–7

12. Vlahakis NE, Schroeder MA, Limper AH, Hubmayr RD: Stretch induces cytokine release by alveolar epithelial cells in vitro. Am J Physiol 1999; 277: L167–73

13. Slutsky AS: Basic science in ventilator-induced lung injury: Implications for the bedside. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2001; 163: 599–600

14. Slutsky AS, Tremblay LN: Multiple system organ failure: Is mechanical ventilation a contributing factor? Am J Respir Crit Care Med 1998; 157: 1721–5

15. Ranieri VM, Suter PM, Tortorella C, De Tullio R, Dayer JM, Brienza A, Bruno F, Slutsky AS: Effect of mechanical ventilation on inflammatory mediators in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome: A randomized controlled trial. JAMA 1999; 282: 54–61

16. Kawano T, Mori S, Cybulsky M, Burger R, Ballin A, Cutz E, Bryan AC: Effect of granulocyte depletion in a ventilated surfactant-depleted lung. J Appl Physiol 1987; 62: 27–33

17. Amato MB, Barbas CS, Medeiros DM, Magaldi RB, Schettino GP, Lorenzi-Filho G, Kairalla RA, Deheinzelin D, Munoz C, Oliveira R, Takagaki TY, Carvalho CR: Effect of a protective-ventilation strategy on mortality in the acute respiratory distress syndrome. N Engl J Med 1998; 338: 347–54

18. Haslett C, Guthrie LA, Kopaniak MM, Johnston RB Jr, Henson PM: Modulation of multiple neutrophil functions by preparative methods or trace concentrations of bacterial lipopolysaccharide. Am J Pathol 1985; 119: 101–10

19. Kishimoto TK, Jutila MA, Berg EL, Butcher EC: Neutrophil Mac-1 and MEL-14 adhesion proteins inversely regulated by chemotactic factors. Science 1989; 245: 1238–41

20. Takahasi H, Urano T, Nagai N, Takada Y, Takada A: Neutrophil elastase may play a key role in developing symptomatic disseminated intravascular coagulation and multiple organ failure in patients with head injury. J Trauma 2000; 49: 86–91

21. Ikei S, Ogawa M, Yamaguchi Y: Blood concentrations of polymorphonuclear leucocyte elastase and interleukin-6 are indicators for the occurrence of multiple organ failures at the early stage of acute pancreatitis. J Gastroenterol Hepatol 1998; 13: 1274–83

22. Martin TR, Pistorese BP, Hudson LD, Maunder RJ: The function of lung and blood neutrophils in patients with the adult respiratory distress syndrome: Implications for the pathogenesis of lung infections. Am Rev Respir Dis 1991; 144: 254–62

23. McGuire WW, Spragg RG, Cohen AB, Cochrane CG: Studies on the pathogenesis of the adult respiratory distress syndrome. J Clin Invest 1982; 69: 543–53

24. Kinoshita M, Ono S, Mochizuki H: Neutrophils mediate acute lung injury in rabbits: role of neutrophil elastase. Eur Surg Res 2000; 32: 337–46

25. Goldie AS, Fearon KC, Ross JA, Barclay GR, Jackson RE, Grant IS, Ramsay G, Blyth AS, Howie JC: Natural cytokine antagonists and endogenous antiendotoxin core antibodies in sepsis syndrome. The Sepsis Intervention Group. JAMA 1995; 274: 172–7

26. Douzinas EE, Tsidemiadou PD, Pitaridis MT, Andrianakis I, Bobota-Chloraki A, Katsouyanni K, Sfyras D, Malagari K, Roussos C: The regional production of cytokines and lactate in sepsis-related multiple organ failure. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 1997; 155: 53–9

27. von Bethmann AN, Brasch F, Nusing R, Vogt K, Volk HD, Muller KM, Wendel A, Uhlig S: Hyperventilation induces release of cytokines from perfused mouse lung. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 1998; 157: 263–72

28. Thiel M, Zourelidis C, Peter K: The role of polymorphonuclear neutrophilic leukocytes in the pathogenesis of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Anaesthesist 1996; 45: 113–30

29. Chollet-Martin S, Montravers P, Gibert C, Elbim C, Desmonts JM, Fagon JY, Gougerot-Pocidalo MA: Subpopulation of hyperresponsive polymorphonuclear neutrophils in patients with adult respiratory distress syndrome: Role of cytokine production. Am Rev Respir Dis 1992; 146: 990–6

30. Burnett D, Chamba A, Hill SL, Stockley RA: Neutrophils from subjects with chronic obstructive lung disease show enhanced chemotaxis and extracellular proteolysis. Lancet 1987; 2: 1043–6

31. Nagy L, Lee TH, Kay AB: Neutrophil chemotactic activity in antigen-induced late asthmatic reactions. N Engl J Med 1982; 306: 497–501

32. Nakamura H, Yoshimura K, McElvaney NG, Crystal RG: Neutrophil elastase in respiratory epithelial lining fluid of individuals with cystic fibrosis induces interleukin-8 gene expression in a human bronchial epithelial cell line. J Clin Invest 1992; 89: 1478–84

33. Weiland JE, Davis WB, Holter JF, Mohammed JR, Dorinsky PM, Gadek JE: Lung neutrophils in the adult respiratory distress syndrome: Clinical and pathophysiologic significance. Am Rev Respir Dis 1986; 133: 218–25

34. Adams JM, Hauser CJ, Livingston DH, Lavery RF, Fekete Z, Deitch EA: Early trauma polymorphonuclear neutrophil responses to chemokines are associated with development of sepsis, pneumonia, and organ failure. J Trauma 2001; 51: 452–7

35. Reynolds HY: Lung inflammation: Normal host defense or a complication of some diseases? Annu Rev Med 1987; 38: 295–323

36. Dos Santos CC, Slutsky AS: Mechanisms of ventilator-induced lung injury: A perspective. J Appl Physiol 2000; 89: 1645–55

37. Meduri GU, Headley AS, Golden E, Carson SJ, Umberger RA, Kelso T, Tolley EA: Effect of prolonged methylprednisolone therapy in unresolving acute respiratory distress syndrome: A randomized controlled trial. JAMA 1998; 280: 159–65

38. The ARDS Network: Ketoconazole for early treatment of acute lung injury and acute respiratory distress syndrome: A randomized controlled trial. JAMA 2000; 283: 1995–2002

39. Rimensberger PC, Fedorko L, Cutz E, Bohn DJ: Attenuation of ventilator-induced acute lung injury in an animal model by inhibition of neutrophil adhesion by leumedins (NPC 15669). Crit Care Med 1998; 26: 548–55

Cited By:

This article has been cited 40 time(s).

Critical Care
Science review: Searching for gene candidates in acute lung injury
Grigoryev, DN; Finigan, JH; Hassoun, P; Garcia, JGN
Critical Care, 8(6): 440-447.
10.1186/cc2901
CrossRef
Critical Care
Bench-to-bedside review: Acute respiratory distress syndrome how neutrophils migrate into the lung
Reutershan, J; Ley, K
Critical Care, 8(6): 453-461.
10.1186/cc2881
CrossRef
Neurocritical Care
Ventilation patterns in patients with severe traumatic brain injury following paramedic rapid sequence intubation
Davis, DP; Heister, R; Poste, JC; Hoyt, DB; Ochs, M; Dunford, JV
Neurocritical Care, 2(2): 165-171.
10.1385/Nerocrit.Care2005;2:165-171
CrossRef
Chest
Pathogenetic significance of biological markers of ventilator-associated lung injury in experimental and clinical studies
Frank, JA; Parsons, PE; Matthay, MA
Chest, 130(6): 1906-1914.
10.1378/chest.130.6.1906
CrossRef
Intensive Care Medicine
Effects of protective and conventional mechanical ventilation on pulmonary function and systemic cytokine release after cardiopulmonary bypass
Koner, O; Celebi, S; Balci, H; Cetin, G; Karaoglu, K; Cakar, N
Intensive Care Medicine, 30(4): 620-626.
10.1007/s00134-003-2104-5
CrossRef
American Journal of Physiology-Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
Genomic insights into acute inflammatory lung injury
Garcia, JGN; Vinasco, LM
American Journal of Physiology-Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology, 291(6): L1113-L1117.
10.1152/ajplung.00266.2006
CrossRef
Resuscitation
Early ventilation in traumatic brain injury
Davis, DP
Resuscitation, 76(3): 333-340.
10.1016/j.resuscitation.2007.08.004
CrossRef
Anaesthesia, Pain, Intensive Care and Emergency Medicine - Apice 19
Is the acute respiratory distress syndrome a systemic disease?
Brander, L; Slutsky, AS; Zhang, H
Anaesthesia, Pain, Intensive Care and Emergency Medicine - Apice 19, (): 395-402.

American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
On the physiologic and clinical relevance of lung-borne cytokines during ventilator-induced lung injury
Dreyfuss, D; Ricard, JD; Saumon, G
American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, 167(): 1467-1471.
10.1164/rccm.200206-611CP
CrossRef
Journal of Emergency Medicine
The association between field Glasgow Coma Scale score and outcome in patients undergoing paramedic rapid sequence intubation
Davis, DP; Vadeboncoeur, TF; Ochs, M; Poste, JC; Vilke, GM; Hoyt, DB
Journal of Emergency Medicine, 29(4): 391-397.
10.1016/j.jemermed.2005.04.012
CrossRef
Critical Care Medicine
Comparison of prone positioning and high-frequency oscillatory ventilation in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome
Papazian, L; Gainnier, M; Marin, V; Donati, S; Arnal, JM; Demory, D; Roch, A; Forel, JM; Bongrand, P; Bregeon, F; Sainty, JM
Critical Care Medicine, 33(): 2162-2171.

Thorax
Protection from experimental ventilator-induced acute lung injury by IL-1 receptor blockade
Frank, JA; Pittet, JF; Wray, C; Matthay, MA
Thorax, 63(2): 147-153.
10.1136/thx.2007.079608
CrossRef
Anaesthesist
Therapy of acute respiratory distress syndrome in a treatment centre. Success is dependent in the indication position
Henzler, D; Dembinski, R; Kopp, R; Hawickhorst, R; Rossaint, R; Kuhlen, R
Anaesthesist, 53(3): 235-243.
10.1007/s00101-004-0653-9
CrossRef
Antimicrobial Peptides and Human Disease
Immunomodulatory properties of defensins and cathelicidins
Bowdish, DME; Davidson, DJ; Hancock, REW
Antimicrobial Peptides and Human Disease, 306(): 27-66.

Clinics
Effects of Different Peep Levels on Mesenteric Leukocyte-Endothelial Interactions in Rats During Mechanical Ventilation
Aikawa, P; Farsky, SHP; de Oliveira, MA; Pazetti, R; Mauad, T; Sannomiya, P; Nakagawa, NK
Clinics, 64(5): 443-450.
10.1590/S1807-59322009000500012
CrossRef
Current Protein & Peptide Science
A re-evaluation of the role of host defence peptides in mammalian immunity
Bowdish, DME; Davidson, DJ; Hancock, REW
Current Protein & Peptide Science, 6(1): 35-51.

British Journal of Anaesthesia
Positive pressure ventilation: what is the real cost?
Soni, N; Williams, P
British Journal of Anaesthesia, 101(4): 446-457.
10.1093/bja/aen240
CrossRef
Intensive Care Medicine
Variation of infected cell count in bronchoalveolar lavage and timing of ventilator-associated pneumonia
Dupont, H; Chalhoub, V; Plantefeve, G; de Vaumas, C; Kermarrec, N; Paugam-Burtz, C; Mantz, J
Intensive Care Medicine, 30(8): 1557-1563.
10.1007/s00134-004-2323-4
CrossRef
Trends in Pharmacological Sciences
Pharmacological interventions in ventilator-induced lung injury
Uhlig, S; Uhlig, U
Trends in Pharmacological Sciences, 25(): 592-600.
10.1016/j.tips.2004.09.002
CrossRef
American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
5-lipoxygenase deficiency prevents respiratory failure during ventilator-induced lung injury
Caironi, P; Ichinose, F; Liu, R; Ones, RC; Bloch, KD; Zapol, WM
American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, 172(3): 334-343.
10.1164/rccm.200501-034OC
CrossRef
Journal of Physiology-London
Cytokines, neurokines or both? Mixed mechanisms of mechanical lung injury
McKechnie, SR; Drummond, GB
Journal of Physiology-London, 588(): 1813-1814.
10.1113/jphysiol.2010.191478
CrossRef
Anesthesia and Analgesia
Risk factors for acute lung injury after thoracic surgery for lung cancer
Licker, M; de Perrot, M; Spiliopoulos, A; Robert, J; Diaper, J; Chevalley, C; Tschopp, JM
Anesthesia and Analgesia, 97(6): 1558-1565.
10.1213/01.ANE.0000087799.85495.8A
CrossRef
Anaesthesia Pain Intensive Care and Emergency Medicine - A.P.I.C.E, Vol 1 and 2
Molecular mechanisms of ventilator-induced lung injury: from laboratory to bedside
Mercurio, G; Zhang, H
Anaesthesia Pain Intensive Care and Emergency Medicine - A.P.I.C.E, Vol 1 and 2, (): 289-298.

Critical Care
Risk factors for acute organ failure in intensive care unit patients who receive respiratory support in the absence of non-respiratory organ failure: an international prospective cohort study
Terblanche, M; Kruger, P; di Gangi, S; Gearay, S; Gilfeather, L; Ferguson, ND; Pearse, R; Beale, R; Rhodes, A; Brett, SJ; McAuley, DF
Critical Care, 16(2): -.
ARTN R61
CrossRef
European Respiratory Journal
Effectiveness of an inspiratory pressure-limited approach to mechanical ventilation in septic patients
Martin-Loeches, I; de Haro, C; Dellinger, RP; Ferrer, R; Phillips, GS; Levy, MM; Artigas, A
European Respiratory Journal, 41(1): 157-164.
10.1183/09031936.00221611
CrossRef
Anesthesiology
Protective Effects of Isoflurane Pretreatment in Endotoxin-induced Lung Injury
Reutershan, J; Chang, D; Hayes, JK; Ley, K
Anesthesiology, 104(3): 511-517.

PDF (984)
Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
The Impact of Prehospital Endotracheal Intubation on Outcome in Moderate to Severe Traumatic Brain Injury
Davis, DP; Peay, J; Sise, MJ; Vilke, GM; Kennedy, F; Eastman, AB; Velky, T; Hoyt, DB
Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery, 58(5): 933-939.

PDF (268)
Anesthesiology
Neutrophil Stimulation with Granulocyte Colony-stimulating Factor Worsens Ventilator-induced Lung Injury and Mortality in Rats
Correa, R; Banks, S; Mehlhorn, B; Bloos, F; Reinhart, K; Eichacker, PQ; Karzai, W; Cui, X; Heinicke, N; Niemann, C; Gerstenberger, EP
Anesthesiology, 103(5): 996-1005.

PDF (400)
Critical Care Medicine
Lungs of patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome show diffuse inflammation in normally aerated regions: A [18F]-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose PET/CT study
Pesenti, A; Bellani, G; Messa, C; Guerra, L; Spagnolli, E; Foti, G; Patroniti, N; Fumagalli, R; Musch, G; Fazio, F
Critical Care Medicine, 37(7): 2216-2222.
10.1097/CCM.0b013e3181aab31f
PDF (756) | CrossRef
Critical Care Medicine
Assessment and management of patients with pulmonary disease
Tamul, PC; Peruzzi, WT
Critical Care Medicine, 32(4): S137-S145.
10.1097/01.CCM.0000121435.64057.CC
PDF (353) | CrossRef
Shock
BENEFICIAL EFFECT OF AN INHIBITOR OF LEUKOCYTE ELASTASE (EPI-hNE-4) IN PRESENCE OF REPEATED LUNG INJURIES
Honoré, S; Attalah, HL; Azoulay, E; Soussy, C; Saudubray, F; Harf, A; Brochard, L; Delclaux, C
Shock, 22(2): 131-136.

PDF (407)
Critical Care Medicine
Neutrophil elastase inhibition in acute lung injury: Results of the STRIVE study
Zeiher, BG; Artigas, A; Vincent, J; Dmitrienko, A; Jackson, K; Thompson, BT; Bernard, G; for the STRIVE Study Group,
Critical Care Medicine, 32(8): 1695-1702.
10.1097/01.CCM.0000133332.48386.85
PDF (353) | CrossRef
Anesthesiology
Mechanical Ventilation in Patients with Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome
Rouby, J; Constantin, J; Roberto de A Girardi, C; Zhang, M; Lu, Q
Anesthesiology, 101(1): 228-234.

PDF (1060)
Critical Care Medicine
Early ventilation and outcome in patients with moderate to severe traumatic brain injury*
Vilke, GM; Hoyt, DB; Davis, DP; Idris, AH; Sise, MJ; Kennedy, F; Eastman, AB; Velky, T
Critical Care Medicine, 34(4): 1202-1208.
10.1097/01.CCM.0000208359.74623.1C
PDF (443) | CrossRef
Current Opinion in Critical Care
Overview of ventilator-induced lung injury mechanisms
Lionetti, V; Recchia, FA; Marco Ranieri, V
Current Opinion in Critical Care, 11(1): 82-86.

PDF (82)
Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
The Impact of Prehospital Endotracheal Intubation on Outcome in Moderate to Severe Traumatic Brain Injury
Davis, DP; Peay, J; Sise, MJ; Vilke, GM; Kennedy, F; Eastman, AB; Velky, T; Hoyt, DB
Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery, 59(3): 794-801.

PDF (299)
Anesthesiology
Brain Cell Damage and S-100B Increase after Acute Lung Injury
Raabe, A; Wissing, H; Zwissler, B
Anesthesiology, 102(4): 713-714.

PDF (144)
Anesthesiology
Regional Gas Exchange and Cellular Metabolic Activity in Ventilator-induced Lung Injury
Musch, G; Venegas, JG; Bellani, G; Winkler, T; Schroeder, T; Petersen, B; Harris, RS; Vidal Melo, MF
Anesthesiology, 106(4): 723-735.
10.1097/01.anes.0000264748.86145.ac
PDF (1677) | CrossRef
Critical Care Medicine
Acute effects of tidal volume strategy on hemodynamics, fluid balance, and sedation in acute lung injury*
Cheng, IW; Eisner, MD; Thompson, BT; Ware, LB; Matthay, MA; the Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome Network,
Critical Care Medicine, 33(1): 63-70.
10.1097/01.CCM.0000149836.76063.71
PDF (866) | CrossRef
Critical Care Medicine
Lack of phosphoinositide 3-kinase-γ attenuates ventilator-induced lung injury*
Lena, A; Gremigni, V; Fanelli, V; Hirsch, E; Ranieri, VM; Lionetti, V; Lisi, A; Patrucco, E; De Giuli, P; Milazzo, MG; Ceci, S; Wymann, M
Critical Care Medicine, 34(1): 134-141.
10.1097/01.CCM.0000190909.70601.2C
PDF (2398) | CrossRef
Back to Top | Article Outline

© 2002 American Society of Anesthesiologists, Inc.

Publication of an advertisement in Anesthesiology Online does not constitute endorsement by the American Society of Anesthesiologists, Inc. or Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc. of the product or service being advertised.
Login

Article Tools

Images

Share