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Anesthesiology:
Clinical Investigations

Effects of Perioperative Analgesic Technique on the Surgical Outcome and Duration of Rehabilitation after Major Knee Surgery

Capdevila, Xavier MD, PhD; Barthelet, Yves MD; Biboulet, Philippe MD; Ryckwaert, Yves MD; Rubenovitch, Josh MD, BSc; d'Athis, Francoise MD

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Abstract

Background: Continuous passive motion after major knee surgery optimizes the functional prognosis but causes severe pain. The authors tested the hypothesis that postoperative analgesic techniques influence surgical outcome and the duration of convalescence.
Methods: Before standardized general anesthesia, 56 adult scheduled for major knee surgery were randomly assigned to one of three groups, each to receive a different postoperative analgesic technique for 72 h: continuous epidural infusion, continuous femoral block, or intravenous patient‐controlled morphine (dose, 1 mg; lockout interval, 7 min; maximum dose, 30 mg/4 h). The first two techniques were performed using a solution of 1% lidocaine, 0.03 mg/ml morphine, and 2 [micro sign]g/ml clonidine administered at 0.1 ml [middle dot] kg‐1 [middle dot] h‐1. Pain was assessed at rest and during continuous passive motion using a visual analog scale. The early postoperative maximal amplitude of knee flexion was measured during continuous passive motion at 24 h and 48 h and compared with the target levels prescribed by the surgeon. To evaluate functional outcome, the maximal amplitudes were measured again on postoperative day 5, at hospital discharge (day 7), and at 1‐ and 3‐month follow‐up examinations. When the patients left the surgical ward, they were admitted to a rehabilitation center, where their length of stay depended on prospectively determined discharge criteria.
Results: The continuous epidural infusion and continuous femoral block groups showed significantly lower visual analog scale scores at rest and during continuous passive motion compared with the patient‐controlled morphine group. The early postoperative knee mobilization levels in both continuous epidural infusion and continuous femoral block groups were significantly closer to the target levels prescribed by the surgeon than in the patient‐controlled morphine group. On postoperative day 7, these values were 90 [degree sign] (60–100 [degree sign]) (median and 25th‐27th percentiles) in the continuous epidural infusion group, 90 [degree sign] (60–100 [degree sign]) in the continuous femoral block group, and 80 [degree sign] (60–100 [degree sign]) in the patient‐controlled morphine group (P < 0.05). The durations of stay in the rehabilitation center were significantly shorter: 37 days (range, 30–45 days) in the continuous epidural infusion group, 40 days (range, 31–60 days) in the continuous femoral block group, and 50 days (range, 30–80 days) in the patient‐controlled morphine group (P < 0.05). Side effects were encountered more frequently in the continuous epidural infusion group.
Conclusion: Regional analgesic techniques improve early rehabilitation after major knee surgery by effectively controlling pain during continuous passive motion, thereby hastening convalescence.
This article is accompanied by an Editorial View. Please see: Todd MM, Brown DL: Regional anesthesia and postoperative pain management: Long‐term benefits from a short‐term intervention. Anesthesiology 1999; 91:1–2.
ALTHOUGH pain control occupies an unargued position in postoperative management, many questions concerning the role of analgesia on the postoperative outcome, beyond the fundamental humane aspect, remain to be resolved.
Several authors have reported the importance of pain management in controlling postoperative complications in high‐risk patient populations. [1–3] The beneficial effects of analgesia on functional rehabilitation and the duration of convalescence have been suggested repeatedly but demonstrated in only few publications. [4,5] Liu et al. [6] showed that epidural analgesia, associated with early ambulation and feeding, improved postoperative outcome after elective colon surgery. Kehlet [7] and Kehlet and Dahl [8] highlighted the importance of analgesia in optimizing postoperative rehabilitation. The authors insist on the need to develop techniques that allow early functional recuperation and emphasize the importance of integrating analgesia into multimodal rehabilitation programs.
Many teams have included early mobilization using continuous passive motion (CPM) into their rehabilitation regimens after knee surgery. Although CPM improves the functional outcome, and as such may decrease the length of hospital stay, [9] it causes severe pain during mobilization. Few studies have explored the effects of postoperative analgesia on the functional prognosis of major knee surgery. [5,10,11] None of them have evaluated the benefits of postoperative continuous plexus or femoral blocks, and they could not show a decreased length of stay in patients who received epidural infusions. The aim of this study was to evaluate prospectively the influence of three postoperative analgesic techniques on the functional outcome and subsequent duration of hospitalization (hospital and rehabilitation center) after major knee surgery and use of CPM; i.e., continuous epidural infusion (CEI), continuous femoral block (CFB), and intravenous patient‐controlled analgesia with morphine (PCA).
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Methods

After our institutional review board give its approval and patients provided written informed consent, we enrolled 56 patients into this prospective study. All patients were classified as either American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status I or II, ranged in age from 18 to 75 yr, and were scheduled for total knee replacement or arthrolysis.
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Protocol
One of three surgeons belonging to the same team and using the same techniques performed all of the operations. Before surgery, each patient was randomized to one of three postoperative analgesia groups: CEI, CFB, or PCA.
All patients were premedicated with 0.5 mg oral alprazolam. The patients of the CEI and CFB groups were prepared for regional analgesia using 20‐gauge catheters (Vygon, Les Ullis, France) placed under surgical aseptic conditions. For the CEA patients, the catheter was threaded 3 cm into the epidural space after medial puncture of the L2‐L3 or L3‐L4 vertebral interspaces with an 18‐gauge Tuohy needle (Braun, Melsungen, Germany). For the CFB patients, the puncture was performed using Winnie's landmarks with a 16‐gauge, 80‐mm nontraumatic needle (Krebbs; Pajunk, Ulm, Germany) linked to a neurostimulator (Stimuplex, Braun) by a sterile cable. The femoral nerve was localized by a required motor response, ascension of the patella, obtained at less than 0.5 mA. The catheter insertion length was 12–15 cm. Local anesthetics were not administered via the catheters in either group before the postoperative period.
Intraoperative general anesthesia, standardized for the three study groups, was induced with 5 mg/kg intravenous thiopental, 1 [micro sign]g/kg sufentanil, and 0.5 mg/kg atracurium. All patients were intubated, and controlled ventilation was applied for the duration of surgery. Anesthesia was maintained using 60% nitrous oxide in oxygen, 0.75%‐1.5% isoflurane end‐tidal concentration, and 0.3 [micro sign]g/kg sufentanil given over 60 min, followed by a 0.15 [micro sign]g [middle dot] kg‐1 [middle dot] h‐1 continuous infusion, which was stopped 30 min before the end of surgery.
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Postoperative Analgesic Management and Discharge Criteria
Pain was evaluated during the study period using a visual analog scale (VAS) ranging from 0 mm (no pain) to 100 mm (worst imaginable pain). The postoperative analgesia protocol was initiated in the post‐anesthesia care unit and continued in the surgical ward.
The CFB patients received a 25‐ml bolus of 2% lidocaine with 1/200,000 epinephrine and 2 mg morphine without preservatives via the femoral catheter. The resulting blockade was tested using the pinprick technique, assuring at least a femoral if not 3‐in‐1 blockade. The block was maintained by the continuous infusion of an analgesic solution, containing 1% lidocaine, 2 [micro sign]g/ml clonidine, and 0.03 mg/ml morphine administered at 0.1 ml [middle dot] kg‐1 [middle dot] h‐1. If after 30 min pain control was considered insufficient (i.e., a VAS of 40 mm), a subcutaneous injection of morphine (0.1 mg/kg) was administered as rescue analgesia and repeated at 6‐h intervals as required.
The CEI patients received 2 mg morphine without preservatives and 5‐ml doses of 2% lidocaine with 1/200,000 epinephrine, via the epidural catheter, until a T10 level was determined using the pinprick method. The epidural blockade was maintained by the continuous infusion of the same solution used to maintain the femoral blockade in the CFB group, administered at the same rate. If after 30 min pain control was considered insufficient (i.e., a VAS of 40), a subcutaneous injection of 0.1 mg/kg morphine was administered as rescue analgesia and repeated at 6‐h intervals as required.
The PCA patients received an initial intravenous infusion of morphine (2‐mg doses at 5‐min intervals) titrated manually until VAS scores of 30 mm were obtained. At this time, a PCA pump (Ivac, San Diego, CA) was connected, delivering 1‐mg doses with a 7‐min lockout period and a maximum dose of 30 mg in 4 h. The first pain evaluation under the influence of PCA morphine was performed 30 min later. If after 1 h pain control was considered insufficient (i.e., a VAS of 40 mm), the intermittent doses were increased to 1.5 mg and the patients were encouraged to use the PCA as often as possible.
The patients stayed 12 h in the post‐anesthesia care unit.
During the 48 h after surgery, all patients received 2 g propacetamol and 100 mg ketoprofen, infused intravenously during 15 min at 8‐h and 12‐h intervals, respectively.
All supplementary subcutaneous injections of morphine administered in the CFB and CEI groups were noted.
On the morning of postoperative day 3, PCA, CFB, and CEI were discontinued and the catheters were removed.
Pain was evaluated at rest and during early mobilization. The resting pain levels were determined and recorded 1 (H1), 6 (H6), 12 (H12), 24 (H24), and 48 (H48) h after the onset of analgesia. Early rehabilitation was initiated on the day after surgery (day 1) using a motorized variable amplitude splint (Kinetec, Tournes, France) and maintained during 10–12 h per day. In accordance with the surgical team, knee flexions of 40 [degree sign] and 50 [degree sign] were progressively attempted during 30 min on days 1 and 2, respectively. Pain during mobilization was evaluated by a physiotherapist during this 30‐min onset period of CPM, at 24 h, and at 48 h. Excessive pain (i.e., a VAS of 60) was treated by decreasing the amplitude of flexion as necessary. If severe pain (i.e., a VAS of 80) was encountered despite the protocol's maximal analgesic levels and decreases in the amplitude of flexion, mobilization was deferred. All deferments required within the hour after the onset of mobilization were noted. The median maximal amplitude of flexion obtained at 24 h and 48 h were noted, allowing comparison with the target levels prescribed by the surgeon.
All pain evaluations were associated with the surveillance and recording of possible side effects arising from the analgesic protocol. General effects included arterial hypotension (> 20% decrease in the preoperative mean blood pressure value), respiratory depression (respiratory rate, <or= to 8 breaths/min), sedation (0 = awake, 1 = sleepy but awakened by oral order, 2 = sleepy but awakened by nociceptive stimulation, 3 = not awakened), urinary retention (impossibility to urinate, requiring a urinary catheter to empty the bladder), nausea, vomiting, pruritus, and dysesthesia (paresthesia, numbness). Local complications included hematomas, catheter occlusions, kinks, or displacements.
A member of the surgical team, blinded to the postoperative analgesic technique, determined the maximal amplitude of knee flexion achieved on postoperative day 5 and on discharge from the surgical ward on day 7. All patients were admitted to a rehabilitation center when they were discharged from the surgical ward on day 7. A daily postoperative rehabilitation and assessment program was established for each patient based on four targets: joint mobility (including 2 h of CPM twice daily and manual mobilizations conducted by a physiotherapist), muscle force (quadriceps muscle force was evaluated daily using an isometric force dynamometer and trained using a weighted pulley system), motor function (rehabilitation was performed by having the patient walk an inclined plane, crouch, and climb steps), and absence of local complications (thrombophlebitis, inflammation). The length of stay in the rehabilitation center was determined by a blinded physiatrist. The objective criteria used for discharge from the rehabilitation center included knee flexion of 110 [degree sign], knee extension of 0 [degree sign], lower limb flexion of 90 [degree sign] with 0 [degree sign] of knee extension, and the ability to walk an inclined plane without aid and to climb and descend 10 stairs.
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Statistical Analysis
Data were analyzed using SAS version 6.11 software (SAS Institute, Cary, NC). The quantitative anthropometric, hemodynamic, and morphine consumption values were expressed as the mean +/‐ SD. Pain scores and knee mobilization values were expressed as medians (25th‐75th percentiles), and the length of stay in the rehabilitation center was expressed as the median (and range). The repeated‐measures aspect of this study was evaluated using analysis of variance. A Kruskall‐Wallis test was used to compare the quantitative parameters of the three analgesic techniques at each evaluation. When a significant difference was encountered, the groups were compared two at a time, and Bonferroni correction was applied. Categorical data were compared using the chi‐square or Fischer exact tests, as appropriate. A significance threshold of P < 0.05 was retained.
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Results

Table 1
Table 1
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Patient demographics, type of surgery, and duration of surgery (Table 1) were similar in all three patient groups: PCA (n = 19), CFB (n = 20), CEI (n = 17).
Figure 1
Figure 1
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The resting VAS scores of the CEI group were significantly less than those of the PCA group at all test times and significantly less than those of the CFB group from H6 to H12, but they were similar at H (1). The CFB group's VAS scores were significantly less than those of the PCA group at H1 and from H24 onward. During mobilization (Figure 1), the VAS of the CEI and CFB groups showed no significant differences during the study period. Both were significantly less than those of the PCA group.
One subcutaneous morphine injection was required on day 1 by two CEI and six CFB patients. No significant differences were noted between the two groups' supplemental morphine consumption. Neither group required morphine supplements on day 2. The PCA group's mean morphine consumption was 36 +/‐ 13 mg and 31 +/‐ 15 mg on days 1 and 2, respectively.
Table 2
Table 2
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Table 3
Table 3
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Side effects (Table 2) were most often noted in the CEI group, with a significantly elevated incidence of urinary retention, dysesthesia, and arterial hypotension (Table 3). A high incidence of sedation, defined as the need to call the patient by name to incite awakening, was noted in all groups in the post‐anesthesia care unit.
Table 4
Table 4
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Table 5
Table 5
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At 24 and 48 h, the CEI and CFB groups achieved the prescribed mobilization levels significantly more frequently and required deferred mobilization less frequently than did the PCA group (Table 4). Similarly, the maximal amplitude of knee flexion reached on day 5 and at discharge from the hospital was significantly greater in the CEI and CFB groups (Table 5). No significant differences were noted for the knee flexion values among the three groups at the 1‐ and 3‐month follow‐up examinations. The duration of stay in the rehabilitation center, needed to reach the target levels prescribed by the physiatrist, was significantly different between the regional analgesia and the PCA groups: CEI, 37 days (range, 30–45 days); CFB, 40 days (range, 31–60 days); PCA, 50 days (range, 30–80 days; P < 0.05).
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Discussion

After major knee surgery, analgesia provided by CEI or CFB is more effective during early motorized mobilization than by intravenous PCA. These regional analgesia techniques allow for more intense early rehabilitation and accelerate functional recuperation and shorten the total (hospital and rehabilitation center) duration of institutional stay.
One aspect of the study design deserves comment. The pain evaluations during the postoperative days were not performed under blinded conditions because of the clinical setting of this study. Rigorous scientific methods would have required placing a femoral and epidural catheter and joining a PCA pump to the peripheral venous catheter in all patients. Because only the analgesic technique tested in each group would be used, evident ethical reasons restrained our application of this method. In contrast, blinded conditions were applied to the evaluations of functional outcome and the length of stay in the rehabilitation center.
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Analgesia
Our results confirm the efficacy of the three tested analgesic techniques in controlling resting pain after knee surgery. [12–17] Of the three, PCA remains slightly less efficient. This difference could be caused, in part, by autoadministration with the classically maintained pain level tolerated by the patients. [18] In contrast, our findings concerning early rehabilitation using continuous motorized mobilization highlight the differences among the three techniques. Both continuous epidural and femoral blockades, optimized by their association with nonopioids in a multimodal analgesic protocol, provided more effective pain control during early mobilization, as evident by lower VAS scores. The efficacy of CFB during rehabilitation, although certainly of interest, has rarely been addressed in the literature. We found only a few contradictory studies that evaluated the postoperative analgesic effect of CFB during punctual mobilization. [12–14,17] [double dagger] In accordance with the findings of Hirst et al., [17] most of our patients reported pain in the region behind the knee. The sciatic nerve, not affected by CFB because of its sacral plexus origin, participates in the knee's innervation and certainly played a role in this pain. In contrast with the findings of Hirst et al., [17] our patients' pain was well controlled during mobilization. Our choice of analgesic regimen and the mobilization technique that we used may explain this difference. Although Hirst et al. [17] used bupivacaine alone to obtain blockade, we used a combination of lidocaine, clonidine, and morphine in the current study to obtain femoral blockade, which provided an additive if not synergistic effect to the resulting analgesia. Although the superior efficacy of CEI has been demonstrated in controlling dynamic pain when local anesthetics are associated with adjuvants, [18,19] their effects in plexus blocks are still being studied. [20–24] When standard doses are used, 1% lidocaine provides better motor blockade than bupivacaine 0.25% or 0.125%, more effectively avoiding quadriceps muscle spasm, which is cited as the cause and consequence of postoperative pain that hinders rehabilitation. [25] In addition, although as yet unconfirmed, regional analgesia would block the massive afferent nociceptive input thought to trigger increased excitability of the peripheral nociceptors and the dorsal horn neurons. Consequently, the increased reflex excitability leading to quadriceps muscle spasm, in response to even nonnociceptive input, would be controlled. [26] Furthermore, muscle relaxation was enhanced by replacing the punctual manipulations performed by physiotherapists with motorized CPM, a more gentle and progressive mobilization. [9,27] As such, the anticipated increase in pain often incriminated in the failure of rehabilitation using punctual mobilization was avoided. [15,28] [double dagger] In accordance with the literature [15,28,29] [double dagger] and despite the use of CPM, the pain scores of the PCA group were significantly greater than those of the groups treated by regional analgesia. The greater analgesic efficacy noted in the regional analgesia groups was associated with greater knee flexion values (i.e., better quality rehabilitation).
Although not statistically significant, lower VAS scores were expressed by patients in the CEI group than by those treated with CFB, suggesting a greater analgesic effect provided by CEI. Although epidural analgesia remains the reference technique, CFB has been shown to be safe and to cause only few minor adverse effects, [12,13] thus providing the best balance of analgesia and side effects. In contrast to CEI, femoral blocks cause fewer episodes of low blood pressure and urinary retention; the latter, difficult to accept in the context of functional surgery, also increases the risk of infection arising from the use of urinary catheters.
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Rehabilitation
The novelty of this study lies in the 48‐h postoperative analysis of the quality of rehabilitation, functional outcome, and length of stay in the rehabilitation center. In contrast to PCA, the analgesic quality of the regional blocks allowed patients to consistently achieve the mobilization levels targeted by the surgeons. The optimized rehabilitation led to earlier functional recuperation reflected in the knee flexion values noted on day 5 and at discharge from the hospital, which were greater than those of the PCA group.
Similar findings have been reported in the literature. Syngelyn and Gouverneur [12] noted significantly better knee flexion from days 1 to 10 after total knee replacement surgery using CFB and CEI rather than PCA. As in the current study, a 10 [degree sign] advantage was noted in the regional analgesia groups on day 10. Comparing intramuscular morphine and CEI with local anesthetics during CPM after the same surgery, Pettine and Wedel [10] noted mean knee flexion values of 86 [degree sign] and 93 [degree sign], respectively, at discharge from the hospital 10–12 days after surgery. Moiniche et al. [11] performed the same comparison after total hip or knee replacement. When comparing the postoperative outcomes following unilateral primary total knee replacement under either epidural or general anesthesia, Williams‐Russo et al. [4] reported that epidural anesthesia was associated with more rapid achievement of postoperative goals. All rehabilitative milestones were reached earlier, with patients climbing stairs significantly earlier. However, none of the authors could show that accelerated functional recuperation resulted in decreased hospital stays. Pettine and Wedel [10] programmed a minimal hospital stay of 10 days, masking the prolonged rehabilitation caused by persistent pain in the intramuscular morphine group. Moiniche et al. [11] did not include early intensive rehabilitation in the study protocol, leaving the analgesic advantage of epidural analgesia unexploited. Because the hospital stay in our study was limited to 7 days, analysis was centered on the duration of stay in the rehabilitation center. The knee flexion values noted in the regional analgesia groups at discharge from the hospital, increased by 10 [degree sign] compared with the PCA group, significantly shortened the rehabilitation period required to reach the objective functional discharge criteria used by the physiatrist. In accordance with Pettine and Wedel, [10] follow‐up examinations at 1 and 3 months showed no functional differences among the groups, as reflected by knee flexion values. Although resolution of pain during the follow‐up period allowed the three group's functional results to be homogenized, early intensive rehabilitation, facilitated by regional analgesia, accelerated functional recuperation.
A multimodal recovery program including regional analgesic techniques and CPM should be privileged after major knee surgery. The augmented analgesic effect of the regional techniques on pain during early mobilization permitted the rehabilitative advantages of CPM to be maximized. When compared with the use of PCA, functional recuperation was accelerated, and the overall hospital stay was shortened. Similar findings were reported after colon surgery, [6] leading to Kehlet's [7] recommendation of regional analgesia techniques in 1994. The choice of regional techniques should be based on a careful evaluation of the benefits and risks. The routine use of CEI after knee surgery should be limited because shortening the global hospital stay justifies neither the discomfort of side effects nor the danger of potentially serious complications. In contrast, CFB seems to have all the qualities necessary to become the primary choice for regional analgesia after major knee surgery.
[double dagger] Hord AH, Roberson JR, Thompson WF, Cohen DE: Evaluation of continuous femoral nerve analgesia after primary total knee arthroplasty (abstract). Anesth Analg 1990; 70:S164.
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Journal of the Chinese Medical Association
Patient-machine interactions of intravenous patient-controlled analgesia in bilateral versus unilateral total knee arthroplasty: A retrospective study
Wang, YC; Teng, WN; Kuo, IT; Chang, KY; Chang, WK; Tsou, MY; Chan, KH; Ting, CK
Journal of the Chinese Medical Association, 76(6): 330-334.
10.1016/j.jcma.2013.02.005
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Javma-Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
Intraoperative antinociception and postoperative analgesia following epidural anesthesia versus femoral and sciatic nerve blockade in dogs undergoing stifle joint surgery
Caniglia, AM; Driessen, B; Puerto, DA; Bretz, B; Boston, RC; Larenza, MP
Javma-Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, 241(): 1605-1612.

Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research
Periarticular Injection in Knee Arthroplasty Improves Quadriceps Function
Chaumeron, A; Audy, D; Drolet, P; Lavigne, M; Vendittoli, PA
Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research, 471(7): 2284-2295.
10.1007/s11999-013-2928-4
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Orthopedics
Multimodal Pain Management in Orthopedics: Implications for Joint Arthroplasty Surgery
Parvizi, J; Bloomfield, MR
Orthopedics, 36(2): 7-14.
10.3928/01477447-20130122-51
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Journal of Clinical Anesthesia
The efficacy of automated intermittent boluses for continuous femoral nerve block: a prospective, randomized comparison to continuous infusions
Hillegass, MG; Field, LC; Stewart, SR; Borckardt, JJ; Dong, L; Kotlowski, PE; Demos, HA; Del Schutte, H; Reeves, ST
Journal of Clinical Anesthesia, 25(4): 281-288.
10.1016/j.jclinane.2012.11.015
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Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine
Continuous peripheral nerve block for ambulatory surgery
Grant, SA; Nielsen, KC; Greengrass, RA; Steele, SM; Klein, SM
Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine, 26(3): 209-214.

Anasthesiologie & Intensivmedizin
Postoperative pain therapy relative to the DRG system - Costs and benefits
Jage, J; Heid, F; Roth, W; Kunde, M
Anasthesiologie & Intensivmedizin, 43(5): 262-278.

British Journal of Anaesthesia
Comparison between patient-controlled analgesia and subcutaneous morphine in elderly patients after total hip replacement
Keita, H; Geachan, N; Dahmani, S; Couderc, E; Armand, C; Quazza, M; Mantz, J; Desmonts, JM
British Journal of Anaesthesia, 90(1): 53-57.
10.1093/bja/aeg019
CrossRef
Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
Early rehabilitation after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction under regional analgesia: A case report
Al-Nasser, B; Palacios, JL; Lapasset, L; Hattee, B; Leroy, F
Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 85(2): 344-346.
10.1016/j.apmr.2003.06.020
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Anasthesiologie & Intensivmedizin
Regional anaesthesia in patients with anticoagulative therapy
Neuburger, M; Buttner, J
Anasthesiologie & Intensivmedizin, 48(): S159-S162.

Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine
Postoperative analgesia after total-hip arthroplasty: Comparison of intravenous patient-controlled analgesia with morphine and single injection of femoral nerve or psoas compartment block. A prospective, randomized, double-blind study
Biboulet, P; Morau, D; Aubas, P; Bringuier-Branchereau, S; Capdevila, X
Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine, 29(2): 102-109.
10.1016/j.rapm.2003.11.006
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Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine
Minimally invasive retrieval of knotted nonstimulating peripheral nerve catheters
Burgher, AH; Hebl, JR
Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine, 32(2): 162-166.
10.1016/j.rapm.2006.11.010
CrossRef
Orthopade
A multimodal and multidisciplinary postoperative pain management concept
Ettrich, U; Seifert, J; Scharnagel, R; Gunther, KP
Orthopade, 36(6): 544-+.
10.1007/s00132-007-1103-6
CrossRef
European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
The efficacy of the psoas compartment block versus the intrathecal combination of morphine, fentanyl and bupivacaine for postoperative analgesia after primary hip arthroplasty: a randomized single-blinded study
Frassanito, L; Rodola, F; Concina, G; Messina, A; Chierichini, A; Vergari, A
European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences, 12(2): 117-122.

British Journal of Anaesthesia
Determination of the EC50 of levobupivacaine for femoral and sciatic perineural infusion after total knee arthroplasty
McLeod, GA; Dale, J; Robinson, D; Checketts, M; Columb, MO; Luck, J; Wigderowitz, C; Rowley, D
British Journal of Anaesthesia, 102(4): 528-533.
10.1093/bja/aep010
CrossRef
Anesthesia and Analgesia
Health-Related Quality of Life After Tricompartment Knee Arthroplasty With and Without an Extended-Duration Continuous Femoral Nerve Block: A Prospective, 1-Year Follow-Up of a Randomized, Triple-Masked, Placebo-Controlled Study
Ilfeld, BM; Meyer, RS; Le, LT; Mariano, ER; Williams, BA; Vandenborne, K; Duncan, PW; Sessler, DI; Enneking, FK; Shuster, JJ; Maldonado, RC; Gearen, PF
Anesthesia and Analgesia, 108(4): 1320-1325.
10.1213/ane.0b013e3181964937
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Anesthesia and Analgesia
Perioperative Oral Pregabalin Reduces Chronic Pain After Total Knee Arthroplasty: A Prospective, Randomized, Controlled Trial
Buvanendran, A; Kroin, JS; Della Valle, CJ; Kari, M; Moric, M; Tuman, KJ
Anesthesia and Analgesia, 110(1): 199-207.
10.1213/ANE.0b013e3181c4273a
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Canadian Journal of Anaesthesia-Journal Canadien D Anesthesie
Ropivacaine plasma concentrations are similar during continuous lumbar plexus blockade using the anterior three-in-one and the posterior psoas compartment techniques
Kaloul, I; Guay, J; Cote, C; Halwagi, A; Varin, F
Canadian Journal of Anaesthesia-Journal Canadien D Anesthesie, 51(1): 52-56.

Anesthesia and Analgesia
Adding clonidine to the induction bolus and postoperative infusion during continuous femoral nerve block delays recovery of motor function after total knee arthroplasty
Casati, A; Vinciguerra, F; Cappelleri, G; Aldegheri, G; Fanelli, G; Putzu, M; Chelly, JE
Anesthesia and Analgesia, 100(3): 866-872.
10.1213/01.ANE.0000143952.75985.8F
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Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine
Approaches to the lumbar plexus: Success, risks, and outcome
Capdevila, X; Coimbra, C; Choquet, O
Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine, 30(2): 150-162.
10.1016/j.rapm.2004.12.007
CrossRef
Anasthesiologie & Intensivmedizin
Modern fasttracking - multimodal concepts for the future?
Weiss, S; Kratz, C; Putzke, C; Schleppers, A; Wulf, H; Geldner, G
Anasthesiologie & Intensivmedizin, 46(): S33-S39.

Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine
Continuous versus single-injection lumbar plexus blocks: Comparison of the effects on morphine use and early recovery after total knee arthroplasty
Watson, MW; Mitra, D; McLintock, TC; Grant, SA
Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine, 30(6): 541-547.
10.1016/j.rapm.2005.06.006
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Journal of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons
Analgesia for total hip and knee arthroplasty: A multimodal pathway featuring peripheral nerve block
Horlocker, TT; Kopp, SL; Pagnano, MW; Hebl, JR
Journal of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons, 14(3): 126-135.

Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine
The effect of single-injection femoral nerve block on rehabilitation and length of hospital stay after total knee replacement
Wang, H; Boctor, B; Verner, J
Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine, 27(2): 139-144.
10.1053/rapm.2002.29253
CrossRef
Advances in Modelling and Clinical Application of Intravenous Anaesthesia
Advances in regional anaesthesia and analgesia
Borgeat, A; Ekatodramis, G
Advances in Modelling and Clinical Application of Intravenous Anaesthesia, 523(): 261-268.

Anesthesia and Analgesia
Postoperative analgesia after knee surgery: A comparison of three different concentrations of ropivacaine for continuous femoral nerve blockade
Brodner, G; Buerkle, H; Van Aken, H; Lambert, R; Schweppe-Hartenauer, ML; Wempe, C; Gogarten, W
Anesthesia and Analgesia, 105(1): 256-262.
10.1213/01.ane.0000265552.43299.2b
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Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine
Perioperative interscalene block versus intra-articular injection of local anesthetics for postoperative analgesia in shoulder surgery
Beaudet, V; Williams, SR; Tetreault, P; Perrault, MA
Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine, 33(2): 134-138.
10.1016/j.rapm.2007.10.005
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British Journal of Anaesthesia
Use of a stimulating catheter for total knee replacement surgery: preliminary results
Jack, NTM; Liem, EB; Vonhogen, LH
British Journal of Anaesthesia, 95(2): 250-254.
10.1093/bja/aei161
CrossRef
Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery-American Volume
Evaluation of a single-dose, extended-release epidural morphine formulation for pain after knee arthroplasty
Hartrick, CT; Martin, G; Kantor, G; Koncelik, J; Manvelian, G
Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery-American Volume, 88A(2): 273-281.
10.2106/JBJS.D.02738
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Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery-American Volume
A multimodal analgesia protocol for total knee arthroplasty - A randomized, controlled study
Vendittoli, PA; Makinen, P; Drolet, P; Lavigne, M; Fallaha, M; Guertin, MC; Varin, F
Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery-American Volume, 88A(2): 282-289.
10.2106/JBJS.E.00173
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Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine
Regional anesthesia in the immunocompromised patient
Horlocker, TT; Wedel, DJ
Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine, 31(4): 334-345.
10.1016/j.rapm.2006.04.002
CrossRef
Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine
Perioperative analgesia with posterior continuous lumbar plexus block for simultaneous ipsilateral total hip and knee arthroplasty
Faust, AM; Fournier, R; Gamulin, Z
Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine, 31(6): 591.
10.1016/j.rapm.2006.08.007
CrossRef
Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine
Hospitalization costs of total knee arthroplasty with a continuous femoral nerve block provided only in the hospital versus on an ambulatory basis: A retrospective, case-control, cost-minimization analysis
Ilfeld, BM; Mariano, ER; Williams, BA; Woodard, JN; Macario, A
Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine, 32(1): 46-54.
10.1016/j.rapm.2006.10.010
CrossRef
Anaesthesia, Pain, Intensive Care and Emergency Medicine - Apice 14
Fast-track anaesthesia and postoperative care: Orthopaedic surgery
Sharrock, NE
Anaesthesia, Pain, Intensive Care and Emergency Medicine - Apice 14, (): 219-224.

Journal of Clinical Anesthesia
A unique approach to postoperative analgesia for ambulatory surgery
Corda, DM; Enneking, FK; Vloka, JD; Hadzic, A
Journal of Clinical Anesthesia, 12(8): 595-599.

Anesthesia and Analgesia
Small-dose S(+)-ketamine reduces postoperative pain when applied with ropivacaine in epidural anesthesia for total knee arthroplasty
Himmelseher, S; Ziegler-Pithamitsis, D; Argiriadou, H; Martin, J; Jelen-Esselborn, S; Kochs, E
Anesthesia and Analgesia, 92(5): 1290-1295.

Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine
Location, location, location: Continuous peripheral nerve blocks and stimulating catheters
Salinas, FV
Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine, 28(2): 79-82.
10.1053/rapm.2003.50033
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Chirurg
Postoperative pain therapy
Simanski, C; Neugebauer, E
Chirurg, 74(3): 254-274.
10.1007/s00104-003-0625-7
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Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine
Lower-extremity peripheral nerve blockade: Essentials of our current understanding
Enneking, FK; Chan, V; Greger, J; Hadzic, A; Lang, SA; Horlocker, TT
Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine, 30(1): 4-35.
10.1016/j.rapm.2004.10.002
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British Journal of Anaesthesia
Epidural analgesia compared with peripheral nerve blockade after major knee surgery: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized trials
Fowler, SJ; Symons, J; Sabato, S; Myles, PS
British Journal of Anaesthesia, 100(2): 154-164.
10.1093/bja/aem373
CrossRef
Pain Management Nursing
Incidence of Urinary Retention in Patients with Thoracic Patient-Controlled Epidural Analgesia (TPCEA) Undergoing Thoracotomy
Ladak, SSJ; Katznelson, R; Muscat, M; Sawhney, M; Beattie, WS; O'Leary, G
Pain Management Nursing, 10(2): 94-98.
10.1016/j.pmn.2008.08.001
CrossRef
Canadian Journal of Anaesthesia-Journal Canadien D Anesthesie
Preoperative opioid consumption increases morphine requirement after leg amputation
Roullet, S; Nouette-Gaulain, K; Biais, M; Bernard, N; Benard, A; Revel, P; Capdevila, X; Sztark, F
Canadian Journal of Anaesthesia-Journal Canadien D Anesthesie, 56(): 908-913.
10.1007/s12630-009-9185-8
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Anesthesia and Analgesia
Using stimulating catheters for continuous sciatic nerve block shortens onset time of surgical block and minimizes postoperative consumption of pain medication after halux valgus repair as compared with conventional nonstimulating catheters
Casati, A; Fanelli, G; Koscielniak-Nielsen, Z; Cappelleri, G; Aldegheri, G; Danelli, G; Fuzier, R; Singelyn, F
Anesthesia and Analgesia, 101(4): 1192-1197.
10.1213/01.ane.0000167232.10305.cd
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Anesthesia and Analgesia
Continuous femoral nerve blockade or epidural analgesia after total knee replacement: A prospective randomized controlled trial
Barrington, MJ; Olive, D; Low, K; Scott, DA; Brittain, J; Choong, P
Anesthesia and Analgesia, 101(6): 1824-1829.
10.1213/01.ANE.0000184113.57416.DD
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Anesthesia and Analgesia
Update on acute pain management
Rowlingson, JC
Anesthesia and Analgesia, (): 95-106.

Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery-American Volume
Preventing the development of chronic pain after orthopaedic surgery with preventive multimodal analgesic techniques
Reuben, SS; Buvanendran, A
Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery-American Volume, 89A(6): 1343-1358.

Anasthesiologie & Intensivmedizin
Optimizing clinical pathways by regional anaesthesia procedures
Heller, AR; Litz, RJ; Koch, T
Anasthesiologie & Intensivmedizin, 48(): 306-+.

Anaesthesia
Selected new antithrombotic agents and neuraxial anaesthesia for major orthopaedic surgery: management strategies
Rosencher, N; Bonnet, MP; Sessler, DI
Anaesthesia, 62(): 1154-1160.
10.1111/j.1365-2044.2007.05195.x
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Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine
"Bending sign technique": A trick to perform femoral block. Selective nerve stimulation in femoral block
Muret, AG; Aliaga, L; Landeira, JMV
Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine, 25(6): 661-662.

Annales Francaises D Anesthesie Et De Reanimation
Use of ropivacaine for postoperative epidural analgesia
Senard, M; Joris, J
Annales Francaises D Anesthesie Et De Reanimation, 21(9): 713-724.
PII S0750-7658(02)00781-5
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Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia
Equine analgesia special issue
Taylor, PM
Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia, 30(3): 121-123.

Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica
Postoperative extradural analgesia with morphine and ropivacaine. A double-blind comparison between placebo and ropivacaine 10 mg/h or 16 mg/h
Axelsson, K; Johanzon, E; Essving, P; Weckstrom, J; Ekback, G
Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica, 49(8): 1191-1199.
10.1111/j.1399-6576.2005.00716.x
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Anaesthesia, Pain, Intensive Care and Emergency Medicine
Anaesthesia in orthopaedic surgery
Borghi, B; Frugiuele, J; Adduci, A
Anaesthesia, Pain, Intensive Care and Emergency Medicine, (): 677-684.

Anasthesiologie Intensivmedizin Notfallmedizin Schmerztherapie
Stimulation catheter as a new principle in daily practice
Lehner, C; Neuburger, M; Lang, D; Buttner, J
Anasthesiologie Intensivmedizin Notfallmedizin Schmerztherapie, 42(1): 4-5.

Anesthesia and Analgesia
Stimulating catheters for continuous femoral nerve blockade after total knee arthroplasty: A randomized, controlled, double-blinded trial
Barrington, MJ; Olive, DJ; McCutcheon, CA; Scarff, C; Said, S; Kluger, R; Gillett, N; Choong, P
Anesthesia and Analgesia, 106(4): 1316-1321.
10.1213/ane.0b013e318164efd1
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Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia
Distribution of a lidocaine-methylene blue solution staining in brachial plexus, lumbar plexus and sciatic nerve blocks in the dog
Campoy, L; Martin-Flores, M; Looney, AL; Erb, HN; Ludders, JW; Stewart, JE; Gleed, RD; Asakawa, M
Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia, 35(4): 348-354.
10.1111/j.1467-2995.2007.00390.x
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Anaesthesist
Concepts for perioperative pain therapy. A critical stocktaking
Reichl, S; Pogatzki-Zahn, E
Anaesthesist, 58(9): 914-+.
10.1007/s00101-009-1589-x
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Anaesthesia and Intensive Care
Management of postoperative epidural analgesia: A survey of Australian practice
Jastrzab, G; Fairbrother, G; Khor, KE
Anaesthesia and Intensive Care, 29(3): 266-272.

Orthopedics
Thromboprophylaxis and neuraxial anesthesia
Horlocker, TT
Orthopedics, 26(2): S243-S249.

Anesthesia and Analgesia
The use of a continuous popliteal sciatic nerve block after surgery involving the foot and ankle: Does it improve the quality of recovery?
White, PF; Issioui, T; Skrivanek, GD; Early, JS; Wakefield, C
Anesthesia and Analgesia, 97(5): 1303-1309.
10.1213/01.ANE.0000082242.84015.D4
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British Journal of Anaesthesia
Respiratory and haemodynamic effects of acute postoperative pain management: evidence from published data
Cashman, JN; Dolin, SJ
British Journal of Anaesthesia, 93(2): 212-223.
10.1093/bja/aeh180
CrossRef
Journal of Clinical Anesthesia
Does the evidence support the use of spinal and epidural anesthesia for surgery?
Battantyne, JC; Kupelnick, B; McPeek, B; Lau, J
Journal of Clinical Anesthesia, 17(5): 382-391.
10.1016/j.jclinane.2004.10.005
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Pain Medicine
Responding to challenges in modern combat casualty care: Innovative use of advanced regional anesthesia
Stojadinovic, A; Auton, A; Peoples, GE; McKnight, GM; Shields, C; Croll, SM; Bleckner, LL; Winkley, J; Maniscalco-Theberge, ME; Buckenmaier, CC
Pain Medicine, 7(4): 330-338.

Anesthesia and Analgesia
Obturator versus femoral nerve block for analgesia after total knee arthroplasty
Kardash, K; Hickey, D; Tessler, MJ; Payne, S; Zukor, D; Velly, AM
Anesthesia and Analgesia, 105(3): 853-858.
10.1213/01.ane.0000278158.36843.f7
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Annales Francaises D Anesthesie Et De Reanimation
Peripheral nerve block in orthopaedic surgery: multicentric evaluation of practicing professionnels and impact on the activity of the recovery room
Fuzier, R; Cuvillon, P; Delcourt, J; Lupescu, R; Bonnemaison, J; Bloc, S; Theissen, A; Berthou, P; Malassine, P; Richez, AS
Annales Francaises D Anesthesie Et De Reanimation, 26(9): 761-768.
10.1016/j.annfar.2007.07.001
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Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research
Functional Outcome of Femoral versus Obturator Nerve Block after Total Knee Arthroplasty
Bergeron, SG; Kardash, KJ; Huk, OL; Zukor, DJ; Antoniou, J
Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research, 467(6): 1458-1462.
10.1007/s11999-009-0732-y
CrossRef
British Journal of Anaesthesia
Does regional anaesthesia improve outcome after total hip arthroplasty? A systematic review
Macfarlane, AJR; Prasad, GA; Chan, VWS; Brull, R
British Journal of Anaesthesia, 103(3): 335-345.
10.1093/bja/aep208
CrossRef
European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
Anaesthesia for total knee arthroplasty: efficacy of single-injection or continuous lumbar plexus associated with sciatic nerve blocks - A randomized controlled study
Frassanito, L; Vergari, A; Messina, A; Pitoni, S; Puglisi, C; Chierichini, A
European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences, 13(5): 375-382.

Journal of Pain
Analgesic treatment before incision compared with treatment after incision provides no improvement in postoperative pain relief
Brennan, TJ; Taylor, BK
Journal of Pain, 1(2): 96-98.

Arthroscopy-the Journal of Arthroscopic and Related Surgery
Shared decision making, preoperative expectations, and postoperative reality: Differences in physician and patient predictions and ratings of knee surgery outcomes
Rosenberger, PH; Jokl, P; Cameron, A; Ickovics, JR
Arthroscopy-the Journal of Arthroscopic and Related Surgery, 21(5): 562-569.
10.1016/j.arthro.2005.02.022
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Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine
Management of postoperative analgesia in elderly patients
Aubrun, F
Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine, 30(4): 363-379.
10.1016/j.rapm.2005.02.006
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Orthopade
Perioperative pain therapy for knee endoprosthetics
Wagner, KJ; Kochs, EF; Krautheim, V; Gerdesmeyer, L
Orthopade, 35(2): 153-+.
10.1007/s00132-005-0907-5
CrossRef
Anesthesia and Analgesia
The analgesic efficacy of transversus abdominis plane block after abdominal surgery: A prospective randomized controlled trial
McDonnell, JG; O'Donnell, B; Curley, G; Heffernan, A; Power, C; Laffey, JG
Anesthesia and Analgesia, 104(1): 193-197.
10.1213/01.ane.0000250223.49963.0f
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Proceedings of the 12th International Pain Clinic: World Society of Pain Clinicians
Does postoperative analgesia affect outcome?
Rawal, N
Proceedings of the 12th International Pain Clinic: World Society of Pain Clinicians, (): 29-32.

Anesthesia and Analgesia
Complications and adverse effects associated with continuous peripheral nerve blocks in orthopedic patients
Wiegel, M; Gottschaldt, U; Hennebach, R; Hirschberg, T; Reske, A
Anesthesia and Analgesia, 104(6): 1578-1582.
10.1213/01.ane.0000261260.69083.f3
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Anesthesia and Analgesia
Epidural clonidine for postoperative pain after total knee arthroplasty: A dose-response study
Huang, YS; Lin, LC; Huh, BK; Sheen, MJ; Yeh, CC; Wong, CS; Wu, CT
Anesthesia and Analgesia, 104(5): 1230-1235.
10.1213/01.ane.0000263284.34950.f4
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Anaesthesia
Femoral nerve block using ropivacaine 0.025%, 0.05% and 0.1%: effects on the rehabilitation programme following total knee arthroplasty: a pilot study
Paauwe, JJ; Thomassen, BJ; Weterings, J; van Rossum, E; Ausems, ME
Anaesthesia, 63(9): 948-953.
10.1111/j.1365-2044.2008.05538.x
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Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research
Does Regional Anesthesia Improve Outcome After Total Knee Arthroplasty?
Macfarlane, AJR; Prasad, GA; Chan, VWS; Brull, R
Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research, 467(9): 2379-2402.
10.1007/s11999-008-0666-9
CrossRef
Current Drug Targets
Anesthetic and Adjunctive Drugs for Fast-Track Surgery
Baldini, G; Carli, F
Current Drug Targets, 10(8): 667-686.

Anaesthesist
Peripheral nerve blocks of the lower extremities
Reske, AW; Reske, AP; Meier, V; Wiegel, M
Anaesthesist, 58(): 1055-1070.
10.1007/s00101-009-1610-4
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Anesthesia and Analgesia
Does femoral nerve catheter placement with stimulating catheters improve effective placement? A randomized, controlled, and observer-blinded trial
Morin, AM; Eberhart, LHJ; Behnke, HKE; Wagner, S; Koch, T; Wolf, U; Nau, W; Kill, C; Geldner, G; Wulf, H
Anesthesia and Analgesia, 100(5): 1503-1510.
10.1213/01.ANE.0000151160.93288.0A
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Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine
Joint range of motion after total shoulder arthroplasty with and without a continuous interscalene nerve block: A retrospective, case-control study
Ilfeld, BM; Wright, TW; Enneking, FK; Morey, TE
Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine, 30(5): 429-433.
10.1016/j.rapm.2005.06.003
CrossRef
Bioconjugate Chemistry
Synthesis and evaluation of hydrolyzable hyaluronan-tethered bupivacaine delivery systems
Gianolio, DA; Philbrook, M; Avila, LZ; MacGregor, H; Duan, SX; Bernasconi, R; Slavsky, M; Dethlefsen, S; Jarrett, PK; Miller, RJ
Bioconjugate Chemistry, 16(6): 1512-1518.
10.1021/bc050239a
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Anesthesia and Analgesia
Update in use of continuous perineural catheters for postoperative analgesia
Liu, SS
Anesthesia and Analgesia, (): 64-67.

Anaesthesia and Intensive Care
Effectiveness of 3-in-1 continuous femoral block of differing concentrations compared to patient controlled intravenous morphine for post total knee arthroplasty analgesia and knee rehabilitation
Seet, E; Leong, WL; Yeo, ASN; Fook-Chong, S
Anaesthesia and Intensive Care, 34(1): 25-30.

Anesthesia and Analgesia
A comparison of epidural analgesia with combined continuous femoral-sciatic nerve blocks after total knee replacement
Zaric, D; Boysen, K; Christiansen, C; Christiansen, J; Stephensen, S; Christensen, B
Anesthesia and Analgesia, 102(4): 1240-1246.
10.1213/01.ane.0000198561.03742.50
CrossRef
Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine
Comparison of analgesic methods for total knee arthroplasty: Metabolic effect of exogenous glucose
Mistraletti, G; De la Cuadra-Fontaine, JC; Asenjo, FJ; Donatelli, F; Wykes, L; Schricker, T; Carli, F
Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine, 31(3): 260-269.
10.1016/j.rapm.2006.02.005
CrossRef
Anaesthesia and Intensive Care
Knotted femoral nerve catheter
Rudd, K; Hall, PJ
Anaesthesia and Intensive Care, 32(2): 282-283.

Proceedings of the 7Th Biennial Congress Asian & Oceanic Society of Regional Anesthesia & Pain Medicine
Promoting regional anesthesia and pain medicine: The North American experience
Horlocker, TT
Proceedings of the 7Th Biennial Congress Asian & Oceanic Society of Regional Anesthesia & Pain Medicine, (): 69-72.

Anasthesiologie Intensivmedizin Notfallmedizin Schmerztherapie
Are peripheral nerve blocks of the leg (Femoralis in combination with anterior sciantic blockade) as sole anaesthetic technique an alternative to epidural anaesthesia
Weihrauch, JO; Jehmlich, M; Leischik, M; Hopf, HB
Anasthesiologie Intensivmedizin Notfallmedizin Schmerztherapie, 40(1): 18-24.
10.1055/s-2004-826200
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Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica
Anterior sciatic nerve block - new landmarks and clinical experience
Wiegel, M; Reske, A; Hennebach, R; Schmidt, F; Elias, T; Gupta, H; Olthoff, D
Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica, 49(4): 552-557.
10.1111/j.1399-6576.2005.00675.x
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Anesthesia and Analgesia
Clonidine added to a continuous interscalene ropivacaine perineural infusion to improve postoperative analgesia: A randomized, double-blind, controlled study
Ilfeld, BM; Morey, TE; Thannikary, LJ; Wright, TW; Enneking, FK
Anesthesia and Analgesia, 100(4): 1172-1178.
10.1097/01.ASN.0000145571.41015.D5
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Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine
Continuous sciatic nerve block and total-knee arthroplasty
Sciard, D; Lam, N; Hussain, M
Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine, 30(4): 411-412.
10.1016/j.rapm.2005.05.002
CrossRef
Anaesthesist
Peripheral neuronal blockade. A review of new developments of an old technique
Graf, BM; Martin, E
Anaesthesist, 50(5): 312-322.

British Journal of Anaesthesia
Effectiveness of acute postoperative pain management: I. Evidence from published data
Dolin, SJ; Cashman, JN; Bland, JM
British Journal of Anaesthesia, 89(3): 409-423.

Journal of Clinical Anesthesia
The association of intraoperative neuraxial anesthesia on anticipated admission to the intensive care unit
Kaufmann, SC; Wu, CL; Pronovost, PJ; Jermyn, RM; Fleisher, LA
Journal of Clinical Anesthesia, 14(6): 432-436.
PII S0952-8180(02)00392-6
CrossRef
European Journal of Anaesthesiology
Sciatic nerve block and the improvement of femoral nerve block analgesia after total knee replacement
Weber, A; Fournier, R; Van Gessel, E; Gamulin, Z
European Journal of Anaesthesiology, 19(): 834-836.

Anesthesia and Analgesia
Continuous plexus and peripheral nerve blocks for postoperative analgesia
Liu, SS; Salinas, FV
Anesthesia and Analgesia, 96(1): 263-272.
10.1213/01.ANE.0000038477.85131.34
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Anesthesia and Analgesia
Analgesia after total knee arthroplasty: Is continuous sciatic blockade needed in addition to continuous femoral blockade?
Ben-David, B; Schmalenberger, K; Chelly, JE
Anesthesia and Analgesia, 98(3): 747-749.

Journal of Arthroplasty
Continuous Femoral Nerve Block in Total Knee Arthroplasty: Immediate and Two-Year Outcomes
Shum, CF; Lo, NN; Yeo, SJ; Yang, KY; Chong, HC; Yeo, SN
Journal of Arthroplasty, 24(2): 204-209.
10.1016/j.arth.2007.09.014
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Anesthesia and Analgesia
Bacterial Colonization After Tunneling in 402 Perineural Catheters: A Prospective Study
Compere, V; Legrand, JF; Guitard, PG; Azougagh, K; Baert, O; Ouennich, A; Fourdrinier, V; Frebourg, N; Dureuil, B
Anesthesia and Analgesia, 108(4): 1326-1330.
10.1213/ane.0b013e31819673aa
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Schmerz
Pain therapy using stimulating catheters after total knee arthroplasty
Fritze, P; Anderl, S; Marouf, A; Cumlivski, R; Muller, C; Pernicka, E; Redl, G
Schmerz, 23(3): 292-298.
10.1007/s00482-009-0781-x
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Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine
Methods to Ease Placement of Stimulating Catheters During In-Plane Ultrasound-Guided Femoral Nerve Block
Niazi, AU; Prasad, A; Ramlogan, R; Chan, VWS
Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine, 34(4): 380-381.

Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica
Femoral nerve block with ropivacaine or bupivacaine in day case anterior crucial ligament reconstruction
Wulf, H; Lowe, J; Gnutzmann, KH; Steinfeldt, T
Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica, 54(4): 414-420.
10.1111/j.1399-6576.2009.02200.x
CrossRef
Anaesthesist
Indication for central versus peripheral regional anesthesia
Beland, B; Prien, T; Van Aken, H
Anaesthesist, 49(6): 495-504.

Anesthesia and Analgesia
Does continuous peripheral nerve block provide superior pain control to opioids? A meta-analysis
Richman, JM; Liu, SS; Courpas, G; Wong, R; Rowlingson, AJ; McGready, J; Cohen, SR; Wu, CL
Anesthesia and Analgesia, 102(1): 248-257.
10.1213/01.ANE.0000181289.09675.7D
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Anasthesiologie Intensivmedizin Notfallmedizin Schmerztherapie
Nerve stimulation based peripheral regional anesthesia: Technique of the old-fashioned or sonography-directed peripheral regional anesthesia a technique for ninnies?
Behnke, H
Anasthesiologie Intensivmedizin Notfallmedizin Schmerztherapie, 41(4): 267-269.
10.1055/s-2006-925272
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Journal of Arthroplasty
Prospective analysis of a novel long-acting oral opioid analgesic regimen for pain control after total hip and knee arthroplasty
Illgen, RL; Pellino, TA; Gordon, DB; Butts, S; Heiner, JP
Journal of Arthroplasty, 21(6): 814-820.
10.1016/j.arth.2005.10.011
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Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica
Inflammation and infection complications of 2285 perineural catheters: a prospective study
Neuburger, M; Buttner, J; Blumenthal, S; Breitbarth, J; Borgeat, A
Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica, 51(1): 108-114.
10.1111/j.1399-6576.2006.01173.x
CrossRef
Anesthesia and Analgesia
Does patient-controlled continuous interscalene block improve early functional rehabilitation after open shoulder surgery?
Hofmann-Kiefer, K; Eiser, T; Chappell, D; Leuschner, S; Conzen, P; Schwender, D
Anesthesia and Analgesia, 106(3): 991-996.
10.1213/ane.0b013e31816151ab
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Chirurgie De La Main
Postoperative analgesia with continuous intra-articular infusion of ropivacaine following trapeziectomy
Pelissier, P; Svartz, L; Rakotondriamihary, S; Nouette-Gaulin, K; Dousset, V
Chirurgie De La Main, 27(5): 222-226.
10.1016/j.main.2008.08.013
CrossRef
Anesthesia and Analgesia
Lumbar plexus posterior approach: A catheter placement description using electrical nerve stimulation
Pandin, PC; Vandesteene, A; d'Hollander, AA
Anesthesia and Analgesia, 95(5): 1428-1431.
10.1213/01.ANE.0000030872.04861.05
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Anasthesiologie Intensivmedizin Notfallmedizin Schmerztherapie
Anaesthesia in orthopedics and traumasurgery
Wilhelm, S; Standl, T
Anasthesiologie Intensivmedizin Notfallmedizin Schmerztherapie, 39(5): 297-325.
10.1055/s-2004-814544
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Current Orthopaedics
Mini-symposium: Shoulder instability - (iii) Anaesthesia for shoulder surgery
Borgeat, A; Blumenthal, S
Current Orthopaedics, 18(2): 109-117.
10.1016/j.cuor.2004.02.004
CrossRef
British Journal of Anaesthesia
Epidural infusion or combined femoral and sciatic nerve blocks as perioperative analgesia for knee arthroplasty
Davies, AF; Segar, EP; Murdoch, J; Wright, DE; Wilson, IH
British Journal of Anaesthesia, 93(3): 368-374.
10.1093/bja/aeh224
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Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine
Management of perioperative pain in patients chronically consuming opioids
Carroll, IR; Angst, MS; Clark, JD
Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine, 29(6): 576-591.
10.1016/j.rapm.2004.06.009
CrossRef
Anesthesia and Analgesia
Neuraxial anesthesia and low-molecular-weight heparin prophylaxis in major orthopedic surgery in the wake of the latest American Society of Regional Anesthesia guidelines
Rowlingson, JC; Hanson, PB
Anesthesia and Analgesia, 100(5): 1482-1488.
10.1213/01.ANE.0000148683.54686.0F
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Drugs
Patient-controlled analgesia in the management of postoperative pain
Momeni, M; Crucitti, M; De Kock, M
Drugs, 66(): 2321-2337.

Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research
Can epidural Anesthesia and warfarin be coadministered?
Parvizi, J; Viscusi, ER; Frank, HG; Sharkey, PF; Hozack, WJ; Rothman, RR
Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research, (): 133-137.
10.1097/01.blo.0000246548.25811.2d
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Anesthesia and Analgesia
Continuous peripheral nerve blockade for inpatient and outpatient postoperative analgesia in children
Ganesh, A; Rose, JB; Wells, L; Ganley, T; Gurnaney, H; Maxwell, LG; DiMaggio, T; Milovcich, K; Scollon, M; Feldman, JM; Cucchiaro, G
Anesthesia and Analgesia, 105(5): 1234-1242.
10.1213/01.ane.0000284670.17412.66
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Anesthesia and Analgesia
A prospective randomized trial on the role of perioperative celecoxib administration for total knee arthroplasty: Improving clinical outcomes
Reuben, SS; Buvenandran, A; Katz, B; Kroin, JS
Anesthesia and Analgesia, 106(4): 1258-1264.
10.1213/ane.0b013e318165e208
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Knee
Femoral nerve block for total knee replacement - A word of caution
Kandasami, M; Kinninmonth, AWG; Sarungi, M; Baines, J; Scott, NB
Knee, 16(2): 98-100.
10.1016/j.knee.2008.10.007
CrossRef
British Journal of Anaesthesia
Fractured femur in the elderly: intensive perioperative care is warranted
Sharrock, NE
British Journal of Anaesthesia, 84(2): 139-140.

Anaesthesist
Peripheral nerve blockades of the lower extremities
Meier, G
Anaesthesist, 50(7): 536-+.

Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine
Postoperative analgesia by femoral nerve block with ropivacaine 0.2% after major knee surgery: Continuous versus patient-controlled techniques
Eledjam, JJ; Cuvillon, P; Capdevila, X; Macaire, P; Serri, S; Gaertner, E; Jochum, D
Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine, 27(6): 604-611.
10.1053/rapm.2002.36454
CrossRef
Canadian Journal of Anaesthesia-Journal Canadien D Anesthesie
Intrathecal morphine provides better postoperative analgesia than psoas compartment block after primary hip arthroplasty
Souron, V; Delaunay, L; Schifrine, P
Canadian Journal of Anaesthesia-Journal Canadien D Anesthesie, 50(6): 574-579.

British Journal of Anaesthesia
Influence of anaesthetic and analgesic techniques on outcome after surgery
Bonnet, F; Marret, E
British Journal of Anaesthesia, 95(1): 52-58.
10.1093/bja/aei038
CrossRef
Anesthesia and Analgesia
The feasibility and complications of the continuous popliteal nerve block: A 1001-case survey
Borgeat, A; Blumenthal, S; Lambert, M; Theodorou, P; Vienne, P
Anesthesia and Analgesia, 103(1): 229-233.
10.1213/01.ane.0000221462.87951.8d
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Journal of Arthroplasty
A pilot study on continuous femoral perineural catheter for analgesia after total knee arthroplasty - The effect on physical rehabilitation and outcomes
De Ruyter, ML; Brueilly, KE; Harrison, BA; Greengrass, RA; Putzke, JD; Brodersen, MP
Journal of Arthroplasty, 21(8): 1111-1117.
10.1016/j.arth.2005.12.005
CrossRef
Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia
Development and verification of saphenous, tibial and common peroneal nerve block techniques for analgesia below the thigh in the nonchondrodystrophoid dog
Rasmussen, LM; Lipowitz, AJ; Graham, LF
Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia, 33(1): 36-48.
10.1111/j.1467-2995.2005.00234.x
CrossRef
Annales Francaises D Anesthesie Et De Reanimation
Perineal regional anaesthesia: indications in gynaecologic and proctologic surgery and in obstetric
Bolandard, F; Bonnin, M; Duband, P; Mission, JP; Bazin, JE
Annales Francaises D Anesthesie Et De Reanimation, 25(): 1127-1133.
10.1016/j.annfar.2006.06.014
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Journal of Clinical Anesthesia
Single-injection femoral nerve block with 0.25% ropivacaine or 0.25% bupivacaine for postoperative analgesia after total knee replacement or anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction
Souza, RDE; Correa, CH; Henriques, MD; de Oliveira, CB; Nunes, TA; Gomez, RS
Journal of Clinical Anesthesia, 20(7): 521-527.
10.1016/j.jclinane.2008.05.016
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Annales Francaises D Anesthesie Et De Reanimation
Effect of local anesthetics on the postoperative inflammatory response
Beloeil, H; Mazoit, JX
Annales Francaises D Anesthesie Et De Reanimation, 28(3): 231-237.
10.1016/j.annfar.2008.12.021
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Journal of Ultrasound in Medicine
Ultrasound Guidance Versus Electrical Stimulation for Femoral Perineural Catheter Insertion
Mariano, ER; Loland, VJ; Sandhu, NS; Bellars, RH; Bishop, ML; Afra, R; Ball, ST; Meyer, RS; Maldonado, RC; Ilfeld, BM
Journal of Ultrasound in Medicine, 28(): 1453-1460.

Anesthesia and Analgesia
Extended "three-in-one" block after total knee arthroplasty: Continuous versus patient-controlled techniques
Singelyn, FJ; Gouverneur, JMA
Anesthesia and Analgesia, 91(1): 176-180.

Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery
Pain management in cats - past, present and future. Part 1. The cat is unique
Taylor, PM; Robertson, SA
Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery, 6(5): 313-320.
10.1016/j.jfms.2003.10.003
CrossRef
Journal of Arthroplasty
Guidelines and alternatives for neuraxial anesthesia and venous thromboembolism prophylaxis in major orthopedic surgery
Hantler, C; Despotis, GJ; Sinha, R; Chelly, JE
Journal of Arthroplasty, 19(8): 1004-1016.
10.1016/j.arth.2004.04.018
CrossRef
Pediatric Anesthesia
Continuous peripheral nerve blocks
Ivani, G; Mossetti, V
Pediatric Anesthesia, 15(2): 87-90.
10.1111/j.1460-9592.2005.01463.x
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Chirurg
Post-operative pain therapy - an interdisciplinary necessity
Jage, J; Tryba, M; Neugebauer, E; Wulf, H; Rothmund, M; Rommens, PM; Bauer, H; van Aken, H
Chirurg, 76(2): M34-M39.

Journal of Pain and Symptom Management
Recent developments in patient-controlled analgesia
Lehmann, KA
Journal of Pain and Symptom Management, 29(5): S72-S89.
10.1016/j.jpainsymman.2005.01.005
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Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research
Regional anesthesia in hip surgery
Indelli, PF; Grant, SA; Nielsen, K; Vail, TP
Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research, (): 250-255.
10.1097/01.blo.0000192355.71966.8e
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Eklem Hastaliklari Ve Cerrahisi-Joint Diseases and Related Surgery
Comparing the effects of analgesia techniques with controlled intravenous and epidural on postoperative pain and knee rehabilitation after total knee arthroplasty
Bozkurt, M; Yilmazlar, A; Bilgen, OF
Eklem Hastaliklari Ve Cerrahisi-Joint Diseases and Related Surgery, 20(2): 64-70.

Anaesthesia
Lower limb blocks
Murray, JM; Derbyshire, S; Shields, MO
Anaesthesia, 65(): 57-66.
10.1111/j.1365-2044.2010.06240.x
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Journal of Clinical Anesthesia
The use of ultrasound-guided hematoma blocks in wrist fractures
Kiely, PD; Riordan, J; Harmon, D
Journal of Clinical Anesthesia, 21(7): 540-542.
10.1016/j.jclinane.2009.01.008
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Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine
A portable mechanical pump providing over four days of patient-controlled analgesia by perineural infusion at home
Ilfeld, BM; Enneking, FK
Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine, 27(1): 100-104.
10.1053/rapm.2002.28282
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Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine
Opioid-free analgesia following total knee arthroplasty - A multimodal approach using continuous lumbar plexus (psoas compartment) block, acetaminophen, and ketorolac
Horlocker, TT; Hebl, JR; Kinney, MAO; Cabanela, ME
Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine, 27(1): 105-108.
10.1053/rapm.2002.27177
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Journal of Clinical Anesthesia
Coagulation status using thromboelastography in patients receiving warfarin prophylaxis and epidural analgesia
Hepner, DL; Concepcion, M; Bhavani-Shankar, K
Journal of Clinical Anesthesia, 14(6): 405-410.
PII S0952-8180(02)00373-2
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Anesthesia and Analgesia
The effect of single-injection femoral nerve block versus continuous femoral nerve block after total knee arthroplasty on hospital length of stay and long-term functional recovery within an established clinical pathway
Salinas, FV; Liu, SS; Mulroy, MF
Anesthesia and Analgesia, 102(4): 1234-1239.
10.1213/01.ane.0000198675.20279.81
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Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica
Stimulating or conventional perineural catheters after hallux valgus repair: a double-blind, pharmaco-economic evaluation
Casati, A; Fanelli, G; Danelli, G; Baciarello, M; Ghisi, D; Nobili, F; Chelly, JE
Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica, 50(): 1284-1289.

Anesthesia and Analgesia
The effect of analgesic technique on postoperative patient-reported outcomes including analgesia: A systematic review
Liu, SS; Wu, CL
Anesthesia and Analgesia, 105(3): 789-808.
10.1213/01.ane.0000278089.16848.1e
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Anasthesiologie Intensivmedizin Notfallmedizin Schmerztherapie
Care for poly-traumas - Analgesia for cruciate ligament compensatory plastic of the knee
Neuburger, M; Buttner, O
Anasthesiologie Intensivmedizin Notfallmedizin Schmerztherapie, 42(): 732-737.

Anaesthesist
Combined transgluteal ischial and femoral nerve block. Retrospective data on 65 risk patients with leg amputation
Raith, C; Kolblinger, C; Walch, H
Anaesthesist, 57(6): 555-561.
10.1007/s00101-008-1372-4
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British Journal of Anaesthesia
Postoperative pain after hip fracture is procedure specific
Foss, NB; Kristensen, MT; Palm, H; Kehlet, H
British Journal of Anaesthesia, 102(1): 111-116.
10.1093/bja/aen345
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Acta Chirurgica Belgica
Peripheral vascular surgery: Update on the perioperative non-surgical management for high cardiac risk patients
Stammet, P; Senard, M; Roediger, L; Hubert, B; Larbuisson, R; Lamy, M
Acta Chirurgica Belgica, 103(3): 248-254.

Journal of Arthroplasty
Combined Continuous "3-In-1" and Sciatic Nerve Blocks Provide Improved Postoperative Analgesia with No Correlation to Catheter Tip Location After Unilateral Total Knee Arthroplasty
Rajeev, S; Batra, YK; Panda, NB; Kumar, M; Nagi, ON
Journal of Arthroplasty, 22(8): 1181-1186.
10.1016/j.arth.2006.10.017
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British Journal of Anaesthesia
Mortality analysis in hip fracture patients: implications for design of future outcome trials
Foss, NB; Kehlet, H
British Journal of Anaesthesia, 94(1): 24-29.
10.1093/bja/aei010
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Anesthesia and Analgesia
Small-dose ketamine infusion improves postoperative analgesia and rehabilitation after total knee arthroplasty
Adam, F; Chauvin, M; Du Manoir, B; Langlois, M; Sessler, DI; Fletcher, D
Anesthesia and Analgesia, 100(2): 475-480.

Anesthesia and Analgesia
The effects of femoral nerve blockade in conjunction with epidural analgesia after total knee arthroplasty
YaDeau, JT; Cahill, JB; Zawadsky, MW; Sharrock, NE; Bottner, F; Morelli, CM; Kahn, RL; Sculco, TP
Anesthesia and Analgesia, 101(3): 891-895.
10.1213/01.ANE.0000159150.79908.21
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Anesthesia and Analgesia
Total knee arthroplasty as an overnight-stay procedure using continuous femoral nerve blocks at home: A prospective feasibility study
Ilfeld, BM; Gearen, PF; Enneking, FK; Berry, LF; Spadoni, EH; George, SZ; Vandenborne, K
Anesthesia and Analgesia, 102(1): 87-90.
10.1213/01.ane.0000189562.86969.9f
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Minerva Anestesiologica
Urinary retention after total hip and knee arthroplasty
Balderi, T; Carli, F
Minerva Anestesiologica, 76(2): 120-130.

Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part B-Applied Biomaterials
Analgesic properties of calcium phosphate apatite loaded with bupivacaine on postoperative pain
Verron, E; Gauthier, O; Janvier, P; Le Guen, H; Holopherne, D; Cavagna, R; Bouler, JM
Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part B-Applied Biomaterials, 94B(1): 89-96.
10.1002/jbm.b.31628
CrossRef
Proceedings of the 9Th World Congress on Pain
High-tech versus low-tech approaches to postoperative pain management
Breivik, H
Proceedings of the 9Th World Congress on Pain, 16(): 787-807.

Anesthesia and Analgesia
Outcomes research in regional anesthesia and analgesia
Wu, CL; Fleisher, LA
Anesthesia and Analgesia, 91(5): 1232-1242.

Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery-American Volume
What's new in orthopaedic rehabilitation
Botte, MJ; Ezzet, KA; Pacelli, LL; Guzman, MJ; Meyer, RS; Meunier, MJ; D'Lima, DD; Colwell, CW
Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery-American Volume, 84A(): 2312-2320.

Anesthesia and Analgesia
Priorities in perioperative geriatrics
Cook, DJ; Rooke, GA
Anesthesia and Analgesia, 96(6): 1823-1836.
10.1213/01.ANE.0000063822.02757.41
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Orthopade
The use of regional anesthesia in orthopedics
Zimmermann, M; Jansen, V; Rittmeister, M
Orthopade, 33(7): 784-795.
10.1007/s00132-004-0673-9
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Anesthesia and Analgesia
Does interscalene catheter placement with stimulating catheters improve postoperative pain or functional outcome after shoulder surgery? A prospective, randomized and double-blinded trial
Stevens, MF; Werdehausen, R; Golla, E; Braun, S; Hermanns, H; Ilg, A; Willers, R; Lipfert, P
Anesthesia and Analgesia, 104(2): 442-447.
10.1213/01.ane.0000253513.15336.25
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Anesthesia and Analgesia
The effect of initiating a preventive multimodal analgesic regimen on long-term patient outcomes for outpatient anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction surgery
Reuben, SS; Ekman, EF
Anesthesia and Analgesia, 105(1): 228-232.
10.1213/01.ane.0000265443.20919.c8
CrossRef
Canadian Journal of Anaesthesia-Journal Canadien D Anesthesie
A review of approaches and techniques for lower extremity nerve blocks
Tran, DQH; Clemente, A; Finlayson, RJ
Canadian Journal of Anaesthesia-Journal Canadien D Anesthesie, 54(): 922-934.

Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine
Continuous Femoral Nerve Block Provides Superior Analgesia Compared With Continuous Intra-articular and Wound Infusion After Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction
Dauri, M; Fabbi, E; Mariani, P; Faria, S; Carpenedo, R; Sidiropoulou, T; Coniglione, F; Silvi, MB; Sabato, AF
Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine, 34(2): 95-99.
10.1097/AAP.0b013e31819baf98
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Journal of Neurosurgery
Efficacy of intravenous patient-controlled analgesia after supratentorial intracranial surgery: a prospective randomized controlled trial Clinical article
Morad, AH; Winters, BD; Yaster, M; Stevens, RD; White, EA; Thompson, RE; Weingart, JD; Gottschalk, A
Journal of Neurosurgery, 111(2): 343-350.
10.3171/2008.11.JNS08797
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British Journal of Anaesthesia
Improvement of 'dynamic analgesia' does not decrease atelectasis after thoracotomy
Boisseau, N; Rabary, O; Padovani, B; Staccini, P; Mouroux, J; Grimaud, D; Raucoules-Aime, M
British Journal of Anaesthesia, 87(4): 564-569.

Anesthesia and Analgesia
Continuous three-in-one block for postoperative pain after lower limb orthopedic surgery: Where do the catheters go?
Capdevila, X; Biboulet, P; Morau, D; Bernard, N; Deschodt, J; Lopez, S; d'Athis, F
Anesthesia and Analgesia, 94(4): 1001-1006.

European Journal of Pain-London
Acute pain management after surgery or in the emergency room in Switzerland: a comparative survey of Swiss anaesthesiologists and surgeons
Wilder-Smith, OHG; Mohrle, JJ; Martin, NC
European Journal of Pain-London, 6(3): 189-201.
10.1053/eujp.2001.0328
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Orthopedics
Anesthesia and postoperative analgesia: Outcomes following orthopedic surgery
Chelly, JE; Ben-David, B; Williams, BA; Kentor, ML
Orthopedics, 26(8): S865-S871.

Anesthesia and Analgesia
Intrathecal morphine for postoperative analgesia: A randomized, controlled, dose-ranging study after hip and knee arthroplasty
Rathmell, JP; Pino, CA; Taylor, R; Patrin, T; Viani, BA
Anesthesia and Analgesia, 97(5): 1452-1457.
10.1213/01.ANE.0000083374.44039.9E
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Jama-Journal of the American Medical Association
Effects of perioperative administration of a selective cyclooxygenase 2 inhibitor on pain management and recovery of function after knee replacement - A randomized controlled trial
Buvanendran, A; Kroin, JS; Tuman, KJ; Lubenow, TR; Elmofty, D; Moric, M; Rosenberg, AG
Jama-Journal of the American Medical Association, 290(): 2411-2418.

Anesthesia and Analgesia
The differential effects of bupivacaine and lidocaine on prostaglandin E-2 release, cyclooxygenase gene expression and pain in a clinical pain model
Gordon, SM; Chuang, BP; Wang, XM; Hamza, MA; Rowan, JS; Brahim, JS; Dionne, RA
Anesthesia and Analgesia, 106(1): 321-327.
10.1213/01.ane.0000296474.79437.23
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Journal of Pain
Perioperative pain management in the opioid-tolerant individual
Gordon, D; Inturrisi, CE; Greensmith, JE; Brennan, TJ; Goble, L; Kerns, RD
Journal of Pain, 9(5): 383-387.
10.1016/j.jpain.2008.01.331
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Anesthesia and Analgesia
General Health and Knee Function Outcomes from 7 Days to 12 Weeks After Spinal Anesthesia and Multimodal Analgesia for Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction
Williams, BA; Dang, QY; Bost, JE; Irrgang, JJ; Orebaugh, SL; Bottegal, MT; Kentor, ML
Anesthesia and Analgesia, 108(4): 1296-1302.
10.1213/ane.0b013e318198d46e
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Anesthesia and Analgesia
Neuraxial Techniques in Obstetric and Non-Obstetric Patients with Common Bleeding Diatheses
Choi, S; Brull, R
Anesthesia and Analgesia, 109(2): 648-660.
10.1213/ane.0b013e3181ac13d1
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Annales Francaises D Anesthesie Et De Reanimation
Benefits of regular practice assessment of postoperative pain management
Galinski, M; Fletcher, D; Gaude, V; Guirimand, F; Chauvin, M
Annales Francaises D Anesthesie Et De Reanimation, 19(): 725-733.

British Journal of Anaesthesia
Effect of postoperative analgesia on surgical outcome
Kehlet, H; Holte, K
British Journal of Anaesthesia, 87(1): 62-72.

Anesthesia and Analgesia
Bupivacaine's action on the carrageenan-induced inflammatory response in mice: Cytokine production by leukocytes after ex-vivo stimulation
Beloeil, H; Asehnoune, K; Moine, P; Benhamou, D; Mazoit, JX
Anesthesia and Analgesia, 100(4): 1081-1086.

Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine
The value of adding sciatic block to continuous femoral block for analgesia after total knee replacement
Dang, CP; Gautheron, E; Guilley, J; Fernandez, M; Waast, D; Volteau, C; Nguyen, JM; Pinaud, M
Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine, 30(2): 128-133.
10.1016/j.rapm.2004.11.009
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Anasthesiologie & Intensivmedizin
Modern fasttracking - multimodal concepts for the future?
Weiss, S; Kratz, C; Putzke, C; Schleppers, A; Wulf, H; Geldner, G
Anasthesiologie & Intensivmedizin, 46(): S33-S39.

Scandinavian Journal of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery and Hand Surgery
Local infiltration of anaesthesia with subpectoral indwelling catheters after immediate breast reconstruction with implants: A pilot study
Turan, Z; Sandelin, K
Scandinavian Journal of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery and Hand Surgery, 40(3): 136-139.
10.1080/02844310500475784
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Neurosciences
Single-injection femoral nerve block - Effects on the independence level in functional activities in the early postoperative period in patients with total knee arthroplasty
Tugay, N; Saricaoglu, F; Satilmis, T; Alpar, U; Akarcali, I; Citaker, S; Tugay, U; Atilla, B; Tokgozoglu, M
Neurosciences, 11(3): 175-179.

Anesthesia and Analgesia
The role of the anesthesiologist in fast-track surgery: From multimodal analgesia to perioperative medical care
White, PF; Kehlet, H; Neal, JM; Schricker, T; Carr, DB; Carli, F
Anesthesia and Analgesia, 104(6): 1380-1396.
10.1213/01.ane.0000263034.96885.e1
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Annales Francaises D Anesthesie Et De Reanimation
Does patient-controlled analgesia improve postoperative pain relief
Fletcher, D
Annales Francaises D Anesthesie Et De Reanimation, 20(9): FI175-FI176.

Veterinary Clinics of North America-Equine Practice
Diagnosing and treating pain in the horse - Where are we today?
Taylor, PM; Pascoe, PJ; Mama, KR
Veterinary Clinics of North America-Equine Practice, 18(1): 1-+.
PII S0749-0739(02)00009-3
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Thrombosis and Haemostasis
Anticoagulant effect at the time of epidural catheter removal in patients receiving twice-daily or once-daily low-molecular-weight heparin and continuous epidural analgesia after orthopedic surgery
Douketis, JD; Kinnon, K; Crowther, MA
Thrombosis and Haemostasis, 88(1): 37-40.

Journal of Pain and Symptom Management
The COX-2 specific inhibitor, valdecoxib, is an effective, opioid-sparing analgesic in patients undergoing total knee arthroplasty
Reynolds, LW; Hoo, RK; Brill, RJ; North, J; Recker, DP; Verburg, KM
Journal of Pain and Symptom Management, 25(2): 133-141.
PII S0885-3924(02)00637-1
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Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine
Regional Anesthesia in the anticoagulated patient: Defining the risks (the Second ASRA Consensus Conference on Neuraxial Anesthesia and Anticoagulation)
Horlocker, TT; Wedel, DJ; Benzon, H; Brown, DL; Enneking, FK; Heit, JA; Mulroy, MF; Rosenquist, RW; Rowlingson, J; Tryba, M; Yuan, CS
Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine, 28(3): 172-197.
10.1053/rapm.2003.50046
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British Journal of Anaesthesia
Is depth of anaesthesia a viable concept?
Bennett, HL
British Journal of Anaesthesia, 93(3): 487P.

Anesthesia and Analgesia
Continuous infraclavicular perineural infusion with clonidine and ropivacaine compared with ropivacaine alone: A randomized, double-blinded, controlled study
Ilfeld, BM; Morey, TE; Enneking, FK
Anesthesia and Analgesia, 97(3): 706-712.
10.1213/01.ANE.0000075840.52964.A7
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Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine
Are nonstimulating catheters really inappropriate for continuous nerve block techniques? - Reply
Salinas, FV
Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine, 28(5): 484-485.
10.1016/S1098-7339(03)00441-3
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International Journal of Pharmaceutics
Prolongation of epidural bupivacaine effects with hyaluronic acid in rabbits
Dollo, G; Malinovsky, JM; Peron, A; Chevanne, F; Pinaud, M; Le Verge, R; Le Corre, P
International Journal of Pharmaceutics, 272(): 109-119.
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Anaesthesia
The impact of regional anaesthesia on outcome: a patient's perspective
Cornish, PB; Barton, J; Deacon, A
Anaesthesia, 59(6): 613-615.

Journal of Clinical Anesthesia
A cost-utility and cost-effectiveness analysis of an acute pain service
Stadler, M; Schlander, M; Braeckman, M; Nguyen, T; Boogaerts, JG
Journal of Clinical Anesthesia, 16(3): 159-167.
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Proceedings of the 9Th World Congress on Pain
Preemptive analgesia: How can we make it work?
Kissin, I
Proceedings of the 9Th World Congress on Pain, 16(): 973-985.

Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine
Various Possible Positions of Conventional Catheters Around the Femoral Nerve Revealed by Neurostimulation
Dang, CP; Difalco, C; Guilley, J; Venet, G; Hauet, P; Lejus, C
Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine, 34(4): 285-289.
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Thrombosis Research
Low molecular weight heparin and neuraxial anesthesia
Horlocker, TT
Thrombosis Research, 101(1): V141-V154.

Anaesthesia
Continuous regional analgesia: can we afford not to use it?
Harrop-Griffiths, W; Picard, J
Anaesthesia, 56(4): 299-301.

Journal of Arthroplasty
Evaluation of the safety and efficacy of the Perioperative administration of rofecoxib for total knee arthroplasty
Reuben, SS; Fingeroth, R; Krushell, R; Maciolek, H
Journal of Arthroplasty, 17(1): 26-31.

Anesthesia and Analgesia
Does an acute pain service improve postoperative outcome?
Werner, MU; Soholm, L; Rotboll-Nielsen, P; Kehlet, H
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Anesthesia and Analgesia
Acute pain management revisited
Rowlingson, JC
Anesthesia and Analgesia, 96(3): 87-95.

Anesthesia and Analgesia
A single injection ultrasound-assisted femoral nerve block provides side effect-sparing analgesia when compared with intrathecal morphine in patients undergoing total knee arthroplasty
Sites, BD; Beach, M; Gallagher, JD; Jarrett, RA; Sparks, MB; Lundberg, CJF
Anesthesia and Analgesia, 99(5): 1539-1543.
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Canadian Journal of Anaesthesia-Journal Canadien D Anesthesie
Duration of analgesia is similar when 15, 20, 25 and 30 mL of ropivacaine 0.5% are administered via a femoral catheter
Weber, A; Fournier, R; Riand, N; Gamulin, Z
Canadian Journal of Anaesthesia-Journal Canadien D Anesthesie, 52(4): 390-396.

Anasthesiologie Intensivmedizin Notfallmedizin Schmerztherapie
Ultrasound guidance in regional anesthesia
Schwemmer, U; Brederlau, J; Roewer, N
Anasthesiologie Intensivmedizin Notfallmedizin Schmerztherapie, 41(4): 260-262.
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Minerva Anestesiologica
Strategies for effective postoperative pain management
Diaz, G; Flood, P
Minerva Anestesiologica, 72(3): 145-150.

Advances in Therapy
Efficacy of thoracic epidural analgesia for laparoscopic cholecystectomy
Erol, DD; Yilmaz, S; Polat, C; Arikan, Y
Advances in Therapy, 25(1): 45-52.
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Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy
The location of the obturator nerve: a three-dimensional description of the obturator canal
Kendir, S; Akkaya, T; Comert, A; Sayin, M; Tatlisumak, E; Elhan, A; Tekdemir, I
Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy, 30(6): 495-501.
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Chirurg
Local and regional anaesthesia
Kill, C; Wulf, H
Chirurg, 80(8): 745-749.
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Journal of Anesthesia
Ultrasound-aided unilateral epidural block for single lower-extremity pain
Yamauchi, M; Kawaguchi, R; Sugino, S; Yamakage, M; Honma, E; Namiki, A
Journal of Anesthesia, 23(4): 605-608.
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Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine
Regional Anesthesia in the Patient Receiving Antithrombotic or Thrombolytic Therapy American Society of Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine Evidence-Based Guidelines (Third Edition)
Horlocker, TT; Wedel, DJ; Rowlingson, JC; Enneking, FK; Kopp, SL; Benzon, HT; Brown, DL; Heit, JA; Mulroy, MF; Rosenquist, RW; Tryba, M; Yuan, CS
Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine, 35(1): 64-101.
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Journal of Clinical Anesthesia
Intrathecal baclofen for postoperative analgesia after total knee arthroplasty
Sanders, JC; Gerstein, N; Torgeson, E; Abram, S
Journal of Clinical Anesthesia, 21(7): 486-492.
10.1016/j.jclinane.2008.12.019
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Canadian Journal of Anaesthesia-Journal Canadien D Anesthesie
The posterior lumbar plexus (psoas compartment) block and the three-in-one femoral nerve block provide similar postoperative analgesia after total knee replacement
Kaloul, I; Guay, J; Cote, C; Fallaha, M
Canadian Journal of Anaesthesia-Journal Canadien D Anesthesie, 51(1): 45-51.

Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine
Prospective comparison of continuous femoral nerve block with nonstimulating catheter placement versus stimulating catheter-guided perineural placement in volunteers
Salinas, FV; Neal, JM; Sueda, LA; Kopacz, DJ; Liu, SS
Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine, 29(3): 212-220.
10.1016/j.rapm.2004.02.009
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Anesthesia and Analgesia
Do continuous femoral nerve blocks affect the hospital length of stay and functional outcome? In response
Salinas, FV
Anesthesia and Analgesia, 104(4): 997-998.
10.1213/01.ane.0000258806.04653.d2
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Yonsei Medical Journal
Intra-synovial ropivacaine and morphine for pain relief after total knee arthroplasty - A prospective, randomized, double blind study
Han, CD; Lee, DH; Yang, IH
Yonsei Medical Journal, 48(2): 295-300.

Panminerva Medica
Osteoporotic fractures: mortality and quality of life
Caliri, A; De Filippis, L; Bagnato, GL; Bagnato, GF
Panminerva Medica, 49(1): 21-27.

Pferdeheilkunde
Analgesics in the horse: an update
Ionita, JC; Lempe, A; Leupold, T; Spadavecchia, C
Pferdeheilkunde, 23(4): 312-+.

Orthopade
Organisation of acute pain therapy
Vogelsang, H; Laubenthal, H
Orthopade, 37(): 945-+.
10.1007/s00132-008-1330-5
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Journal of Arthroplasty
Single-Injection Femoral and Sciatic Nerve Blocks for Pain Control After Total Knee Arthroplasty
Hunt, KJ; Bourne, MH; Mariani, EM
Journal of Arthroplasty, 24(4): 533-538.
10.1016/j.arth.2008.04.005
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British Journal of Anaesthesia
Predictive factors of early morphine requirements in the post-anaesthesia care unit (PACU)
Dahmani, S; Dupont, H; Mantz, J; Desmonts, JM; Keita, H
British Journal of Anaesthesia, 87(3): 385-389.

Anesthesia and Analgesia
Epinephrine does not prolong the analgesia of 20 mL ropivacaine 0.5% or 0.2% in a femoral three-in-one block
Weber, A; Fournier, R; Van Gessel, E; Riand, N; Gamulin, Z
Anesthesia and Analgesia, 93(5): 1327-1331.

Anesthesia and Analgesia
Distal nerve blocks at the wrist for outpatient carpal tunnel surgery offer intraoperative cardiovascular stability and reduce discharge time
Gebhard, RE; Al-Samsam, T; Greger, J; Khan, A; Chelly, JE
Anesthesia and Analgesia, 95(2): 351-355.
10.1213/01.ANE.0000022371.03078.6A
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Anesthesia and Analgesia
The pharmacokinetics and efficacy of ropivacaine continuous wound instillation after spine fusion surgery
Bianconi, M; Ferraro, L; Ricci, R; Zanoli, G; Antonelli, T; Giulia, B; Guberti, A; Massari, L
Anesthesia and Analgesia, 98(1): 166-172.
10.1213/01.ANE.0000093310.47375.44
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Anesthesia and Analgesia
Cost drivers in patient-controlled epidural analgesia for postoperative pain management after major surgery
Schuster, M; Gottschalk, A; Freitag, M; Standl, T
Anesthesia and Analgesia, 98(3): 708-713.

Proceedings of the 8th Biennial Congress of the Asian & Oceanic Society of Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine
Regional anesthesia and outcome
Scott, DA
Proceedings of the 8th Biennial Congress of the Asian & Oceanic Society of Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine, (): 39-41.

Singapore Medical Journal
The safety of simultaneous bilateral versus unilateral total knee arthroplasty: the experience in a Korean hospital
Shin, YH; Kim, MH; Ko, JS; Park, JA
Singapore Medical Journal, 51(1): 44-49.

Journal of Clinical Anesthesia
Continuous cervical paravertebral catheter knot
Pulley, SC; Spofford, CM; Brennan, TJ
Journal of Clinical Anesthesia, 22(2): 135-138.
10.1016/j.jclinane.2009.02.018
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Canadian Journal of Anaesthesia-Journal Canadien D Anesthesie
Intraoperative single-shot "3-in-1" femoral nerve block with ropivacaine 0.25%, ropivacaine 0.5% or bupivacaine 0.25% provides comparable 48-hr analgesia after unilateral total knee replacement
Ng, HP; Cheong, KF; Lim, A; Lim, J; Puhaindran, ME
Canadian Journal of Anaesthesia-Journal Canadien D Anesthesie, 48(): 1102-1108.

Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine
Continuous lumbar plexus block: Use of radiography to determine catheter tip location
De Biasi, P; Lupescu, R; Burgun, G; Lascurain, P; Gaertner, E
Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine, 28(2): 135-139.
10.1053/rapm.2003.50039
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Anesthesia and Analgesia
The art and science of peripheral nerve blocks
Enneking, FK; Wedel, DJ
Anesthesia and Analgesia, 90(1): 1-2.

Journal of Arthroplasty
Continuous femoral blocks improve recovery and outcome of patients undergoing total knee arthroplasty
Chelly, JE; Greger, J; Gebhard, R; Coupe, K; Clyburn, TA; Buckle, R; Criswell, A
Journal of Arthroplasty, 16(4): 436-445.

Orthopaedic Nursing
DepoDur((R)) extended-release epidural morphine: Reshaping postoperative care - What peroperative nurses need to know
Keck, S; Glennon, C; Ginsberg, B
Orthopaedic Nursing, 26(2): 86-92.

Acta Orthopaedica
Continuous psoas and sciatic block after knee arthroplasty: good effects compared to epidural analgesia or i.v. opioid analgesia - A prospective study of 63 patients
Raimer, C; Priem, K; Wiese, AA; Birnbaum, J; Dirkmorfeld, LM; Mossner, A; Matziolis, G; Perka, C; Volk, T
Acta Orthopaedica, 78(2): 193-200.
10.1080/17453670710013672
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Orthopade
The value of regional and general anaesthesia in orthopaedic surgery
Vicent, O; Hubler, M; Kirschner, S; Koch, T
Orthopade, 36(6): 529-536.
10.1007/s00132-007-1099-y
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Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine
Efficacy of continuous femoral nerve block with stimulating catheters versus nonstimulating catheters for anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction
Dauri, M; Sidiropoulou, T; Fabbi, E; Giannelli, M; Faria, S; Sabato, AF
Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine, 32(4): 282-287.
10.1016/j.rapm.2007.06.249
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Arthroscopy-the Journal of Arthroscopic and Related Surgery
Predictors of short-term recovery differ from those of long-term outcome after arthroscopic partial meniscectomy
Fabricant, PD; Rosenberger, PH; Jokl, P; Ickovics, JR
Arthroscopy-the Journal of Arthroscopic and Related Surgery, 24(7): 769-778.
10.1016/j.arthro.2008.02.015
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Anaesthesia and Intensive Care
Intraoperative ketamine may influence persistent pain following knee arthroplasty under combined general and spinal anaesthesia: a pilot study
Perrin, SB; Purcell, AN
Anaesthesia and Intensive Care, 37(2): 248-253.

Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine
Comparison of continuous 3-in-1 and fascia iliaca compartment blocks for postoperative analgesia: Feasibility, catheter migration, distribution of sensory block, and analgesic efficacy
Morau, D; Lopez, S; Biboulet, P; Bernard, N; Amar, J; Capdevila, X
Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine, 28(4): 309-314.
10.1016/S1098-7339(03)00183-4
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Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine
Portable infusion pumps used for continuous regional analgesia: Delivery rate accuracy and consistency
Ilfeld, BM; Morey, TE; Enneking, FK
Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine, 28(5): 424-432.
10.1016/S1098-7339(03)00226-8
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American Journal of Health-System Pharmacy
Clinical advances in the management of postoperative pain - Introduction
Schechter, LN
American Journal of Health-System Pharmacy, 61(8): S3-S4.

Anesthesia and Analgesia
Continuous peripheral nerve blocks at home: A review
Ilfeld, BM; Enneking, FK
Anesthesia and Analgesia, 100(6): 1822-1833.
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Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica
Continuous peripheral nerve blockade in lower extremity surgery
Navas, AM; Gutierrez, TV; Moreno, ME
Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica, 49(8): 1048-1055.
10.1111/j.1399-6576.2005.00753.x
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Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine
Acute post-surgical pain management: A critical appraisal of current practice
Rathmell, JP; Wu, CL; Sinatra, RS; Ballantyne, JC; Ginsberg, B; Gordon, DB; Liu, SS; Perkins, FM; Reuben, SS; Rosenquist, RW; Viscusi, ER
Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine, 31(4): 1-41.
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Journal of Anesthesia
The analgesic efficacy of two different approaches to the lumbar plexus for patient-controlled analgesia after total knee replacement
Ozalp, G; Kaya, M; Tuncel, G; Canoler, O; Gulnerman, G; Savli, S; Kadiogullari, N
Journal of Anesthesia, 21(3): 409-412.
10.1007/s00540-007-0515-0
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Foot & Ankle International
Postoperative Pain Following Foot and Ankle Surgery: A Prospective Study
Chou, LB; Wagner, D; Witten, DM; Martinez-Diaz, GJ; Brook, NS; Toussaint, M; Carroll, IR
Foot & Ankle International, 29(): 1063-1068.
10.3113/FAI.2008.1063
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Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery-American Volume
Continuous Lumbar Plexus Block for Postoperative Pain Control After Total Hip Arthroplasty A Randomized Controlled Trial
Marino, J; Russo, J; Kenny, M; Herenstein, R; Livote, E; Chelly, JE
Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery-American Volume, 91A(1): 29-37.
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Anesthesia and Analgesia
Acute pain management revisited
Rowlingson, JC
Anesthesia and Analgesia, 94(3): 92-99.

Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine
Delivery rate accuracy of portable, bolus-capable infusion pumps used for patient-controlled continuous regional analgesia
Ilfeld, BM; Morey, TE; Enneking, FK
Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine, 28(1): 17-23.
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Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica
Lidocaine versus ropivacaine for continuous interscalene brachial plexus block after open shoulder surgery
Casati, A; Vinciguerra, F; Scarioni, M; Cappelleri, G; Aldegheri, G; Manzoni, P; Fraschini, G; Chelly, JE
Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica, 47(3): 355-360.

American Journal of Health-System Pharmacy
Multimodal postoperative pain management
Hartrick, CT
American Journal of Health-System Pharmacy, 61(8): S4-S10.

Anesthesia and Analgesia
Postoperative analgesia after total knee replacement: The effect of an obturator nerve block added to the femoral 3-in-1 nerve block
Macalou, D; Trueck, S; Meuret, P; Heck, M; Vial, F; Ouologuem, S; Capdevila, X; Virion, JM; Bouaziz, H
Anesthesia and Analgesia, 99(1): 251-254.
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British Journal of Anaesthesia
Delayed retroperitoneal haematoma after failed lumbar plexus block
Aveline, C; Bonnet, F
British Journal of Anaesthesia, 93(4): 589-591.
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Anesthesia and Analgesia
Continuous perineural catheters for postoperative analgesia: An update
Liu, SS
Anesthesia and Analgesia, (): 48-52.

Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine
Postoperative analgesia and functional recovery after total-knee replacement: Comparison of a continuous posterior lumbar plexus (Psoas compartment) block, a continuous femoral nerve block, and the combination of a continuous femoral and sciatic nerve block
Morin, AM; Kratz, CD; Eberhart, LHJ; Dinges, G; Heider, E; Schwarz, N; Eisenhardt, G; Geldner, G; Wulf, H
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Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine
Effect of a continuous peripheral nerve block on the inflammatory response in knee arthroplasty
Bagry, H; Fontaine, JCDLC; Asenjo, JF; Bracco, D; Carli, F
Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine, 33(1): 17-23.
10.1016/j.rapm.2007.06.398
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Anaesthesia
Effect of anaesthetic technique on mortality following major lower extremity amputation: a propensity score-matched observational study
Khan, SA; Qianyi, RL; Liu, C; Ng, EL; Fook-Chong, S; Tan, MGE
Anaesthesia, 68(6): 612-620.
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Anesthesiology
Postoperative Nausea and Vomiting in Regional Anesthesia: A Review
Borgeat, A; Ekatodramis, G; Schenker, CA
Anesthesiology, 98(2): 530-547.

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Anesthesiology
Extensive Retroperitoneal Hematoma without Neurologic Deficit in Two Patients Who Underwent Lumbar Plexus Block and Were Later Anticoagulated
Weller, RS; Gerancher, JC; Crews, JC; Wade, KL
Anesthesiology, 98(2): 581-585.

Anesthesiology
2-Octyl Cyanoacrylate Glue for the Fixation of Continuous Peripheral Nerve Catheters
Klein, SM; Nielsen, KC; Buckenmaier, CC; Kamal, AS; Rubin, Y; Steele, SM
Anesthesiology, 98(2): 590-591.

Anesthesiology
Erythropoietin Protects against Local Anesthetic Myotoxicity during Continuous Regional Analgesia
Nouette-Gaulain, K; Bellance, N; Prévost, B; Passerieux, E; Pertuiset, C; Galbes, O; Smolkova, K; Masson, F; Miraux, S; Delage, J; Letellier, T; Rossignol, R; Capdevila, X; Sztark, F
Anesthesiology, 110(3): 648-659.
10.1097/ALN.0b013e3181974f7a
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Anesthesiology
Ambulatory Continuous Femoral Nerve Blocks Decrease Time to Discharge Readiness after Tricompartment Total Knee Arthroplasty: A Randomized, Triple-masked, Placebo-controlled Study
Spadoni, EH; Gearen, PF; Ilfeld, BM; Le, LT; Meyer, RS; Mariano, ER; Vandenborne, K; Duncan, PW; Sessler, DI; Enneking, FK; Shuster, JJ; Theriaque, DW; Berry, LF
Anesthesiology, 108(4): 703-713.
10.1097/ALN.0b013e318167af46
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Anesthesiology
Femoral-Sciatic Nerve Blocks for Complex Outpatient Knee Surgery Are Associated with Less Postoperative Pain Before Same-day Discharge: A Review of 1,200 Consecutive Cases from the Period 1996–1999
Valalik, S; Harner, CD; Fu, FH; Williams, BA; Kentor, ML; Vogt, MT; Williams, JP; Chelly, JE
Anesthesiology, 98(5): 1206-1213.

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Anesthesiology
Forty-eight Hours of Postoperative Pain Relief after Total Hip Arthroplasty with a Novel, Extended-Release Epidural Morphine Formulation
the EREM Study Group, ; Viscusi, ER; Martin, G; Hartrick, CT; Singla, N; Manvelian, G
Anesthesiology, 102(5): 1014-1022.

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Anesthesiology
Neurostimulation/Ultrasonography: The Trojan War Will Not Take Place
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Keywords:
Local anesthetics; morphine; pain relief; physiotherapy

© 1999 American Society of Anesthesiologists, Inc.

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