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Anesthesiology:
Clinical Investigations

Serious Complications Related to Regional Anesthesia: Results of a Prospective Survey in France

Auroy, Yves MD; Narchi, Patrick MD; Messiah, Antoine MD, PhD; Litt, Lawrence PhD, MD; Rouvier, Bernard MD; Samii, Kamran MD

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Abstract

Background: Serious complications related to regional anesthesia have previously been described primarily in case reports and retrospective surveys. The authors prospectively evaluated a multicenter series of regional anesthetics, using preplanned criteria to measure the incidence and characteristics of associated serious complications.
Methods: Requests were sent to 4,927 French anesthesiologists in advance of a subsequent 5-month study period. Participating anesthesiologists were asked for detailed reports of serious complications occurring during or after regional anesthetics performed by them during the study interval. Details regarding each complication then were obtained via a second questionnaire.
Results: The number of responding anesthesiolgists was 736. The number of regional anesthetics performed was 103,730, corresponding to 40,640 spinal anesthetics, 30,413 epidural anesthetics, 21,278 peripheral nerve blocks, and 11,229 intravenous regional anesthetics. Reports of 98 severe complications were received, with follow-up information being obtained for 97. In 89 cases, complications were attributed fully or partially to regional anesthesia. Thirty-two cardiac arrests, seven of which were fatal, occurred during the study. Of these, 26 occurred during spinal anesthesia, with 6 being fatal, 3 occurred during epidural anesthesia, and 3 more occurred during peripheral blocks. The higher incidence of cardiac arrest during spinal anesthesia (6.4 +/- 1.2 per 10,000 patients) compared with all other regional anesthesia (1.0 +/- 0.4 per 10,000 patients) was statistically significant (P < 0.05). Of 34 neurologic complications (radiculopathy, cauda equina syndrome, paraplegia), 21 were associated either with paresthesia during puncture (n = 19) or with pain during injection (n = 2), suggesting nerve trauma or intraneural injection. Twelve patients who had neurologic complications after spinal anesthetics had no paresthesia during needle placement and no pain on injection. Of these 12 patients (7 with radiculopathy and 5 with cauda equina syndrome), 9 received intrathecal hyperbaric lidocaine, 5%. The incidence of neurologic injury was significantly greater after spinal anesthesia (6 +/- 1 per 10,000 cases; P < 0.05) than after each of the other types of regional procedures (1.6 +/- 0.5 per 10,000 cases for the weighted average). Seizures attributed to elevated serum levels of local anesthetics occurred in 23 patients, but none suffered a cardiac arrest.
Conclusions: (1) The incidence of cardiac arrest and neurologic injury related to regional anesthesia were very low, but both were more than three SDs greater after spinal anesthesia than after other regional procedures. (2) Two thirds of the patients with neurologic deficits had either a paresthesia during needle placement or pain on injection. (3) Seventy-five percent of the neurologic deficits after nontraumatic spinal anesthesia occurred in patients who had received hyperbaric lidocaine, 5%.
Because it is rare for serious cardiac and neurologic complications to occur in association with regional anesthesia, published information regarding critical serious events are found primarily as retrospective studies or case reports. Few prospective surveys assessing large numbers of patients have been published. [1-3] Additionally, previous surveys did not record certain catastrophic events, such as cauda equina syndrome [4,5] and sudden cardiac death. [6] To estimate the incidence of serious complications now occurring with current drugs, equipment, and techniques, we conducted a prospective survey involving a large number of anesthesiologists. Our aim was to measure the incidence and the characteristics of serious cardiac and neurologic complications associated with regional anesthesia.
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Methods
Study Design
Before the study there was a 3-week recruiting period. A copy of the protocol, a copy of a preliminary version of the final questionnaire, and a participation agreement form were sent to 4927 anesthesiologists practicing throughout France. To be a participating anesthesiologist in the study, physicians had to sign the agreement form and return it before the study period.
Participants who returned the agreement form were asked to keep a log for cases done between January 1, 1994 and May 31, 1994. In some medical centers, the log data gathered by participating anesthesiologists included cases in which they personally supervised anesthesiology residents or nurse anesthetists. However, in all such patients, anesthesia care was "medically directed" by the anesthesiologist, defined as in the United States: the attending anesthesiologist was present for the regional anesthesia procedure and for other crucial moments during surgery, and when absent, the attending anesthesiologist was available for immediate consultation or return to the operating room.
The log data contained the following information: (1) data about each case wherein regional anesthesia was performed, regardless of the type, and (2) data about each serious complication associated with regional anesthesia, with "serious complications" being predefined. Six "severe complications" were tallied: (1) cardiac arrest (no spontaneous breathing, no palpable pulse) requiring cardiac massage or epinephrine; (2) seizures; (3) radiculopathy; (4) cauda equina syndrome; (5) paraplegia; and (6) death. The final version of the questionnaire, i.e., the version used to obtain the data that were studied, was sent to all participating anesthesiologists 15 days before the end of the 5-month period.
The review of all questionnaires received was finished 30 days after closure of the study, at which time a follow-up questionnaire, specific to each type of serious event, was sent to participating anesthesiologists who reported complications. If the follow-up questionnaire was not received within 15 days, a telephone call was made to the participating anesthesiologist to directly obtain the follow-up information. Copies of all questionnaires used in the study, written in French, are available to readers, either immediately from the Table ofContents section of the Anesthesiology Web Site (click on the September 1997 issue at: http://www.anesthesiology.org/contents.html) or from the corresponding author of this paper.
Follow-up questionnaires for all serious events were independently evaluated by three anesthesiologists, and reports of complications were reviewed to assure that they (1) adequately fit the definition of the complication; (2) occurred within an appropriate perioperative time period; and (3) were not wholly a result of either a preexisting medical condition or a cause obviously unrelated to regional anesthesia.
After the review by three anesthesiologists, reported complications were placed into one of three groups: (1) complications with too much missing information, (e.g., the follow-up questionnaire was incomplete); (2) complications unrelated to regional anesthesia, i.e., entirely explained by other etiologies; and (3) complications that were either completely or partially related to regional anesthesia. The frequency of complications was calculated from cases in the third category.
To compare demographic and professional characteristics of participating anesthesiologists with those of anesthesiologists who did not participate, a special questionnaire was sent to 200 randomly selected nonparticipating anesthesiologists.
In the tables and text, data that are approximately described by a normal distribution function are presented as mean +/- SD, whereas non-normally distributed data that are widely skewed are presented by giving the median and values corresponding to the 25th and 75th percentiles. Pearson's chi-square test was used for dichotomous categorical data. When the distribution was not normal, a Mann-Whitney test was used. A Students' t test was used to compare continuous data. [7] When an approximately normal distribution was seen, formulae based on the normal distribution [7] were used to calculate 95% confidence intervals for the incidence of serious complications. When the distribution was not normal, tables of the Poisson Distribution [8] were used.
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Results
Participation in the study was agreed to by 736 of the 4,927 anesthesiologists (14.9%) who were contacted. The participants reported 103,730 regional anesthetics during the 5-month study period. This included 40,640 spinal anesthetics, 30,413 epidural anesthetics, 21,278 peripheral nerve blocks, and 11,229 intravenous regional anesthetics. Sixty nonparticipating anesthesiologists replied to the second questionnaire. Demographic data for participating and nonparticipating anesthesiologists are given in Table 1, which shows that the two groups were comparable, except that the nonparticipating group contained a higher percentage of anesthesiologists who never performed regional anesthesia during the study period. No complications were reported by the nonparticipating group. Among the 736 participants, 95 physicians reported 98 serious complications. Private practitioners performed more cases of regional anesthesia and were more likely to report complications. For some of the results in Table 1 regarding participating and nonparticipating anesthesiologists, such as the number of cases reported per participant, the data do not have a normal distribution, and the range of the results (25th to 75th percentiles) is given below the mean value. The departure from a normal distribution originates from the fact that some responding anesthesiologists supervised residents or nurse anesthetists, as mentioned previously. These participants could sometimes conduct more cases per day than one anesthesiologist working alone, with their reports reflecting work done by more than one person.
Table 1
Table 1
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The follow-up questionnaire was answered by 94 of the 95 anesthesiologists who reported complications. Data were obtained by mail from 67 participants and by telephone from 27 participants. A follow-up analysis was done for 97 of 98 reported complications. The incidence of different critical serious events is presented in Table 2. Eight of the 97 complications were considered unrelated to regional anesthesia. The incidence of complications related to each regional anesthetic technique is given in Table 3. Additional details regarding specific types of complications will be discussed.
Table 2
Table 2
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Table 3
Table 3
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Cardiac Arrest
The incidence of cardiac arrest was significantly greater with spinal anesthesia (6.4 +/- 1.2 per 10,000 patients) than with epidural anesthesia and peripheral nerve blocks combined (1.0 +/- 0.4 per 10,000 patients; P < 0.05, see Table 3). During the 26 cardiac arrests occurring with spinal anesthesia, 15 patients were treated only with closed-chest cardiac massage and ephedrine; one patient was treated only with epinephrine (0.5 mg); and 10 patients were treated with closed chest cardiac massage and epinephrine (3.4 +/- 3.6 mg).
Fatal outcome from cardiac arrest occurred in 6 of the 26 cardiac arrests. Risk of death after cardiac arrest was significantly associated with age and American Society of Anesthesiologists' (ASA) physical status class. The average age of survivors was 57 +/- 20 yr, whereas the average age of nonsurvivors was 82 +/- 7 yr. The difference in average ages was statistically significant (P < 0.05). Similarly, the breakdown of ASA physical status for survivors versus nonsurvivors was n = 13 versus n = 0 for ASA I; n = 5 versus n = 2 for ASA II; n = 2 versus n = 3 for ASA III; and n = 1 versus n = 0 for ASA IV. Two variables were statistically different regarding cardiac arrest in patients undergoing spinal anesthesia: (1) the time between onset of spinal blockade and occurrence of cardiac arrest was longer in non-survivors than in survivors (42 +/- 19 min versus 17 +/- 16 min, respectively; P < 0.05); and (2) total hip arthroplasty (THA) more frequently was the type of surgery in nonsurvivors than in survivors (5 of 6 THA among nonsurvivors compared with 2 of 20 non-THA surgeries in survivors; P < 0.05). During THA, three cardiac arrests happened at the time of cement insertion and were fatal. Blood loss at the time of cardiac arrest was 700 ml in nine cardiac arrest patients, with four arrests being fatal. Sedation was not performed nor was cyanosis or dizziness observed before any of the fatal cardiac arrests, although all cardiac arrests were reported to have been preceded by bradycardia. Three cases of reversible cardiac arrest were reported with epidural anesthesia. Three cases of cardiac arrest were reported during peripheral nerve blocks. In each case, these appeared to be associated with inadequate analgesia. In two of the three cases, cardiac arrest also was associated with vasovagal responses, treated, and reversed. One fatal cardiac arrest resulted from a myocardial infarction. No neurologic sequelae were observed in the 25 patients who recovered from cardiac arrest.
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Neurologic Complications
All 34 neurologic complications presented within 48 h of surgery. Neurologic sequelae were considered permanent if they lasted more than 3 months. These occurred in five patients. Twenty-nine patients had transient sequelae, with recovery occurring between 48 h and 3 months.
(Table 3) summarizes the findings and shows a higher incidence of neurologic injury after spinal anesthesia (6 +/- 1 per 10,000 cases) than after the other techniques combined (1.6 +/- 0.5 per 10,000 cases): epidural anesthesia, peripheral nerve block, or intravenous regional anesthesia. Radiculopathy was more frequently observed after spinal than after epidural anesthesia (Table 3). In 12 of 19 cases of radiculopathy after spinal anesthesia and in all cases of radiculopathy after epidural anesthesia (n = 5) and peripheral blocks (n = 4), needle puncture was associated either with paresthesia during puncture (n = 19) or with pain during injection (n = 2). In all cases, radiculopathy had the same topography as associated paresthesias. Anesthesiologists did not continue to inject when pain on injection occurred. All patients with neurologic deficits lasting more than 2 days were examined by a neurologist. All patients with cauda equina syndrome had a computed tomography (CT) scan to rule out a compressive etiology. In 12 patients in whom neurologic deficits occurred after spinal anesthesia, there was paresthesia or pain during injection. In these patients, hyperbaric bupivacaine, 0.5%, was used in 11 patients, whereas hyperbaric lidocaine, 5%, was used in one patient. All patients with radicular deficits after paresthesia recovered, although a permanent neurologic deficit occurred in one patient who had a paresthesia during placement of the spinal needle but no pain during the subsequent intrathecal injection of 15 mg of hyperbaric bupivacaine, 0.5%.
Thirteen neurologic complications were not associated with pain, paresthesias, or technical difficulties. Twelve of these occurred after spinal anesthesia, with 9 of 12 patients having received hyperbaric lidocaine, 5%, intrathecally. Eight of the nine patients received a single dose of 75-100 mg of lidocaine. Two of the eight had permanent radiculopathy or cauda equina syndrome. One of the nine patients underwent continuous spinal anesthesia via an infusion of lidocaine, 5%. That patient received 350 mg of lidocaine over 5 h, and had permanent cauda equina syndrome. Three patients received 12-20 mg of hyperbaric bupivacaine, 0.5%, and had only transient neurologic deficit.
One case of paraplegia occurred in a patient aged 62 years who underwent a combined technique: an uneventfully placed epidural block followed by general anesthesia. Lidocaine, 2%, without epinephrine was used. This patient had intraoperative hypovolemic arterial hypotension. Result of a CT scan of the lumbar spine, taken 1 day after surgery to rule out a compressing hematoma, was normal.
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Seizures
All 26 reported seizures were preceded by minor auditory symptoms and complaints of metallic taste. The more frequent occurrence of seizures after peripheral block than after epidural anesthesia was statistically significant (Table 3). In patients who suffered a seizure, a larger volume of lidocaine, 2%, or bupivacaine, 0.5%, was injected for peripheral nerve blocks (41 +/- 14 ml) than for epidural anesthesia (15 +/- 4 ml). This difference is statistically significant (P < 0.05). Although bupivacaine was injected in 14 of the 23 patients having seizures after epidural anesthesia or peripheral nerve blockade, it was never associated with cardiac arrest, either when used alone, or when used in combination with lidocaine. During intravenous regional anesthesia, three seizures were reported to have occurred after deflation of the tourniquet. In each of those patients, tourniquet inflation after injection of 30-45 ml of lidocaine, 0.5%, exceeded 40 min. In 23 patients, seizures were treated by intravenous administration of midazolam at the same time that supplemental face mask oxygen was provided. In three patients, thiopental was administered and followed by tracheal intubation.
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Discussion
Because we were able to include 103,730 regional anesthetic procedures, our approach was successful in obtaining sufficient prospective data for the investigations. Because serious complications after regional anesthesia are rare, large numbers of patients are required to compare the incidence and characteristics of critical serious events. For example, if one technique has twice as many critical serious events as another, enough cases should be studied to result in approximately 30 and 15 adverse events, respectively, for the two methods, thereby determining incidences that are three SDs apart. If the incidence of a critical serious event is 0.1% and if critical serious events often occur at a lower incidence, 30,000 cases must be studied to encounter 30 critical serious events. Thus, studies like ours should carefully choose the large number of patients that will be enrolled. Studying too few patients provides results having too little discriminatory power. Studying too many patients requires unaffordable luxuries in funding and time. Despite the absence of an official list of French anesthesiologists, use of a private list permitted us to reach 75% of all working French anesthesiologists. Although participation was only 14.9%, this figure is comparable with that achieved in other surveys. [9] More significantly, we note that the demographic data of participants were comparable with data representative of all anesthesiologists in France.
Because it was not practical to extensively audit patient charts postoperatively, quality control of information regarding critical serious events was a concern focused on at two levels: (1) by the three anesthesiologists as they reviewed follow-up questionnaires; and (2) by all authors after the reviews were complete. In some instances, individual case logs were inspected at random times by some of the authors during incidental visits to the institutions of participating anesthesiologists. Such individual logs were always found to conform to the protocol, but a systematic approach to checking the logs was not conducted. Nevertheless, the self-consistency of reports, the prospective character of the study, the voluntary participation and work ethic of the anesthesiologists, the focus on rare serious complications, and the confidential, nonaccusatory style of data gathering caused us to conclude that the collected information was reliable and complete.
Because the average number of regional anesthetics performed each month by participating anesthesiologists was 29, in contrast to an average of 16 per month performed by nonparticipating anesthesiologists, participating anesthesiologists appear to be more experienced in the performance of regional anesthesia. (This was the only significant difference we found between the two populations, and we note that some participating anesthesiologists supervised residents and nurse anesthetists, which might have amplified their frequency of performed regional procedures.) This also suggests there is no rational basis for assuming that nonparticipating anesthesiologists should be expected to have a lower complication rate.
The incidence of complications reported in this study is comparable with those found in various other surveys of radicular deficits, [1,10] cardiac arrest, [11] and seizures [13] after spinal or epidural blocks. Caplan et al. [6] reported 14 cases of fatal cardiac arrest during spinal anesthesia. Sedation was found as a risk factor in 12 of those patients, whereas bradycardia was cited as an initial factor in 7. In contrast, in our patients sedation was not present in any patient before fatal cardiac arrest, and bradycardia preceded all cases of cardiac arrest. One possible explanation for this difference in critically serious events is that Caplan et al. [6] retrospectively studied cases of relatively young, healthy patients who had cardiac arrest, severe neurologic sequelae, or death after regional anesthesia. In contrast, we prospectively studied randomly chosen patients in a population representative of wide-spread daily practice. A different recent survey reported neurologic complications after spinal anesthesia and epidural anesthesia in a Swedish University Hospital. [2] This study, which was only in part prospective, found comparable rates of adverse neurologic sequelae after spinal anesthesia, but a higher rate of neurologic complications after epidural anesthesia.
Although cardiac arrest and neurologic injury occurred more often in our study after spinal anesthesia, this finding should be interpreted cautiously. First, factors not pertaining to regional anesthesia that were found in our study as associated to fatal outcome after cardiac arrest might also explain the increased incidence of cardiac arrest during spinal anesthesia. These include advanced age, ASA physical status (or preexisting disease), time after injection, surgical trauma and blood loss, and type of surgery, such as THA. In contrast, because of differences in sizes of needles and volumes of injected medications, risks of neurologic injury might depend less on factors just listed and depend more on the type of regional anesthesia. Because of the low incidence of complications, as discussed previously, it might never be possible to get sufficient numbers of study patients for every ASA class, every type of surgery, or every subgroup one may want to compare.
Because all seizures occurring after epidural anesthesia, peripheral nerve block, and intravenous regional anesthesia were preceded by premonitory signs, they were probably a result of acutely increased systemic concentration of local anesthetics. The incidence of seizures in our study is comparable with those observed in other studies. [13] Seizures after peripheral nerve block were five times more frequent than after epidural anesthesia. This difference might be explained by the fact that peripheral blocks generally require larger doses of local anesthetics than epidural anesthetics. Seizures after tourniquet release after intravenous regional anesthesia occurred despite the use of a standard dose of lidocaine and a long duration of tourniquet inflation.
Although previous reports found that bolus intravenous injections of bupivacaine were associated with cardiotoxicity leading to cardiac arrest, [14] no cardiac arrests were observed in our study in conjunction with bupivacaine. Similar absence of primary cardiac arrhythmia as a result of local anesthetics was recently reported. [13]
Current controversies regarding the cytotoxicity of local anesthetics [15-18] draw special attention to the 12 patients who developed radiculopathy or cauda equina syndrome after uneventful spinal anesthesia. In each of these patients, subarachnoid delivery occurred without paresthesia or pain on injection. In 9 of 12 patients, hyperbaric lidocaine, 5%, was used. Because we do not know the relative use of hyperbaric lidocaine, 5%, and hyperbaric bupivacaine, 0.5%, for spinal anesthesia by the 736 anesthesiologists who participated to our study, it is difficult to interpret this finding. However, hyperbaric bupivacaine, 0.5, was used more frequently than hyperbaric lidocaine, 5%, in patients who developed radiculopathy after spinal anesthesia and paresthesia or pain (11 vs. 1). Also, during the study period, the consumption of hyperbaric local anesthetics in France by anesthesiologists was 72,300 2-ml ampules of lidocaine, 5%, and 199,780 4-ml ampules of bupivacaine, 0.5%, permitting speculation that hyperbaric lidocaine, 5%, might have been used less often for spinal anesthesia and therefore might somehow have been associated with a higher incidence of the neurotoxicity that is rarely seen with that type of block, even though the dose and the technique are standard. This is probably the main difference between our findings and previous reports of cauda equina syndrome. [4]
The only case of paraplegia observed in our study occurred in an elderly patient who were given epidural anesthesia and general anesthesia. The most probable cause was spinal cord ischemia as a result of prolonged hypotension. That none of the spinal or epidural anesthetics resulted in an epidural or subarachnoid hematoma may have been a result of, in part, compliance with recommendations of a recent French consensus conference that proposed avoidance of spinal or epidural anesthesia in patients who are taking anticoagulants preoperatively.*
In summary, the incidence of severe, anesthesia-related complications in regional anesthesia is very rare, substantially less than 0.1%. Further studies with larger numbers of patients would be required to accurately assess the relative risks of physical status, type of surgery, and use of hyperbaric lidocaine, 5%, for spinal anesthesia. However, in this study we found a higher incidence of cardiac arrest and neurologic injury for spinal anesthesia, perceived by many anesthesiologists as simple and safe, than for the other forms of regional anesthesia. A comparison of the relative incidence of cardiac arrest for the two techniques has not been studied previously. However, we reiterate that a disproportionate risk for cardiac arrest might be heavily associated with factors other than regional anesthesia, whereas a higher risk of neurologic injury might be primarily associated with the type of regional anesthesia procedure being performed.
The authors thank the 736 participating anesthesiologists and all who helped them, not only for obtaining and providing the data for this study, but also for their enthusiasm, encouragement, numerous suggestions, and cooperation via meticulous adherence to protocols. Their belief in the importance of this effort was the driving force, "le moteur," which made it all possible.
*Conference de Consensus AP-HP. Prophylaxie des veineuses profondes et des embolies pulmonaires postoperatoires (chirurgie generale, gynecologique et orthopedique). J Mal Vasc 1992; 17:141-5.
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Burton, AW; Eappen, S
Critical Care Clinics, 15(1): 77-+.

Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica
Cauda equina syndrome after spinal anaesthesia with hyperbaric 5% lignocaine: A review of six cases of cauda equina syndrome reported to the Swedish Pharmaceutical Insurance 1993-1997
Loo, CC; Irestedt, L
Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica, 43(4): 371-379.

Anesthesia and Analgesia
The effects of single or multiple injections on the volume of 0.5% ropivacaine required for femoral nerve blockade
Casati, A; Fanelli, G; Beccaria, P; Magistris, L; Albertin, A; Torri, G
Anesthesia and Analgesia, 93(1): 183-186.

Anaesthesia
Paraesthesia during spinal needle placement
Samsoon, G; Grewal, K
Anaesthesia, 56(): 1024.

Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine
One hundred years later, I can still make your heart stop and your legs weak: The relationship between regional anesthesia and local anesthetic toxicity
Horlocker, TT
Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine, 27(6): 543-544.
10.1053/rapm.2002.37125
CrossRef
Anasthesiologie Intensivmedizin Notfallmedizin Schmerztherapie
Neurological complications after regional anaesthesia
Ohnesorge, H; Beck, H
Anasthesiologie Intensivmedizin Notfallmedizin Schmerztherapie, 38(7): 472-475.

Anesthesia and Analgesia
Epidural analgesia with local anesthetics after abdominal surgery: Earlier motor recovery with 0.2% ropivacaine than 0.175% bupivacaine
Brodner, G; Mertes, N; Van Aken, H; Pogatzki, E; Buerkle, H; Marcus, MA; Mollhoff, T
Anesthesia and Analgesia, 88(1): 128-133.

Neuroscience
Dexamethasone Attenuated Bupivacaine-Induced Neuron Injury in Vitro Through A Threonine-Serine Protein Kinase B-Dependent Mechanism
Ma, R; Wang, X; Lu, C; Li, C; Cheng, Y; Ding, G; Liu, L; Ding, Z
Neuroscience, 167(2): 329-342.
10.1016/j.neuroscience.2009.12.049
CrossRef
Journal of the Neurological Sciences
Focal myelomalacia and syrinx formation after accidental intramedullary lidocaine injection during lumbar anesthesia: A report of 3 cases
Pradhan, S; Yadav, R; Maurya, PK; Mishra, VN
Journal of the Neurological Sciences, 251(): 70-72.
10.1016/j.jns.2006.09.004
CrossRef
Anesthesia and Analgesia
In vitro, inhibition of mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways protects against bupivacaine- and ropivacaine-induced neurotoxicity
Lirk, P; Haller, I; Colvin, HP; Lang, L; Tomaselli, B; Klimaschewski, L; Gerner, P
Anesthesia and Analgesia, 106(5): 1456-1464.
10.1213/ane.0b013e318168514b
CrossRef
American Journal of Sports Medicine
Femoral Nerve Blockade as a Preemptive Anesthetic in Patients Undergoing Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction A Prospective, Randomized, Double-Blinded, Placebo-Controlled Study
Matava, MJ; Prickett, WD; Khodamoradi, S; Abe, S; Garbutt, J
American Journal of Sports Medicine, 37(1): 78-86.
10.1177/0363546508324311
CrossRef
European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Evaluation of the local anaesthetic activity of 3-aminobenzo[d]isothiazole derivatives using the rat sciatic nerve model
Geronikaki, A; Vicini, P; Dabarakis, N; Lagunin, A; Poroikov, V; Dearden, J; Modarresi, H; Hewitt, M; Theophilidis, G
European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry, 44(2): 473-481.
10.1016/j.ejmech.2008.04.006
CrossRef
Anaesthesist
Reciprocation
Ehrenberg, R
Anaesthesist, 59(1): 87-88.

Neurotoxicology
alpha-Lipoic acid prevents bupivacaine-induced neuron injury in vitro through a PI3K/Akt-dependent mechanism
Wang, XH; Zhang, XJ; Cheng, YL; Li, CF; Zhang, WB; Liu, L; Ding, ZN
Neurotoxicology, 31(1): 101-112.
10.1016/j.neuro.2009.10.010
CrossRef
Anesthesia and Analgesia
Small risk of serious neurologic complications related to lumbar epidural catheter placement in anesthetized patients
Horlocker, TT; Abel, MD; Messick, JM; Schroeder, DR
Anesthesia and Analgesia, 96(6): 1547-1552.
10.1213/01.ANE.0000057600.31380.75
CrossRef
Journal of Cardiothoracic and Vascular Anesthesia
Temporary neurologic deficits in patients undergoing cardiac surgery with thoracic epidural supplementation
Chakravarthy, M; Nadiminti, S; Krishnamurthy, J; Thimmannagowda, P; Royse, CF; Minzter, BH
Journal of Cardiothoracic and Vascular Anesthesia, 18(4): 512-520.
10.1053/j.jvca.2004.05.012
CrossRef
Anesthesia and Analgesia
Cardiac arrest during neuraxial anesthesia: Frequency and predisposing factors associated with survival
Kopp, SL; Horlocker, TT; Warner, ME; Hebl, JR; Vachon, CA; Schroeder, DR; Gould, AB; Sprung, J
Anesthesia and Analgesia, 100(3): 855-865.
10.1213/01.ANE.0000144066.72932.B1
CrossRef
Canadian Journal of Anaesthesia-Journal Canadien D Anesthesie
Prolonged duration of anesthesia in a patient with multiple sclerosis following paravertebral block
Finucane, BT; Terblanche, OC
Canadian Journal of Anaesthesia-Journal Canadien D Anesthesie, 52(5): 493-497.

Anasthesiologie Intensivmedizin Notfallmedizin Schmerztherapie
Nerve stimulation based peripheral regional anesthesia: Technique of the old-fashioned or sonography-directed peripheral regional anesthesia a technique for ninnies?
Behnke, H
Anasthesiologie Intensivmedizin Notfallmedizin Schmerztherapie, 41(4): 267-269.
10.1055/s-2006-925272
CrossRef
Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica
Inflammation and infection complications of 2285 perineural catheters: a prospective study
Neuburger, M; Buttner, J; Blumenthal, S; Breitbarth, J; Borgeat, A
Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica, 51(1): 108-114.
10.1111/j.1399-6576.2006.01173.x
CrossRef
Journal of Cardiothoracic and Vascular Anesthesia
A survey of spinal and epidural techniques in adult cardiac surgery
Goldstein, S; Dean, D; Kim, SJ; Cocozello, K; Grofsik, J; Silver, P; Cody, RP
Journal of Cardiothoracic and Vascular Anesthesia, 15(2): 158-168.
10.1053/jcan.2001.21937
CrossRef
British Journal of Anaesthesia
Perioperative bradycardia and asystole: relationship to vasovagal syncope and the Bezold-Jarisch reflex
Kinsella, SM; Tuckey, JP
British Journal of Anaesthesia, 86(6): 859-868.

British Journal of Anaesthesia
Spinal cord injury caused by direct damage by local anaesthetic infiltration needle
Absalom, AR; Martinelli, G; Scott, NB
British Journal of Anaesthesia, 87(3): 512-515.

Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine
Research in regional anesthesia: Objective versus subjective - Reply
Neal, JM
Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine, 26(6): 593-594.

Anaesthesist
Neurological complications after delivery
Besmer, I; Schupfer, G; Hodel, D; Johr, M
Anaesthesist, 50(): 852-855.

Seminars in Perinatology
Complications associated with regional anesthesia in the obstetric patient
Zakowski, M
Seminars in Perinatology, 26(2): 154-168.
10.1053/sper.2002.32206
CrossRef
Canadian Journal of Anaesthesia-Journal Canadien D Anesthesie
Continuous interscalene brachial plexus block
Coleman, MM; Chan, VWS
Canadian Journal of Anaesthesia-Journal Canadien D Anesthesie, 46(3): 209-+.

Anesthesia and Analgesia
Predicting the difficult neuraxial block: A prospective study
Sprung, J; Bourke, DL; Grass, J; Hammel, J; Mascha, E; Thomas, P; Tubin, I
Anesthesia and Analgesia, 89(2): 384-389.

Bju International
Does anaesthetic technique affect the outcome after transurethral resection of the prostate?
Reeves, MDS; Myles, PS
Bju International, 84(9): 982-986.

Mayo Clinic Proceedings
Potential neurotoxicity of spinal anesthesia with lidocaine
Johnson, ME
Mayo Clinic Proceedings, 75(9): 921-932.

Anesthesia and Analgesia
An evaluation of the brachial plexus block at the humeral canal using a neurostimulator (1417 patients): The efficacy, safety, and predictive criteria of failure
Carles, M; Pulcini, A; Macchi, P; Duflos, P; Raucoules-Aime, M; Grimaud, D
Anesthesia and Analgesia, 92(1): 194-198.

Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine
Lateral cervical epidural analgesia and/or anesthesia is a valuable and safe technique
Lavand'homme, P; de Waroux, BL; Scholtes, JL
Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine, 26(1): 89.

Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine
Diabetes Mellitus, Independent of Body Mass Index, Is Associated With a "Higher Success" Rate for Supraclavicular Brachial Plexus Blocks
Gebhard, RE; Nielsen, KC; Pietrobon, R; Missair, A; Williams, BA
Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine, 34(5): 404-407.
10.1097/AAP.0b013e3181ada58d
CrossRef
Anaesthesist
Lipid emulsion therapy for local anaesthetic toxicity
Ott, K
Anaesthesist, 59(6): 575-583.
10.1007/s00101-010-1724-8
CrossRef
Anesthesia and Analgesia
An evaluation of the analgesic efficacy of intravenous regional anesthesia with lidocaine and ketorolac using a forearm versus upper arm tourniquet
Reuben, SS; Steinberg, RB; Maciolek, H; Manikantan, P
Anesthesia and Analgesia, 95(2): 457-460.
10.1213/01.ANE.0000018822.81058.6C
CrossRef
European Journal of Anaesthesiology
Neurological complications following central neuraxial blocks: are there predictive factors?
De Tommaso, O; Caporuscio, A; Tagariello, V
European Journal of Anaesthesiology, 19(): 705-716.

Surgical Clinics of North America
Anesthesia for groin hernia surgery
Amado, WJ
Surgical Clinics of North America, 83(5): 1065-+.
10.1016/S0039-6109(03)00127-0
CrossRef
Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine
The public's fears about and perceptions of regional anesthesia
Matthey, PW; Finegan, BA; Finucane, BT
Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine, 29(2): 96-101.
10.1016/j.rapm.2003.10.017
CrossRef
Anesthesia and Analgesia
A comparison of Espocan((R)) and Tuohy needles for the combined spinal-epidural technique for labor analgesia
Browne, IM; Birnbach, DJ; Stein, DJ; O'Gorman, DA; Kuroda, M
Anesthesia and Analgesia, 101(2): 535-540.
10.1213/01.ANE.0000157162.41892.6A
CrossRef
Clinical Imaging
Magnetic resonance imaging of the lumbar spine after epidural and nerve root injection therapy: evaluation of soft tissue changes
von Rothenburg, T; Drescher, R; Koester, O; Schmid, G
Clinical Imaging, 30(5): 331-334.
10.1016/j.clinimag.2006.03.033
CrossRef
Molecular Pharmacology of Anaesthesia
Local anaesthetics - Toxicity
Urban, BW; Friederich, P
Molecular Pharmacology of Anaesthesia, (): 151-163.

Canadian Journal of Anaesthesia-Journal Canadien D Anesthesie
Fatal and non fatal cardiac arrests related to anesthesia
Biboulet, P; Aubas, P; Dubourdieu, J; Rubenovitch, J; Capdevila, X; d'Athis, F
Canadian Journal of Anaesthesia-Journal Canadien D Anesthesie, 48(4): 326-332.

Anaesthesia
Risk perception and communication: recent developments and implications for anaesthesia
Adams, AM; Smith, AF
Anaesthesia, 56(8): 745-755.

Nutrition
Optimization of surgical care
McNaught, CE; MacFie, J
Nutrition, 18(2): 194-196.
PII S0899-9007(01)00746-8
CrossRef
Seminars in Cutaneous Medicine and Surgery
Regional anesthesia for aesthetic surgery
Bramhall, J
Seminars in Cutaneous Medicine and Surgery, 21(1): 3-26.
10.1053/sder.2002.31149
CrossRef
Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica
Post spinal meningitis and asepsis
Videira, RLR; Ruiz-Neto, PP; Neto, MB
Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica, 46(6): 639-646.

Anesthesia and Analgesia
The age-related effects of epidural lidocaine, with and without epinephrine, on spinal cord blood flow in anesthetized rabbits
Bouaziz, H; Okubo, N; Malinovsky, JM; Benhamou, D; Samii, K; Mazoit, JX
Anesthesia and Analgesia, 88(6): 1302-1307.

Anesthesia and Analgesia
Comparison of ropivacaine 0.2% and lidocaine 0.5% for intravenous regional anesthesia in volunteers
Hartmannsgruber, MWB; Silverman, DG; Halaszynski, TM; Bobart, V; Brull, SJ; Wilkerson, C; Loepke, AW; Atanassoff, PG
Anesthesia and Analgesia, 89(3): 727-731.

Anesthesia and Analgesia
The lateral approach to the sciatic nerve at the popliteal fossa: One or two injections?
Paqueron, X; Bouaziz, H; Macalou, D; Labaille, T; Merle, M; Laxenaire, MC; Benhamou, D
Anesthesia and Analgesia, 89(5): 1221-1225.

Anesthesia and Analgesia
Quantitative comparison of leakage under the tourniquet in forearm versus conventional intravenous regional anesthesia
Coleman, MM; Peng, PW; Regan, JM; Chan, VWS; Hendler, AL
Anesthesia and Analgesia, 89(6): 1482-1486.

Foot & Ankle International
Popliteal fossa neural blockade as the sole anesthetic technique for outpatient foot and ankle surgery
Hansen, E; Eshelman, MR; Cracchiolo, A
Foot & Ankle International, 21(1): 38-44.

Anasthesiologie & Intensivmedizin
The controllability of local anaesthetic spread during spinal anaesthesia-still a challenge?
Litz, RJ; Koch, T
Anasthesiologie & Intensivmedizin, 48(): 404-415.

Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine
Predicting hypotensive episodes during spinal anesthesia with the application of artificial neural networks
Lin, CS; Chiu, JS; Hsieh, MH; Mok, MS; Li, YC; Chiu, HW
Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine, 92(2): 193-197.
10.1016/j.cmpb.2008.06.013
CrossRef
Pain Medicine
Advanced Regional Anesthesia Morbidity and Mortality Grading System: Regional Anesthesia Outcomes Reporting (ROAR)
Buckenmaier, CC; Croll, SM; Shields, CH; Shockey, SM; Bleckner, LL; Malone, G; Plunkett, A; McKnight, GM; Kwon, KH; Joltes, R; Stojadinovic, A
Pain Medicine, 10(6): 1115-1122.
10.1111/j.1526-4637.2009.00691.x
CrossRef
Cinc: 2009 36Th Annual Computers in Cardiology Conference
Predicting Acute Hypotensive Episodes from Mean Arterial Pressure
Langley, P; King, ST; Zheng, D; Bowers, EJ; Wang, K; Allen, J; Murray, A
Cinc: 2009 36Th Annual Computers in Cardiology Conference, (): 553-556.

American Journal of Surgery
Epidural versus intravenous pain control in elderly patients with rib fractures
Kieninger, AN; Bair, HA; Bendick, PJ; Howells, GA
American Journal of Surgery, 189(3): 327-330.
10.1016/j.amjsurg.2004.11.022
CrossRef
Aktuelle Neurologie
Transient toxic Cauda-syndrome after uncomplicated spinal anaesthesia with hyperbaric bupivacaine 0.5% - Case report and review of neurological complications of spinal and epidural anesthesia
Bauer, H; Rohm, K; Grau, A
Aktuelle Neurologie, 32(3): 143-148.
10.1055/s-2004-834676
CrossRef
Anesthesia and Analgesia
The myocardial and vascular effects of bupivacaine, levobupivacaine, and ropivacaine using pressure volume loops
Royse, CF; Royse, AG
Anesthesia and Analgesia, 101(3): 679-687.
10.1213/01.ANE.0000157123.69327.6A
CrossRef
Anesthesia and Analgesia
Outcomes of cardiopulmonary resuscitation and predictors of survival in patients undergoing coronary angiography including percutaneous coronary interventions
Sprung, J; Ritter, MJ; Rihal, CS; Warner, ME; Wilson, GA; Williams, BA; Stevens, SR; Schroeder, DR; Bourke, DL; Warner, DO
Anesthesia and Analgesia, 102(1): 217-224.
10.1213/01.ane.0000189082.54614.26
CrossRef
Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine
Regional anesthesia in the febrile or infected patient
Wedel, DJ; Horlocker, TT
Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine, 31(4): 324-333.
10.1016/j.rapm.2006.04.003
CrossRef
Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery
Indwelling interscalene catheter use in an outpatient setting for shoulder surgery: Technique, efficacy, and complications
Bryan, NA; Swenson, JD; Greis, PE; Burks, RT
Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery, 16(4): 388-395.
10.1016/j.jse.2006.10.012
CrossRef
International Journal of Obstetric Anesthesia
In the event of accidental dural puncture by an epidural needle in labour, the catheter should be passed into the subarachnoid space
Laishley, R
International Journal of Obstetric Anesthesia, 11(1): 26-27.

Annals Academy of Medicine Singapore
Problems related to epidural analgesia for postoperative pain control
Ng, JM; Goh, MH
Annals Academy of Medicine Singapore, 31(4): 509-515.

Anesthesia and Analgesia
Epidural insertion in anesthetized adults: Will your patients thank you?
Rosenquist, RW; Birnbach, DJ
Anesthesia and Analgesia, 96(6): 1545-1546.
10.1213/01.ANE.0000068827.10730.6A
CrossRef
Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine
Comparison of continuous 3-in-1 and fascia iliaca compartment blocks for postoperative analgesia: Feasibility, catheter migration, distribution of sensory block, and analgesic efficacy
Morau, D; Lopez, S; Biboulet, P; Bernard, N; Amar, J; Capdevila, X
Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine, 28(4): 309-314.
10.1016/S1098-7339(03)00183-4
CrossRef
Proceedings of the 7Th Biennial Congress Asian & Oceanic Society of Regional Anesthesia & Pain Medicine
Promoting regional anesthesia and pain medicine: The North American experience
Horlocker, TT
Proceedings of the 7Th Biennial Congress Asian & Oceanic Society of Regional Anesthesia & Pain Medicine, (): 69-72.

International Journal of Obstetric Anesthesia
Some immediate serious complications of obstetric epidural analgesia and anaesthesia: a prospective study of 145,550 epidurals
Jenkins, JG
International Journal of Obstetric Anesthesia, 14(1): 37-42.
10.1016/j.ijoa.2004.07.009
CrossRef
Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica
Regional anaesthesia for outpatient knee arthroscopy: a randomized clinical comparison of two different anaesthetic techniques
Casati, A; Cappelleri, G; Fanelli, G; Borghi, B; Anelati, D; Berti, M; Torri, G
Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica, 44(5): 543-547.

Anesthesia and Analgesia
The effects of the single or multiple injection technique on the onset time of femoral nerve blocks with 0.75% ropivacaine
Casati, A; Fanelli, G; Beccaria, P; Cappelleri, G; Berti, M; Aldegheri, G; Torri, G
Anesthesia and Analgesia, 91(1): 181-184.

Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica
Cardiac arrest during spinal anaesthesia: sudden or expected? Reply
Lovstad, RZ; Hetland, S; Granhus, G
Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica, 44(7): 896-898.

Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica
Thoracic epidural anaesthesia and analgesia: United Kingdom practice
O'Higgins, F; Tuckey, JP
Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica, 44(9): 1087-1092.

Annales Francaises D Anesthesie Et De Reanimation
Cerebral stroke: a differential diagnosis of spinal haemetoma
Morel, J; Michard, C; Benvenuto, V; Braly, G
Annales Francaises D Anesthesie Et De Reanimation, 20(3): 297-299.

British Journal of Anaesthesia
Recurrent neurological symptoms in a patient following repeat combined spinal and epidural anaesthesia
Sakura, S; Toyota, K; Doi, K; Saito, Y
British Journal of Anaesthesia, 88(1): 141-143.

Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine
Preliminary Results of the Australasian Regional Anaesthesia Collaboration A Prospective Audit of More Than 7000 Peripheral Nerve and Plexus Blocks for Neurologic and Other Complications
Barrington, MJ; Watts, SA; Gledhill, SR; Thomas, RD; Said, SA; Snyder, GL; Tay, VS; Jamrozik, K
Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine, 34(6): 534-541.
10.1097/AAP.0b013e3181ae72e8
CrossRef
Orthopade
Pain therapy for the lower extremities
Simanski, CJP
Orthopade, 37(): 959-+.
10.1007/s00132-008-1337-y
CrossRef
Archives of Surgery
Protective Effects of Epidural Analgesia on Pulmonary Complications After Abdominal and Thoracic Surgery A Meta-Analysis
Popping, DM; Elia, N; Marret, E; Remy, C; Tramer, MR
Archives of Surgery, 143(): 990-999.

Anesthesia and Analgesia
Cardiac Arrest After Spinal Anesthesia in Thailand: A Prospective Multicenter Registry of 40,271 Anesthetics
Charuluxananan, S; Thienthong, S; Rungreungvanich, M; Chanchayanon, T; Chinachoti, T; Kyokong, O; Punjasawadwong, Y
Anesthesia and Analgesia, 107(5): 1735-1741.
10.1213/ane.0b013e31817bd143
CrossRef
British Journal of Anaesthesia
Does regional anaesthesia improve outcome after total hip arthroplasty? A systematic review
Macfarlane, AJR; Prasad, GA; Chan, VWS; Brull, R
British Journal of Anaesthesia, 103(3): 335-345.
10.1093/bja/aep208
CrossRef
Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery-American Volume
Third-Degree Heart Block Associated with Bupivacaine Infusion Following Total Knee Arthroplasty A Case Report
Hay, DC; Mayle, RE; Goodman, SB
Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery-American Volume, 91A(9): 2238-2240.
10.2106/JBJS.H.00723
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Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Ultrasound guidance for peripheral nerve blockade
Walker, KJ; McGrattan, K; Aas-Eng, K; Smith, AF
Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, (4): -.
ARTN CD006459
CrossRef
Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Transient neurologic symptoms (TNS) following spinal anaesthesia with lidocaine versus other local anaesthetics
Zaric, D; Christiansen, C; Pace, NL; Punjasawadwong, Y
Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, (4): -.
ARTN CD003006
CrossRef
Minerva Anestesiologica
SIAARTI guidelines for safety in locoregional anaesthesia
Bertini, L; Savoia, G; De Nicola, A; Ivani, G; Gravino, E; Albani, A; Alemanno, F; Barbati, A; Borghi, B; Borrometi, F; Casati, A; Celleno, D; Ciaschi, A; Corcione, A; De Negri, P; Di Benedetto, P; Evangelista, M; Fanelli, G; Grossi, P; Loreto, M; Margaria, E; Niastronardi, P; Matiia, C; Nicosia, F; Nolli, M; Rutili, A; Santangelo, E; Sucre, J; Tagariello, V; Varrassi, G; Paoletti, F; Tufano, R
Minerva Anestesiologica, 72(9): 689-708.

Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine
Lessons from spinal midazolam: When misuse of messages from preclinical models exposes patients to unnecessary risks
Lavand'homme, P
Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine, 31(6): 489-491.
10.1016/j.rapm.2006.07.004
CrossRef
Anesthesia and Analgesia
The effects of lidocaine and bupivacaine on protein expression of cleaved caspase 3 and tyrosine phosphorylation in the rat hippocampal slice
Dahmani, S; Rouelle, D; Gressens, P; Mantz, J
Anesthesia and Analgesia, 104(1): 119-123.
10.1213/01.ane.0000249048.56863.08
CrossRef
Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica
Regional Anesthesia Surveillance System: first experiences with a quality assessment tool for regional anesthesia and analgesia
Schulz-Stubner, S; Kelley, J
Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica, 51(3): 305-315.
10.1111/j.1399-6576.2006.01239.x
CrossRef
Anaesthesist
Ultrasound-guided perivascular axillary brachial plexus block. A simple, effective and efficient procedure
Pfeiffer, K; Weiss, O; Krodel, U; Hurtienne, N; Kloss, J; Heuser, D
Anaesthesist, 57(7): 670-+.
10.1007/s00101-008-1377-z
CrossRef
Canadian Journal of Anaesthesia-Journal Canadien D Anesthesie
Neurostimulation does not increase the success rate of sapbenous nerve blocks
Chassery, C; Gilbert, ML; Minville, V; Gris, C; Samii, K
Canadian Journal of Anaesthesia-Journal Canadien D Anesthesie, 52(3): 269-275.

Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine
Management of postoperative analgesia in elderly patients
Aubrun, F
Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine, 30(4): 363-379.
10.1016/j.rapm.2005.02.006
CrossRef
Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica
High success rate and low incidence of headache and neurological symptoms with two spinal needle designs in children
Kokki, H; Turunen, M; Heikkinen, M; Reinikainen, M; Laisalmi, M
Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica, 49(9): 1367-1372.
10.1111/j.1399-6576.2005.00837.x
CrossRef
Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research
Regional anesthesia in hip surgery
Indelli, PF; Grant, SA; Nielsen, K; Vail, TP
Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research, (): 250-255.
10.1097/01.blo.0000192355.71966.8e
CrossRef
Anaesthesia and Intensive Care
A Randomized trial of ultrasound-guided brachial plexus anaesthesia in upper limb surgery
Soeding, PF; Sha, S; Royse, CF; Marks, P; Hoy, G; Royse, AG
Anaesthesia and Intensive Care, 33(6): 719-725.

Anaesthesist
Complications and adverse events in continuous peripheral regional anesthesia. Results of investigations on 3,491 catheters
Neuburger, M; Breitbarth, J; Reisig, F; Lang, D; Buttner, J
Anaesthesist, 55(1): 33-+.
10.1007/s00101-005-0920-4
CrossRef
Neurology
Irreversible damage to the spinal cord following spinal anesthesia
Hamandi, K; Mottershead, J; Lewis, T; Ormerod, IC; Ferguson, IT
Neurology, 59(4): 624-626.

Anesthesia and Analgesia
Spinal cord injury in a child after single-shot epidural anesthesia
Rose, JB
Anesthesia and Analgesia, 96(1): 3-6.
10.1213/01.ANE.0000038697.99897.65
CrossRef
Anesthesia and Analgesia
Subarachnoid small-dose bupivacaine versus lidocaine for cervical cerclage
Beilin, Y; Zahn, J; Abramovitz, S; Bernstein, HH; Hossain, S; Bodian, C
Anesthesia and Analgesia, 97(1): 56-61.
10.1213/01.ANE.0000068940.36040.54
CrossRef
Anaesthesia
Consent and anaesthetic risk
Jenkins, K; Baker, AB
Anaesthesia, 58(): 962-984.

British Journal of Anaesthesia
Postoperative nerve irritation syndrome after epidural analgesia in a six-year-old child
Zeidan, A; Narchi, P; Goujard, E; Benhamou, D
British Journal of Anaesthesia, 92(1): A146-148.
10.1093/bja/aeh001
CrossRef
Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine
Electrical nerve stimulation using a stimulating catheter: What is the lower limit?
Wehling, MJ; Koorn, R; Leddell, C; Boezaart, AP
Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine, 29(3): 230-233.
10.1016/j.rapm.2004.01.006
CrossRef
Journal of Clinical Anesthesia
Comparison of ropivacaine 0.2% and 0.25% with lidocaine 0.5% for intravenous regional anesthesia
Asik, I; Kocum, AI; Goktug, A; Turhan, KSC; Alkis, N
Journal of Clinical Anesthesia, 21(6): 401-407.
10.1016/j.jclinane.2008.10.011
CrossRef
Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine
Needle-Induced Paresthesiae During Single-Shot Spinal Anesthesia A Comparison of Sitting Versus Lateral Decubitus Position
Fernandez, SD; Taboada, M; Ulloa, B; Rodriguez, J; Masid, A; Alvarez, J
Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine, 35(1): 41-44.
10.1097/AAP.0b013e3181c757c8
CrossRef
Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine
ASRA Practice Advisory on Local Anesthetic Systemic Toxicity
Neal, JM; Bernards, CM; Butterworth, JF; Di Gregorio, G; Drasner, K; Hejtmanek, MR; Mulroy, MF; Rosenquist, RW; Weinberg, GL
Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine, 35(2): 152-161.
10.1097/AAP.0b013e3181d22fcd
CrossRef
Anaesthesist
Thoracic epidural anesthesia
Albrecht, DM
Anaesthesist, 50(3): 194-197.

Anesthesia and Analgesia
Regional anesthesia does not increase the risk of postoperative neuropathy in patients undergoing ulnar nerve transposition
Hebl, JR; Horlocker, TT; Sorenson, EJ; Schroeder, DR
Anesthesia and Analgesia, 93(6): 1606-1611.

Surgical Neurology
Insertion of vagal nerve stimulator using local and regional anesthesia
Bernard, EJ; Passannante, AN; Mann, B; Lannon, S; Vaughn, BV
Surgical Neurology, 57(2): 94-98.
PII S0090-3019(01)00666-8
CrossRef
International Journal of Obstetric Anesthesia
Epidural catheter-induced paresthesia accompanied by changes in skin color and temperature in an obstetric patient
Zhang, RV; Caton, D
International Journal of Obstetric Anesthesia, 14(4): 343-346.
10.1016/j.ijoa.2005.04.006
CrossRef
Pediatric Anesthesia
Thoracic epidural catheter in the management of a child with an anterior mediastinal mass: a case report and literature review
Soliman, LM; Mossad, EB
Pediatric Anesthesia, 16(2): 200-205.
10.1111/j.1460-9592.2005.01638.x
CrossRef
Anaesthesist
Cardiotoxic and neurotoxic effects after accidental intravascular bupivacaine administration - Therapy with lidocaine propofol and lipid emulison
Zimmer, C; Piepenbrink, K; Riest, G; Peters, J
Anaesthesist, 56(5): 449-453.
10.1007/s00101-007-1147-3
CrossRef
Anaesthesia and Intensive Care
Perioperative epidural anaesthesia and analgesia - an appraisal of its role
Davies, MJ
Anaesthesia and Intensive Care, 35(4): 593-600.

Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine
Reduced injection pressures using a compressed air injection technique (CAIT): An in vitro study
Tsui, BCH; Knezevich, FRCPCMP; Pillay, JJ
Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine, 33(2): 168-173.
10.1016/j.rapm.2007.10.006
CrossRef
Pediatric Anesthesia
Paraplegia after thoracotomy under combined general and epidural anesthesia in a child
Allison, CE; Aronson, DC; Geukers, VGM; van den Berg, R; Schlack, WS; Hollmann, MW
Pediatric Anesthesia, 18(6): 539-542.
10.1111/j.1460-9592.2008.02590.x
CrossRef
Anesthesia and Analgesia
Perioperative continuous peripheral nerve blocks with disposable infusion pumps in children: A prospective descriptive study
Dadure, C; Pirat, P; Raux, O; Troncin, R; Rochette, A; Ricard, C; Capdevila, X
Anesthesia and Analgesia, 97(3): 687-690.
10.1213/01.ANE.0000074348.78109.79
CrossRef
Critical Care Clinics
Airway problems in pregnancy
Munnur, U; Suresh, MS
Critical Care Clinics, 20(4): 617-+.
10.1016/j.ccc.2004.05.011
CrossRef
Anesthesia and Analgesia
Chloroprocaine spinal anesthesia: Back to the future?
Drasner, K
Anesthesia and Analgesia, 100(2): 549-552.

Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine
Lower-extremity peripheral nerve blockade: Essentials of our current understanding
Enneking, FK; Chan, V; Greger, J; Hadzic, A; Lang, SA; Horlocker, TT
Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine, 30(1): 4-35.
10.1016/j.rapm.2004.10.002
CrossRef
British Journal of Anaesthesia
Laryngospasm during subarachnoid block
Subramani, K; Paul, A
British Journal of Anaesthesia, 94(5): 668-670.
10.1093/bja/aei099
CrossRef
Anesthesia and Analgesia
The comparative neurotoxicity of intrathecal lidocaine and bupivacaine in rats
Sakura, S; Kirihara, Y; Muguruma, T; Kishimoto, T
Anesthesia and Analgesia, 101(2): 541-547.
10.1213/01.ANE.0000155960.61157.12
CrossRef
Anaesthesist
Regional blocks in outpatient operations
Hubler, M
Anaesthesist, 50(4): 287-289.

British Journal of Anaesthesia
Analgesia for day-case surgery
Rawal, N
British Journal of Anaesthesia, 87(1): 73-87.

British Journal of Anaesthesia
Somebody else's nervous system
Fettes, PDW; Wildsmith, JAW
British Journal of Anaesthesia, 88(6): 760-763.

Anasthesiologie & Intensivmedizin
Postoperative pain therapy relative to the DRG system - Costs and benefits
Jage, J; Heid, F; Roth, W; Kunde, M
Anasthesiologie & Intensivmedizin, 43(5): 262-278.

Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica
Comparison of the catheter-technique psoas compartment block and the epidural block for analgesia in partial hip replacement surgery
Turker, G; Uckunkaya, N; Yavascaoglu, B; Yilmazlar, A; Ozcelik, S
Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica, 47(1): 30-36.

Journal of Clinical Anesthesia
Perioperative interscalene blockade: An overview of its history and current clinical use
Long, TR; Wass, CT; Burkle, CM
Journal of Clinical Anesthesia, 14(7): 546-556.
PII S0952-8180(02)00408-7
CrossRef
Canadian Journal of Anaesthesia-Journal Canadien D Anesthesie
Increased risk of unintentional dural puncture in night-time obstetric epidural anesthesia
Aya, AGM; Mangin, R; Robert, C; Ferrer, JM; Eledjam, JJ
Canadian Journal of Anaesthesia-Journal Canadien D Anesthesie, 46(7): 665-669.

Anesthesia and Analgesia
Scanning electron microscopy study on spinal microcatheters
Ramajoli, F; De Amici, D; Asti, A
Anesthesia and Analgesia, 89(4): 1011-1016.

Anesthesia and Analgesia
Accidental intravenous levobupivacaine
Kopacz, DJ; Allen, HW
Anesthesia and Analgesia, 89(4): 1027-1029.

Annales Francaises D Anesthesie Et De Reanimation
Syringomyelia revealed after epidural anaesthesia
Carre, P; Wodey, E; Langlois, P; Morandi, X; Ecoffey, C
Annales Francaises D Anesthesie Et De Reanimation, 19(6): 478-481.

Anesthesia and Analgesia
A comparison of minidose lidocaine-fentanyl and conventional-dose lidocaine spinal anesthesia
Ben-David, B; Maryanovsky, M; Gurevitch, A; Lucyk, C; Solosko, D; Frankel, R; Volpin, G; DeMeo, PJ
Anesthesia and Analgesia, 91(4): 865-870.

Anesthesia and Analgesia
Lidocaine disrupts axonal membrane of rat sciatic nerve in vitro
Kanai, Y; Katsuki, H; Takasaki, M
Anesthesia and Analgesia, 91(4): 944-948.

Canadian Journal of Anaesthesia-Journal Canadien D Anesthesie
"3-in-1" femoral block
Singer, T; Bird, P; Borgeat, A
Canadian Journal of Anaesthesia-Journal Canadien D Anesthesie, 45(): 1032.

Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine
Commentary: Neurotoxicity of local anesthetics - An issue or a scapegoat?
Moore, DC; Thompson, GE
Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine, 23(6): 605-610.

Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica
Transient radicular irritation after spinal anaesthesia with xylocain - Reply I
Corbey, MP; Bach, AB
Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica, 43(3): 360-361.

Anaesthesist
Epidural catheter in general anesthesia?
Wulf, H
Anaesthesist, 48(3): 183-184.

Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine
Axillary block complicated by hematoma and radial nerve injury
Ben-David, B; Stahl, S
Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine, 24(3): 264-266.

Anaesthesist
Anaesthesia of the brachial plexus
Hempel, V
Anaesthesist, 48(5): 341-355.

Canadian Journal of Anaesthesia-Journal Canadien D Anesthesie
Regional anesthesia and pre-existing neurological disease - I
Macfarlane, AJR; Brull, R
Canadian Journal of Anaesthesia-Journal Canadien D Anesthesie, 55(): 875.

Anaesthesist
Neurological complication after a vertical infraclavicular brachial plexus block
Ehrenberg, R; Bucher, M; Graf, B
Anaesthesist, 58(8): 800-804.
10.1007/s00101-009-1581-5
CrossRef
Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine
Peripheral nerve stimulators: Cracking the code - One at a time
Hadzic, A
Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine, 29(3): 185-188.
10.1016/j.rapm.2004.03.003
CrossRef
British Journal of Anaesthesia
Location, location, location! Ultrasound imaging in regional anaesthesia
Denny, NA; Harrop-Griffiths, W
British Journal of Anaesthesia, 94(1): 1-3.
10.1093/bja/aei001
CrossRef
11Th International Pain Clinic: World Society of Pain Clinicians
Outcome of obstetric regional anesthesia
Alon, E; Weiss, BM
11Th International Pain Clinic: World Society of Pain Clinicians, (): 5-13.

Anesthesia and Analgesia
Paraplegia after intracord injection during attempted epidural steroid injection in an awake-patient
Tripathi, M; Nath, SS; Gupta, RK
Anesthesia and Analgesia, 101(4): 1209-1211.
10.1213/01.ANE.0000175765.76237.0A
CrossRef
Anesthesia and Analgesia
Neurological complications after regional anesthesia: Contemporary estimates of risk
Brull, R; McCartney, CJL; Chan, VWS; El-Beheiry, H
Anesthesia and Analgesia, 104(4): 965-974.
10.1213/01.ane.0000258740.17193.ec
CrossRef
Progres En Urologie
Anaesthesia without anaesthetist?
Brunei-Mercier, MF; Rocca, B; Coulange, C
Progres En Urologie, 18(2): 77-84.
10.1016/j.purol.2007.12.008
CrossRef
Journal of Arthroplasty
Continuous femoral blocks improve recovery and outcome of patients undergoing total knee arthroplasty
Chelly, JE; Greger, J; Gebhard, R; Coupe, K; Clyburn, TA; Buckle, R; Criswell, A
Journal of Arthroplasty, 16(4): 436-445.

Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine
Regional anesthesia and pain medicine: Residency training - The year 2000
Kopacz, DJ; Neal, JM
Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine, 27(1): 9-14.
10.1053/rapm.2002.29715
CrossRef
Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
Results of preemptive epidural administration of morphine with or without bupivacaine in dogs and cats undergoing surgery: 265 cases (1997-1999)
Troncy, E; Junot, S; Keroack, S; Sammut, V; Pibarot, P; Genevois, JP; Cuvelliez, S
Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, 221(5): 666-672.

Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica
Paraplegia associated with combined spinal-epidural anaesthesia caused by preoperatively unrecognized spinal vertebral metastasis
Karamaz, A; Turhanoglu, A; Arslan, H; Kaya, S; Turhanoglu, S
Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica, 46(9): 1165-1167.

Anaesthesia and Intensive Care
Myelopathy with syringomyelia following thoracic epidural anaesthesia
Aldrete, JA; Ferrari, H
Anaesthesia and Intensive Care, 32(1): 100-103.

Canadian Journal of Anaesthesia-Journal Canadien D Anesthesie
The radial nerve should be blocked before the ulnar nerve during a brachial plexus block at the humeral canal
Guntz, E; Herman, P; Delbos, A; Sosnowski, M
Canadian Journal of Anaesthesia-Journal Canadien D Anesthesie, 51(4): 354-357.

Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica
Lidocaine may still be an excellent drug for spinal anaesthesia
Gisvold, SE
Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica, 43(4): 369-370.

Annales Francaises D Anesthesie Et De Reanimation
Intravenous regional anaesthesia. Review article
Estebe, JP
Annales Francaises D Anesthesie Et De Reanimation, 18(6): 663-673.

Revista De Neurologia
Neurological complications of perispinal block in regional anesthesia
Carrascosa, AJ; Molina, JA
Revista De Neurologia, 29(6): 572-579.

Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica
Bradycardia and asystolic cardiac arrest during spinal anaesthesia: A report of five cases
Lovstad, RZ; Granhus, G; Hetland, S
Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica, 44(1): 48-52.

Neuroradiology
Imaging and outcome in severe complications of lumbar epidural anaesthesia: report of 16 cases
Chiapparini, L; Sghirlanzoni, A; Pareyson, D; Savoiardo, M
Neuroradiology, 42(8): 564-571.

Anesthesia and Analgesia
Cardiac arrest during spinal anesthesia: Common mechanisms and strategies for prevention
Pollard, JB
Anesthesia and Analgesia, 92(1): 252-256.

Anasthesiologie & Intensivmedizin
Optimizing clinical pathways by regional anaesthesia procedures
Heller, AR; Litz, RJ; Koch, T
Anasthesiologie & Intensivmedizin, 48(): 306-+.

Muscle & Nerve
Sensory and motor complications of local anesthetics
Gerner, P; Strichartz, GR
Muscle & Nerve, 37(4): 421-425.
10.1002/mus.20967
CrossRef
Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine
Anatomy and pathophysiology of spinal cord injury associated with regional anesthesia and pain medicine
Neal, JM
Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine, 33(5): 423-434.
10.1016/j.rapm.2006.10.014
CrossRef
Journal of Clinical Anesthesia
Adverse events associated with intravenous regional anesthesia (Bier block): a systematic review of complications
Guay, J
Journal of Clinical Anesthesia, 21(8): 585-594.
10.1016/j.jclinane.2009.01.015
CrossRef
Anaesthesia
Regional anaesthesia - before or after general anaesthesia?
Fischer, HBJ
Anaesthesia, 53(8): 727-729.

Annales Francaises D Anesthesie Et De Reanimation
Fascia iliaca block for femoral bone fractures in prehospital medicine
Gozlan, C; Minville, V; Asehnoune, K; Raynal, P; Zetlaoui, P; Benhamou, D
Annales Francaises D Anesthesie Et De Reanimation, 24(6): 617-620.
10.1016/j.annfar.2005.03.030
CrossRef
Health Technology Assessment
Cost-effectiveness and safety of epidural steroids in the management of sciatica
Price, C; Arden, N; Coglan, L; Rogers, P
Health Technology Assessment, 9(): 1-+.

Orthopade
Perioperative pain therapy for knee endoprosthetics
Wagner, KJ; Kochs, EF; Krautheim, V; Gerdesmeyer, L
Orthopade, 35(2): 153-+.
10.1007/s00132-005-0907-5
CrossRef
International Journal of Obstetric Anesthesia
Foot drop after spinal anesthesia in a patient with a low-lying cord
Ahmad, FU; Pandey, P; Sharma, BS; Garg, A
International Journal of Obstetric Anesthesia, 15(3): 233-236.
10.1016/j.ijoa.2005.11.002
CrossRef
Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine
Disclosure of risks associated with regional anesthesia: A survey of academic regional anesthesiologists
Brull, R; McCartney, CJL; Chan, VWS; Liguori, GA; Hargett, MJ; Xu, DQ; Abbas, S; El-Beheiry, H
Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine, 32(1): 7-11.
10.1016/j.rapm.2006.07.005
CrossRef
Anaesthesia and Intensive Care
Long-term neurological complications associated with surgery and peripheral nerve blockade: outcomes after 1065 consecutive blocks
Watts, SA; Sharma, DJ
Anaesthesia and Intensive Care, 35(1): 24-31.

Jama-Journal of the American Medical Association
A patient dissatisfied with her care
Drasner, K
Jama-Journal of the American Medical Association, 286(): 1311-1312.

Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine
Local anesthetic toxicity - Does product labeling reflect actual risk?
Horlocker, TT; Wedel, DJ
Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine, 27(6): 562-567.
10.1053/rapm.2002.37124
CrossRef
Fundamental & Clinical Pharmacology
The local anesthetic activity of Aconitum alkaloids can be explained by their structural properties: a QSAR analysis
Bello-Ramirez, AM; Nava-Ocampo, AA
Fundamental & Clinical Pharmacology, 18(2): 157-161.
10.1111/j.1472-8206.2004.00222.x
CrossRef
Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine
Neurologic deficits and labor analgesia
Wong, CA
Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine, 29(4): 341-351.
10.1016/j.rapm.2004.04.001
CrossRef
Zeitschrift Fur Orthopadie Und Ihre Grenzgebiete
Effectiveness of interscalene plexus block for open shoulder surgery
Pennekamp, PH; Pless, V; Kraft, CN; Stutz, A; Schmitt, O; Diedrich, O
Zeitschrift Fur Orthopadie Und Ihre Grenzgebiete, 142(5): 598-602.
10.1055/s-2004-832319
CrossRef
Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine
Approaches to the lumbar plexus: Success, risks, and outcome
Capdevila, X; Coimbra, C; Choquet, O
Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine, 30(2): 150-162.
10.1016/j.rapm.2004.12.007
CrossRef
Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine
Comparative, toxicity of glucose and lidocaine administered intrathecally in the rat
Hashimoto, K; Sakura, S; Bollen, AW; Ciriales, R; Drasner, K
Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine, 23(5): 444-450.

Anesthesia and Analgesia
The risk of persistent paresthesia is not increased with repeated axillary block
Horlocker, TT; Kufner, RP; Bishop, AT; Maxson, PM; Schroeder, DR
Anesthesia and Analgesia, 88(2): 382-387.

Anesthesia and Analgesia
Neurologic complications after placement of cerebrospinal fluid drainage catheters and needles in anesthetized patients: Implications for regional anesthesia
Grady, RE; Horlocker, TT; Brown, RD; Maxson, PM; Schroeder, DR
Anesthesia and Analgesia, 88(2): 388-392.

International Journal of Obstetric Anesthesia
Paraesthesiae and nerve damage following combined spinal epidural and spinal anaesthesia: a pilot survey
Holloway, J; Seed, PT; O'Sullivan, G; Reynolds, F
International Journal of Obstetric Anesthesia, 9(3): 151-155.

Annales Francaises D Anesthesie Et De Reanimation
Practice and complications of spinal anaesthesia in African tropical countries
Carpentier, JP; Banos, JP; Brau, R; Malgras, G; Boye, P; Dubicq, J; Angel, G; Roth, C
Annales Francaises D Anesthesie Et De Reanimation, 20(1): 16-22.

Anaesthesia
Continuous regional analgesia: can we afford not to use it?
Harrop-Griffiths, W; Picard, J
Anaesthesia, 56(4): 299-301.

British Journal of Anaesthesia
Epidural abscesses
Grewal, S; Hocking, G; Wildsmith, JAW
British Journal of Anaesthesia, 96(3): 292-302.
10.1093/bja/ael006
CrossRef
Anesthesia and Analgesia
In vitro, lidocalne-induced axonal injury is prevented by peripheral inhibition of the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase, but not by inhibiting caspase activity
Lirk, P; Haller, I; Peter, H; Frauscher, S; Kirchmair, L; Gerner, P; Klimaschewski, L
Anesthesia and Analgesia, 105(6): 1657-1664.
10.1213/01.ane.0000286171.78182.e2
CrossRef
Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine
Upper Extremity Regional Anesthesia Essentials of Our Current Understanding, 2008
Neal, JM; Gerancher, JC; Hebl, JR; Ilfeld, BM; McCartney, CJL; Franco, CD; Hogan, QH
Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine, 34(2): 134-170.
10.1097/AAP.0b013e31819624eb
CrossRef
Saudi Medical Journal
Complications related to regional anesthesia
Ornek, D; Erdogan, G; Horasanli, E; Cerit, N; Kalayci, D; Dikmen, B
Saudi Medical Journal, 30(): 1607-1609.

Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine
Prevention of Local Anesthetic Systemic Toxicity
Mulroy, MF; Hejtmanek, MR
Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine, 35(2): 177-180.
10.1097/AAP.0b013e3181d26068
CrossRef
Anesthesia and Analgesia
Premedication with fentanyl and midazolam decreases the reliability of intravenous lidocaine test dose
Moore, JM; Liu, SS; Neal, JM
Anesthesia and Analgesia, 86(5): 1015-1017.

Mount Sinai Journal of Medicine
Complications of spinal anesthesia
Hyderally, H
Mount Sinai Journal of Medicine, 69(): 55-56.

Anasthesiologie Intensivmedizin Notfallmedizin Schmerztherapie
Thoracic epidural anaesthesia
Scherer, R; Giebler, R
Anasthesiologie Intensivmedizin Notfallmedizin Schmerztherapie, 38(3): 168-188.

Anaesthesia and Intensive Care
Paraesthesiae during needle-through-needle combined spinal epidural versus single-shot spinal for elective caesarean section
McAndrew, CR; Harms, P
Anaesthesia and Intensive Care, 31(5): 514-517.

Journal of Anesthesia
Neurotoxicity of intrathecal local anesthetics
Arai, T; Hoka, S
Journal of Anesthesia, 21(4): 540-541.
10.1007/s00540-007-0559-1
CrossRef
Proceedings of the 7Th Biennial Congress Asian & Oceanic Society of Regional Anesthesia & Pain Medicine
Pain management for adult ambulatory surgery: Peripheral nerve blocks and at-home infusions
Horlocker, TT
Proceedings of the 7Th Biennial Congress Asian & Oceanic Society of Regional Anesthesia & Pain Medicine, (): 61-67.

Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine
Resident versus staff anesthesiologist performance: Coracoid approach to infraclavicular brachial plexus blocks using a double-stimulation technique
Minville, V; Asehnoune, K; Chassery, C; N'Guyen, L; Gris, C; Fourcade, O; Samii, K; Benhamou, D
Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine, 30(3): 233-237.
10.1016/j.rapm.2005.01.009
CrossRef
Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine
Neurologic complications of spinal and epidural anesthesia
Horlocker, TT; Wedel, DJ
Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine, 25(1): 83-98.

Anesthesia and Analgesia
Eliciting paresthesias for peripheral nerve block: A harmful clinical standard? Response
Sia, S; Bartoli, M; Lepri, A; Marchini, O; Ponzecchi, P
Anesthesia and Analgesia, 92(3): 795-796.

Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine
Peripheral nerve blocks - Regional anesthesia for the new millennium
Horlocker, TT
Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine, 23(3): 237-240.

Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine
Drugs for spinal anesthesia: Past, present, and future
Liu, SS
Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine, 23(4): 344-346.

Anesthesia and Analgesia
Nerve stimulator and multiple injection technique for upper and lower limb blockade: Failure rate, patient acceptance, and neurologic complications
Fanelli, G; Casati, A; Garancini, P; Torri, G
Anesthesia and Analgesia, 88(4): 847-852.

Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica
New local anaesthetics - how much is improved safety worth?
Wildsmith, JAW
Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica, 45(5): 652-653.

Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica
Major complications after 400 continuous popliteal sciatic nerve blocks for post-operative analgesia
Compere, V; Rey, N; Baert, O; Ouennich, A; Fourdrinier, V; Roussignol, X; Beccari, R; Dureuil, B
Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica, 53(3): 339-345.
10.1111/j.1399-6576.2008.01849.x
CrossRef
Phlebologie
Tumescent anaesthesia in combination with a femoral nerve block or a sciatic nerve block for surgery of varicose veins
Hillermann, T; Traber, J
Phlebologie, 38(3): 103-107.

Anaesthesia
Regional anaesthesia - the bride at last?
Harrop-Griffiths, W; Nathanson, MH
Anaesthesia, 65(): -.

Anesthesia and Analgesia
Transient neurologic syndrome in one thousand forty-five patients after 3% lidocaine spinal anesthesia
Morisaki, H; Masuda, J; Kaneko, S; Matsushima, M; Takeda, J
Anesthesia and Analgesia, 86(5): 1023-1026.

Annales Francaises D Anesthesie Et De Reanimation
Muscle weakness of lower extremities associated with urinary incontinence after epidural anaesthesia
Lena, P; Teboul, J; Mercier, B; Bonnet, F
Annales Francaises D Anesthesie Et De Reanimation, 17(9): 1144-1147.

Pain Reviews
Peripheral nerve blockade in the treatment of pain
Fischer, HBJ
Pain Reviews, 5(3): 183-202.

Journal of Clinical Anesthesia
Increased success rate with infraclavicular brachial plexus block using a dual-injection technique
Rodriguez, J; Barcena, M; Lagunilla, J; Alvarez, J
Journal of Clinical Anesthesia, 16(4): 251-256.
10.1016/j.jclinane.2003.08.006
CrossRef
Anaesthesia
Paraesthesia during the needle-through-needle and the double segment technique for combined spinal epidural anaesthesia
Ahn, HJ; Choi, DH; Kim, CS
Anaesthesia, 61(7): 634-638.
10.1111/j.1365-2044.2006.04705.x
CrossRef
Qjm-An International Journal of Medicine
Spinal epidural abscess in clinical practice
Sendi, P; Bregenzer, T; Zimmerli, W
Qjm-An International Journal of Medicine, 101(1): 1-12.
10.1093/qjmed/hcm100
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Anaesthesia
Regional anaesthesia for limb surgery: a review of anaesthetists' beliefs and practice in the Oxford region
Feely, NM; Popat, MT; Rutter, SV
Anaesthesia, 63(6): 621-625.
10.1111/j.1365-2044.2008.05447.x
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Anaesthesist
Combined transgluteal ischial and femoral nerve block. Retrospective data on 65 risk patients with leg amputation
Raith, C; Kolblinger, C; Walch, H
Anaesthesist, 57(6): 555-561.
10.1007/s00101-008-1372-4
CrossRef
Birth-Issues in Perinatal Care
Factors associated with the choice of delivery without epidural analgesia in women at low risk in France
Le Ray, C; Goffinet, F; Palot, M; Garel, M; Blondel, B
Birth-Issues in Perinatal Care, 35(3): 171-178.

Anesthesia and Analgesia
Asystole under hypotensive epidural anesthesia
Sharrock, NE
Anesthesia and Analgesia, 87(4): 982.

Anasthesiologie Intensivmedizin Notfallmedizin Schmerztherapie
Efficacy acid cost benefit of regional anesthesia
Koch, T
Anasthesiologie Intensivmedizin Notfallmedizin Schmerztherapie, 36(3): 178-180.

Anaesthesia
Regional anaesthesia for limb surgery - before or after general anaesthesia - A survey of anaesthetists in the Oxford region
Kadry, MA; Rutter, SV; Popat, MT
Anaesthesia, 56(5): 450-453.

Anaesthesia
Convulsions following axillary brachial plexus blockade with levobupivacaine
Pirotta, D; Sprigge, J
Anaesthesia, 57(): 1187-1189.

Fetal Diagnosis and Therapy
Epidural versus general anesthesia for twin-twin transfusion syndrome requiring fetal surgery
Myers, LB; Watcha, MF
Fetal Diagnosis and Therapy, 19(3): 286-291.
10.1159/000076713
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Anesthesia and Analgesia
Intrathecal midazolam I: A cohort study investigating safety
Tucker, AP; Lai, C; Nadeson, R; Goodchild, CS
Anesthesia and Analgesia, 98(6): 1512-1520.

Anaesthesist
Spinal anaesthesia
Gerheuser, F; Crass, D
Anaesthesist, 54(): 1245-1267.
10.1007/s00101-005-0947-6
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Canadian Journal of Anaesthesia-Journal Canadien D Anesthesie
Epidural hematoma after hemorrhagic shock in a parturient
Nguyen, L; Riu, M; Minville, V; Chassery, C; Catalaa, I; Samii, K
Canadian Journal of Anaesthesia-Journal Canadien D Anesthesie, 53(3): 252-257.

Spinal Cord
Spontaneous complete recovery of paraplegia caused by epidural hematoma complicating epidural anesthesia: a case report and review of literature
SreeHarsha, CK; Rajasekaran, S; DhanasekaraRaja, P
Spinal Cord, 44(8): 514-517.
10.1038/sj.sc.3101869
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Anesthesia and Analgesia
Epidural lidocaine induces dose-dependent neurologic injury in rats
Muguruma, T; Sakura, S; Saito, Y
Anesthesia and Analgesia, 103(4): 876-881.
10.1213/01.ane0000237287.53957.18
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Neurological Sciences
Intracranial and intraspinal hemorrhage following spinal anesthesia
Rocchi, R; Lombardi, C; Marradi, I; Di Paolo, M; Cerase, A
Neurological Sciences, 30(5): 393-396.
10.1007/s10072-009-0103-1
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Clinics
Mortality in Anesthesia: A Systematic Review
Braz, LG; Braz, DG; da Cruz, DS; Fernandes, LA; Modolo, NSP; Brazi, JRC
Clinics, 64(): 999-1006.
10.1590/S1807-59322009001000011
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Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine
Brachial plexus anesthesia: Essentials of our current understanding
Neal, JM; Hebl, JR; Gerancher, JC; Hogan, QH
Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine, 27(4): 402-428.
10.1053/rapm.2002.34377
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Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica
Neurologic deficits and arachnoiditis following neuroaxial anesthesia
Aldrete, JA
Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica, 47(1): 3-12.

Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine
Effects of epinephrine in local anesthetics on the central and peripheral nervous systems: Neurotoxicity and neural blood flow
Neal, JM
Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine, 28(2): 124-134.
10.1053/rapm.2003.50024
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Anasthesiologie Intensivmedizin Notfallmedizin Schmerztherapie
Anaesthesia today
Blobner, M; Kochs, E
Anasthesiologie Intensivmedizin Notfallmedizin Schmerztherapie, 38(4): 241-254.

Anaesthesia and Intensive Care
Unexpected complication of attempted epidural anaesthesia: Cauda equina syndrome
Liu, YC; Wu, RSC; Wong, CS
Anaesthesia and Intensive Care, 31(4): 461-464.

Anesthesia and Analgesia
Persistent cauda equina syndrome with no identifiable facilitating condition after an uneventful single spinal administration of 0.5% hyperbaric bupivacaine
Chabbouh, T; Lentschener, C; Zuber, M; Jude, N; Delaitre, B; Ozier, Y
Anesthesia and Analgesia, 101(6): 1847-1848.
10.1213/O1.ANE.0000184126.57327.C3
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Anesthesia and Analgesia
Paraplegia after delayed detection of inadvertent spinal cord injury during thoracic epidural catheterization in an anesthetized elderly patient
Kao, MC; Tsai, SK; Tsou, MY; Lee, HK; Guo, WY; Hu, JS
Anesthesia and Analgesia, 99(2): 580-583.
10.1213/01.ANE.0000130391.62612.3E
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Minerva Anestesiologica
A survey of 1000 consecutive epidural catheter placements performed by inexperienced anesthesia trainees
Dalsasso, M; Grandis, M; Innocente, F; Veronese, S; Ori, C
Minerva Anestesiologica, 75(): 13-19.

Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research
Does Regional Anesthesia Improve Outcome After Total Knee Arthroplasty?
Macfarlane, AJR; Prasad, GA; Chan, VWS; Brull, R
Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research, 467(9): 2379-2402.
10.1007/s11999-008-0666-9
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Anaesthesia
Are pencil point needles safe for subarachnoid block?
Ali, SM; Samsoon, G
Anaesthesia, 53(): 1132-1133.

International Journal of Obstetric Anesthesia
Long-term neurological complication following traumatic damage to the spinal cord with a 25 gauge Whitacre spinal needle
Rajakulendran, Y; Rahman, S; Venkat, N
International Journal of Obstetric Anesthesia, 8(1): 62-66.

British Journal of Anaesthesia
Complete recovery of consciousness in a patient with decorticate rigidity following cardiac arrest after thoracic epidural injection
Taga, K; Tomita, M; Watanabe, I; Sato, K; Awamori, K; Fujihara, H; Shimoji, K
British Journal of Anaesthesia, 85(4): 632-634.

Canadian Journal of Anaesthesia-Journal Canadien D Anesthesie
Arrhythmias during spinal anesthesia
Youngs, PJ; Littleford, J
Canadian Journal of Anaesthesia-Journal Canadien D Anesthesie, 47(5): 385-390.

Anasthesiologie Intensivmedizin Notfallmedizin Schmerztherapie
Sacroiliac joint blockage caused by bedding after spinal anaesthesia can fake a neurological complication
Goldmann, R; Bornscheuer, A; Holtje, M
Anasthesiologie Intensivmedizin Notfallmedizin Schmerztherapie, 37(3): 154-156.

Journal of Neurology Neurosurgery and Psychiatry
Intrinsic spinal cord lesions complicating epidural anaesthesia and analgesia: report of three cases
Wilkinson, PA; Valentine, A; Gibbs, JM
Journal of Neurology Neurosurgery and Psychiatry, 72(4): 537-539.

Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine
Systemic toxicity and cardiotoxicity from local anesthetics: Incidence and preventive measures
Mulroy, MF
Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine, 27(6): 556-561.
10.1053/rapm.2002.37127
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Canadian Journal of Anaesthesia-Journal Canadien D Anesthesie
Estimating the incidence of epidural hematoma - is there enough information?
Guay, J
Canadian Journal of Anaesthesia-Journal Canadien D Anesthesie, 51(5): 514-515.

Anesthesia and Analgesia
0.5% versus 1.0% 2-chloroprocaine for intravenous regional anesthesia: A prospective, randomized, double-blind trial
Marsch, SC; Sluga, M; Studer, W; Barandun, J; Scharplatz, D; Ummenhofer, W
Anesthesia and Analgesia, 98(6): 1789-1793.
10.1213/01.ANE.0000116929.45557.CE
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Anesthesiology
Direct neurotoxicity of bupivacaine manifest by plasma membrane blebbing
Johnson, ME; Uhl, CB
Anesthesiology, 89(): U1072.

Annales Francaises D Anesthesie Et De Reanimation
Epidemiology of locoregional anesthesia mishaps in a child
Dalens, B
Annales Francaises D Anesthesie Et De Reanimation, 18(9): FI122-FI126.

Annales Francaises D Anesthesie Et De Reanimation
How to read a scientific article? The committee for clinical references of the French society for anaesthesia and intensive therapy
Malinovsky, JM; Pain, L; Juvin, P; Langeron, O; Riou, B; Martin, C
Annales Francaises D Anesthesie Et De Reanimation, 19(3): 209-216.

Anasthesiologie & Intensivmedizin
Pathophysiological cmd economic aspects of regional anaestesia
Koch, T; Heller, A
Anasthesiologie & Intensivmedizin, 41(3): 138-146.

International Journal of Obstetric Anesthesia
Neurological complications in obstetric regional anaesthesia
Loo, CC; Dahlgren, G; Irestedt, L
International Journal of Obstetric Anesthesia, 9(2): 99-124.

Canadian Journal of Anaesthesia-Journal Canadien D Anesthesie
Litigation in Canada against anesthesiologists practicing regional anesthesia. A review of closed claims
Peng, PWH; Smedstad, KG
Canadian Journal of Anaesthesia-Journal Canadien D Anesthesie, 47(2): 105-112.

European Journal of Anaesthesiology
Fascia-iliaca compartment block for femoral bone fracture in prehospital medicine in a 6-yr-old child
Minville, V; Gozan, C; Asehnoune, K; Zetlaoui, R; Chassery, C; Benhamou, D
European Journal of Anaesthesiology, 23(8): 715-716.

Scandinavian Journal of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery and Hand Surgery
Efficacy and safety of axillary brachial plexus block for operations on the hand
Andersson, A; Akeson, J; Dahlin, LB
Scandinavian Journal of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery and Hand Surgery, 40(4): 225-229.
10.1080/02844310600836778
CrossRef
Anaesthesia, Pain, Intensive Care and Emergency: A.P.I.C.E
Side effects induced by anaesthetic manipulation or by surgical operation
Leykin, Y; Noal, N
Anaesthesia, Pain, Intensive Care and Emergency: A.P.I.C.E, (): 333-341.

British Journal of Anaesthesia
Ultrasonographic control of the puncture level for lumbar neuraxial block in obstetric anaesthesia
Schlotterbeck, H; Schaeffer, R; Dow, WA; Touret, Y; Bailey, S; Diemunsch, P
British Journal of Anaesthesia, 100(2): 230-234.
10.1093/bja/aem371
CrossRef
Anaesthesia
Myocardial infarction associated with the administration of intravenous ephedrine and metaraminol for spinal-induced hypotension
Khavandi, A; Gatward, JJ; Whitaker, J; Walker, P
Anaesthesia, 64(5): 563-566.
10.1111/j.1365-2044.2008.05832.x
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Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Transient neurologic symptoms (TNS) following spinal anaesthesia with lidocaine versus other local anaesthetics
Zaric, D; Pace, NL
Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, (2): -.
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Canadian Journal of Anaesthesia-Journal Canadien D Anesthesie
Central nervous system side effects are less important after iv regional anesthesia with ropivacaine 0.2% compared to lidocaine 0.5% in volunteers
Atanassoff, PG; Hartmannsgruber, MWB
Canadian Journal of Anaesthesia-Journal Canadien D Anesthesie, 49(2): 169-172.

Lancet
Epidural anaesthesia and analgesia in major surgery
Low, J
Lancet, 360(): 568.

Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine
Central nervous system toxicity following the administration of levobupivacaine for lumbar plexus block: A report of two cases
Breslin, DS; Martin, G; MacLeod, DB; D'Ercole, F; Grant, SA
Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine, 28(2): 144-147.
10.1053/rapm.2003.50127
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Anasthesiologie & Intensivmedizin
Peroneal nerve block via catheter: description of the procedure and effectiveness according to a clinical study
Kefalianakis, F; Kugler, M; Schreiber, W; Jung, I; Eckert, B
Anasthesiologie & Intensivmedizin, 45(2): 106-109.

Anesthesia and Analgesia
Epidural hematoma unrelated to combined spinal-epidural anesthesia in a patient with ankylosing spondylitis receiving aspirin after total hip replacement
Hyderally, HA
Anesthesia and Analgesia, 100(3): 882-883.
10.1213/01.ANE.0000143564.71765.30
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Journal of Clinical Anesthesia
Exacerbation of preexisting neurological deficits by neuraxial anesthesia: report of 7 cases
Aldrete, JA; Reza-Medina, M; Daud, O; Lalin-Iglesias, S; Chiodetti, G; Guevara, U; Wikinski, JA; Torrieri, A
Journal of Clinical Anesthesia, 17(4): 304-313.
10.1016/j.jclinane.2004.08.011
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Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica
Are the new local anesthetics worth their cost?
D'Angelo, R
Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica, 44(6): 639-641.

Anesthesia and Analgesia
Eliciting paresthesias for peripheral nerve block: A harmful clinical standard? In response
Sia, S; Bartoli, M; Lepri, A; Marchini, O; Ponzecchi, P
Anesthesia and Analgesia, 92(3): 795-796.

Anaesthesia
Levobupivacaine
McLeod, GA; Burke, D
Anaesthesia, 56(4): 331-341.

British Journal of Anaesthesia
The lumbar epidural space in pregnancy: visualization by ultrasonography
Grau, T; Leipold, RW; Horter, J; Conradi, R; Martin, E; Motsch, J
British Journal of Anaesthesia, 86(6): 798-804.

Neurological Sciences
Spinal cord lesion due to epidural anesthesia
Lauria, G; Chiapparini, L; Pareyson, D; Sghirlanzoni, A
Neurological Sciences, 21(6): 411-412.

Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
Lithium increases potency of lidocaine-induced block of voltage-gated Na+ currents in rat sensory neurons in vitro
Gold, MS; Thut, PD
Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, 299(2): 705-711.

Anaesthesia
Ultrasound in regional anaesthesia
Griffin, J; Nicholls, B
Anaesthesia, 65(): 1-12.
10.1111/j.1365-2044.2009.06200.x
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Anaesthesia
Litigation related to regional anaesthesia: an analysis of claims against the NHS in England 1995-2007
Szypula, K; Ashpole, KJ; Bogod, D; Yentis, SM; Mihai, R; Scott, S; Cook, TM
Anaesthesia, 65(5): 443-452.
10.1111/j.1365-2044.2010.06248.x
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Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
Lidocaine toxicity in primary afferent neurons from the rat
Gold, MS; Reichling, DB; Hampl, KF; Drasner, K; Levine, JD
Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, 285(2): 413-421.

Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica
Intrathecally, Caine may dis-Able - Reflections on lidocaine for spinal anesthesia
Severinghaus, JW
Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica, 42(): 3-7.

Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica
Transient radicular irritation after spinal anaesthesia with xylocain
Hampl, K; Schneider, M
Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica, 43(3): 359-360.

British Journal of Anaesthesia
Fifteen years of ultrasound guidance in regional anaesthesia: Part 1
Marhofer, P; Harrop-Griffiths, W; Kettner, SC; Kirchmair, L
British Journal of Anaesthesia, 104(5): 538-546.
10.1093/bja/aeq069
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Haemophilia
Pain relief after knee replacement in patients with a bleeding disorder
Vanarase, MY; Pandit, H; Kimstra, YWM; Dodd, CAF; Popat, MT
Haemophilia, 13(4): 395-397.
10.1111/j.1365-2516.2007.01464.x
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Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica
Anaesthetic considerations for patients with a pre-existing neurological deficit: are neuraxial techniques safe?
Vercauteren, M; Heytens, L
Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica, 51(7): 831-838.
10.1111/j.1399-6576.2007.01325.x
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Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery
The types and severity of complications associated with interscalene brachial plexus block anesthesia: Local and national evidence
Lenters, TR; Davies, J; Matsen, FA
Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery, 16(4): 379-387.
10.1016/j.jse.2006.10.007
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Annales Francaises D Anesthesie Et De Reanimation
Evaluation of the haemostasis before a central block in children: What is the French anaesthesiologist's attitude?
Pajot, S; Asehnoune, K; Le Roux, C; Leturgie, C; Surbled, M; Bazin, V; Lejus, C
Annales Francaises D Anesthesie Et De Reanimation, 28(1): 3-10.
10.1016/j.annfar.2008.10.016
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Anaesthesia
Neurological complication analysis of 1000 ultrasound guided peripheral nerve blocks for elective orthopaedic surgery: a prospective study
Fredrickson, MJ; Kilfoyle, DH
Anaesthesia, 64(8): 836-844.
10.1111/j.1365-2044.2009.05938.x
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Journal of Cardiothoracic and Vascular Anesthesia
Thoracic epidural anesthesia in cardiac surgical patients: A prospective audit of 2,113 cases
Chakravarthy, M; Thimmangowda, P; Krishnamurthy, J; Nadiminti, S; Jawali, V
Journal of Cardiothoracic and Vascular Anesthesia, 19(1): 44-48.
10.1053/j.jvca.11.008
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Anaesthesist
Influence of blockades with local anesthetics on the stimulation ability of a nerve by peripheral nerve stimulation. Results of a randomized study
Neuburger, M; Gultlinger, O; Ass, B; Buttner, J; Kaiser, H
Anaesthesist, 54(6): 575-577.

British Journal of Anaesthesia
Perioperative cardiac arrest: a study of 53718 anaesthetics over 9 yr from a Brazilian teaching hospital
Braz, LG; Modolo, NSP; do Nascimento, P; Bruschi, BAM; Castiglia, YMM; Ganem, EM; de Carvalho, LR; Braz, JRC
British Journal of Anaesthesia, 96(5): 569-575.
10.1093/bja/ael065
CrossRef
Anesthesia and Analgesia
Mandibular nerve block for the removal of dentures during trismus caused by tetanus - Response
Meaudre, E; Palmier, B; Ripart, J
Anesthesia and Analgesia, 103(1): 253.
10.1213/01.ANE.0000215130.60362.93
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Anesthesia and Analgesia
Severe and long-lasting complications of the nerve root and spinal cord after central neuraxial blockade
de Seze, MP; Sztark, F; Janvier, G; Joseph, PA
Anesthesia and Analgesia, 104(4): 975-979.
10.1213/01.ane.0000253485.75797.e7
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Anesthesia and Analgesia
The Effects of Ultrasound Guidance and Neurostimulation on the Minimum Effective Anesthetic Volume of Mepivacaine 1.5% Required to Block the Sciatic Nerve Using the Subgluteal Approach
Danelli, G; Ghisi, D; Fanelli, A; Ortu, A; Moschini, E; Berti, M; Ziegler, S; Fanelli, G
Anesthesia and Analgesia, 109(5): 1674-1678.
10.1213/ANE.0b013e3181b92372
CrossRef
Revue Neurologique
Pregnancy and epilepsy
Masnou, P; Jami-Ceccomori, P
Revue Neurologique, 157(2): 153-161.

Anaesthesist
Peripheral neuronal blockade. A review of new developments of an old technique
Graf, BM; Martin, E
Anaesthesist, 50(5): 312-322.

Recent Views on Clinical Pain, Proceedings
Mortality and morbidity following regional anesthesia
Weiss, BM; Alon, E
Recent Views on Clinical Pain, Proceedings, (): 129-137.

Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine
Local anesthetic neurotoxicity: Clinical injury and strategies that may minimize risk
Drasner, K
Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine, 27(6): 576-580.
10.1053/rapm.2002.37410
CrossRef
Anesthesia and Analgesia
Seizure after levobupivacaine for interscalene brachial plexus block
Crews, JC; Rothman, TE
Anesthesia and Analgesia, 96(4): 1188-1190.
10.1213/01.ane.0000053235.07186.39
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Anaesthesist
Inadvertent cranial extension of a spinal block with isobaric 0.5% bupivacaine following late posture change
Vicent, O; Litz, RJ; Hubler, M; Koch, T
Anaesthesist, 52(): 1035-1038.

Anesthesia and Analgesia
Neuraxial anesthesia and analgesia in patients with preexisting central nervous system disorders
Hebl, JR; Horlocker, TT; Schroeder, DR
Anesthesia and Analgesia, 103(1): 223-228.
10.1213/01.ane.0000220896.56427.53
CrossRef
Canadian Journal of Anaesthesia-Journal Canadien D Anesthesie
Compressed air injection technique to standardize block injection pressures
Tsui, BCH; Li, LXY; Pillay, JJ
Canadian Journal of Anaesthesia-Journal Canadien D Anesthesie, 53(): 1098-1102.

Anesthesia and Analgesia
Incidence and time course of cardiovascular side effects during spinal anesthesia after prophylactic administration of intravenous fluids or vasoconstrictors
Arndt, JO; Bomer, W; Krauth, J; Marquardt, B
Anesthesia and Analgesia, 87(2): 347-354.

Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine
Technical aspects and postoperative sequelae of spinal and epidural anesthesia: A prospective study of 3,230 orthopedic patients
Puolakka, R; Haasio, J; Pitkanen, MT; Kallio, M; Rosenberg, PH
Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine, 25(5): 488-497.

Anesthesia and Analgesia
The use of intravenous atropine after a saline infusion in the prevention of spinal anesthesia-induced hypotension in elderly patients
Lim, HH; Ho, KM; Choi, WY; Teoh, GS; Chiu, KY
Anesthesia and Analgesia, 91(5): 1203-1206.

Anesthesia and Analgesia
Lidocaine neurotoxicity in the obstetric patient: Is the water safe?
Schneider, MC; Birnbach, DJ
Anesthesia and Analgesia, 92(2): 287-290.

Anasthesiologie Intensivmedizin Notfallmedizin Schmerztherapie
Conus cauda-syndrome after spinal anesthesia
Zipper, SG; Neumann, M
Anasthesiologie Intensivmedizin Notfallmedizin Schmerztherapie, 36(6): 384-387.

British Journal of Anaesthesia
Safety and efficacy of postoperative epidural analgesia
Wheatley, RG; Schug, SA; Watson, D
British Journal of Anaesthesia, 87(1): 47-61.

Annales Francaises D Anesthesie Et De Reanimation
Use of ropivacaine for postoperative epidural analgesia
Senard, M; Joris, J
Annales Francaises D Anesthesie Et De Reanimation, 21(9): 713-724.
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Anaesthesist
Unusual complication after combined spinal/epidural anaesthesia
Leidinger, W; Meierhofer, JN; Ullrich, V
Anaesthesist, 52(8): 703-706.
10.1007/s00101-003-0525-8
CrossRef
Pain Clinic
Evaluation of some drug combinations for intravenous regional analgesia in rabbits
Biricik, HS; Ganidagli, S; Cengiz, M
Pain Clinic, 15(4): 447-453.

Anaesthesist
Intracerebral haemorrhage after caesarian section under spinal anaesthesia. Coincidence or causality?
von Knobelsdorff, G; Paris, A
Anaesthesist, 53(1): 41-+.
10.1007/s00101-003-0585-9
CrossRef
Journal of Cardiothoracic and Vascular Anesthesia
Con: Every postthoracotomy patient does not deserve thoracic epidural analgesia
Grant, RP
Journal of Cardiothoracic and Vascular Anesthesia, 13(3): 355-357.

Anesthesia and Analgesia
Dose response relationships for isobaric spinal mepivacaine using the combined spinal epidural technique
Zayas, VM; Liguori, GA; Chisholm, MF; Susman, MH; Gordon, MA
Anesthesia and Analgesia, 89(5): 1167-1171.

Canadian Journal of Anaesthesia-Journal Canadien D Anesthesie
Continuous interscalene block - Reply
Boezaart, AP
Canadian Journal of Anaesthesia-Journal Canadien D Anesthesie, 46(): 1096.

Anaesthesist
Indication for central versus peripheral regional anesthesia
Beland, B; Prien, T; Van Aken, H
Anaesthesist, 49(6): 495-504.

Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine
Neurotoxicity of intrathecally administered tetracaine commences at the posterior roots near entry into the spinal cord
Takenami, T; Yagishita, S; Asato, F; Hoka, S
Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine, 25(4): 372-379.

Drug Safety
Complications of regional anaesthesia - Incidence and prevention
Faccenda, KA; Finucane, BT
Drug Safety, 24(6): 413-442.

Signa Vitae
Perioperative Cardiac Arrests
Sprung, J; Flick, RP; Gleich, SJ; Weingarten, TN
Signa Vitae, 3(2): 8-12.

European Journal of Pain
Regional anaesthesia and side effects: is it safe?
Allegri, M; Grossi, P; Ferrari, F; Borghi, B
European Journal of Pain, (): 31-35.

Journal of Arthroplasty
Major Complications Associated with Femoral Nerve Catheters for Knee Arthroplasty A Word of Caution
Feibel, RJ; Dervin, GF; Kim, PR; Beaule, PE
Journal of Arthroplasty, 24(6): 132-137.
10.1016/j.arth.2009.04.008
CrossRef
Journal of Clinical Anesthesia
The role of surgery in postoperative nerve injuries following total hip replacement
Chelly, JE; Uskova, AA; Plakseychuk, A
Journal of Clinical Anesthesia, 22(4): 285-293.
10.1016/j.jclinane.2009.10.006
CrossRef
Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine
Neuraxial anesthesia and analgesia in the presence of standard heparin
Liu, SS; Mulroy, MF
Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine, 23(6): 157-163.

Anesthesia and Analgesia
The neurotoxicity of drugs given intrathecally (spinal)
Hodgson, PS; Neal, JM; Pollock, JE; Liu, SS
Anesthesia and Analgesia, 88(4): 797-809.

Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine
Synovial cysts and the lithotomy position causing cauda equina syndrome
Wills, JH; Wiesel, S; Abram, SE; Rupp, FW
Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine, 29(3): 234-236.
10.1016/j.rapm.2004.01.015
CrossRef
Anesthesia and Analgesia
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Lower Extremity Reconstruction under Popliteal Sciatic Nerve (Tibioperoneal Trunk) and Saphenous Nerve Block
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Back to Top | Article Outline
Keywords:
Anesthesia: regional. Complications: neurologic; cardiac arrest.

© 1997 American Society of Anesthesiologists, Inc.

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