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Anesthesiology:
Clinical Investigation

Bispectral Analysis Measures Sedation and Memory Effects of Propofol, Midazolam, Isoflurane, and Alfentanil in Healthy Volunteers

Glass, Peter S. MD; Bloom, Marc MD, PhD; Kearse, Lee MD, PhD; Rosow, Carl MD, PhD; Sebel, Peter MB, BS, PhD, FFARSCI; Manberg, Paul PhD

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Abstract

Background:: The bispectral index (BIS), a value derived from the electroencephalograph (EEG), has been proposed as a measure of anesthetic effect. To establish its utility for this purpose, it is important to determine the relation among BIS, measured drug concentration, and increasing levels of sedation. This study was designed to evaluate this relation for four commonly used anesthetic drugs: propofol, midazolam, isoflurane, and alfentanil.
Methods:: Seventy‐two consenting volunteers were studied at four institutions. Volunteers were given either isoflurane, propofol, midazolam, or alfentanil. Each volunteer was administered a dose‐ranging sequence of one of the study drugs to achieve predetermined target concentrations. A frontal montage was used for continuous recording of the EEG. At each pseudo‐steady‐state drug concentration, a BIS score was recorded, the participant was shown either a picture or given a word to recall, an arterial blood sample was obtained for subsequent analysis of drug concentration, and the participant was evaluated for level of sedation as determined by the responsiveness portion of the observer's assessment of the alertness/sedation scale (OAAS). An OAAS score of 2 or less was considered unconscious. The BIS (version 2.5) score was recorded in real‐time and the BIS (version 3.0) was subsequently derived off‐line from the recorded raw EEG data. The relation among BIS, measured drug concentration, responsiveness score, and presence or absence of recall was determined by linear and logistic regression for both the individual drugs and, when appropriate, for the pooled results. The prediction probability was also calculated.
Results:: The BIS score (r = 0.883) correlated significantly better than the measured propofol concentration (r = ‐0.778; P < 0.05) with the responsiveness score. The BIS provided as effective correlation with responsiveness score of the OAAS as did the measured concentration for midazolam and isoflurane. None of the volunteers given alfentanil lost consciousness and thus were excluded from the pooled analysis. The pooled BIS values at which 50% and 95% of participants were unconscious were 67 and 50, respectively. The prediction probability values for BIS ranged from 0.885–0.976, indicating a very high predictive performance for correctly indicating probability of loss of consciousness.
Conclusions:: The BIS both correlated well with the level of responsiveness and provided an excellent prediction of the loss of consciousness. These results imply that BIS may be a valuable monitor of the level of sedation and loss of consciousness for propofol, midazolam, and isoflurane.
Measuring the depth of general anesthesia has been an enigma ever since drugs were introduced that can render patients unconscious. The first attempts at evaluating depth of anesthesia used clinical signs such as those described by Snow [1,2] and subsequently by Guedel. [3] With the introduction of newer anesthetic compounds and the use of multiple drugs to provide the anesthetic state, these clinical signs no longer provide a reliable guide to determine the depth of anesthesia. As a result, several neurophysiologic monitors have been introduced in an attempt to provide a measure of the anesthetic state. The most widely evaluated neurophysiologic tool used to assess depth of anesthesia has been the electroencephalogram (EEG). Can the EEG be used to measure depth of anesthesia? Despite extensive research, the answer to this basic query is still unclear. In a recent review of this subject, Stanski [4] suggested that progress in answering this question has been hindered by several factors, including (1) lack of understanding of the effects of interactions of anesthetic drugs on the EEG, (2) inability to choose the most appropriate EEG parameters, and (3) lack of a gold standard of clinical drug effect for comparison. To overcome these limitations, it was recommended that use of the EEG as an anesthetic monitor will require correlation of anesthetic drug concentrations, EEG parameters, and clinical measures of depth of anesthesia first for individual anesthetic drugs and then for combinations of anesthetic drugs.
In addition, the unifying concept of what constitutes anesthesia is still evolving. Two recent editorials by Prys‐Roberts [5] and Kissin [6] discuss the complex nature of how the depth of anesthesia can be defined. From these editorials, it appears that there are at least two components to the anesthetic state. The first is loss of consciousness and recall, implying inability to respond to or recall a non‐noxious stimulus (e.g., calling out one's name). The second component is the obtundation of reflex responses to a noxious stimulus. The ablation of reflex responses has been shown to occur below the level of the cortex and thus may be unrelated to the state of consciousness. [7,8] This concept of anesthesia is supported by several recent studies on the reduction of minimum alveolar concentrations of volatile anesthetics, [9] or propofol, [10] by opioids. In these studies, a very small amount of opioid markedly reduced the minimum alveolar concentration of isoflurane, yet an opioid alone, even at extremely high concentrations, could not prevent movement at skin incision. At these high opioid concentrations, a minimum concentration of volatile anesthetic or propofol was required to provide the anesthetic state as defined by lack of movement to skin incision. Thus the anesthetic state was provided by propofol or the volatile anesthetic reaching a sufficient concentration for loss of consciousness and lack of recall, and by the opioid providing an adequate concentration to obtund reflex response to the noxious stimulus. This supports the concept of the triad of anesthesia: unconsciousness and lack of recall, analgesia, and muscle relaxation. [11] It is now well recognized that individual anesthetics each produce a unique spectrum of pharmacologic actions, so the concept of a common “depth of anesthesia” may need to be revised to reflect the separate clinical components of the ideal anesthetic state. Consequently, a monitor of depth of anesthesia may only measure one of these components, such as loss of consciousness, obtunding of noxious reflexes, or neuromuscular blockade.
The bispectral index (BIS) is a derived variable of the EEG that has been reported possibly to be related to the hypnotic component of the anesthetic state. [12,13] This study was designed to clearly define the relation among clinical assessment of the state of consciousness, explicit recall, drug concentrations, and EEG effects of four commonly used anesthetic drugs when administered alone to healthy volunteers under controlled experimental conditions.
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Methods

This was a prospective study conducted in healthy volunteers at four separate sites. Institutional review board approval was obtained at each site, and all volunteers gave written informed consent. The evaluable patient population consisted of 70 (minimum of ten persons per anesthetic agent) paid healthy male or female volunteers. Those with known neurological disorders, including current use of anticonvulsant or other psychoactive medications; long‐term drug or alcohol use; clinically significant hypertension; or other serious medical conditions that would interfere with response analysis were excluded.
All volunteers underwent a history and physical examination before being enrolled in the study. All were instructed to remain nil per os from midnight the night before the study. On the morning of the study, volunteers had an intravenous catheter inserted for fluid and drug administration. A radial arterial catheter was also inserted into each one, except those given isoflurane, to monitor blood pressure and to obtain blood samples for subsequent measurement of drug concentration. In the volunteers administered isoflurane, blood pressure was monitored using an automated blood pressure cuff. The volunteers were also monitored using a standard three‐lead electrocardiograph, a peripheral pulse oximeter for Sp02, and nasal prongs or a tight‐fitting face mask for end‐tidal carbon dioxide and to supply supplemental oxygen. An observer monitored respiratory and cardiovascular function and determined the need for interventions such as jaw support to maintain an adequate airway.
An EEG signal was acquired using gold cup electrodes applied to the scalp with collodion or cream, with skin impedance maintained at less than 5 KOhms. The following leads were recorded: Fp1, Fp2, with CZ as the reference (channels 1 and 2) and two additional frontal locations between the preauricular point and the outer corner of each eye using “Fpz” as the reference (channels 3 and 4) plus a ground electrode. The EEG was recorded continuously using an Aspect A‐1000 EEG monitor (Aspect Medical Systems, Natick, MA). Data averaged from the combined bifrontal leads (channels 1 and 2) are presented in this article, although similar results were obtained from all channels.
Serial output files consisting of digitized raw EEG and real‐time, processed EEG parameters were collected on a personal computer, as were time‐synchronized markers describing all clinical assessment events. Drug infusion data were also collected in a similar manner, thereby allowing for a full description of each volunteer's drug delivery history, EEG, and clinical response profile on a minute‐by‐minute basis.
Data were analyzed using two versions of the BIS. The BIS (revision 2), which has been described previously, [12] was calculated in real time using standard A‐1000 monitor software. Samples of raw EEG recordings from this study were also used to develop an updated BIS algorithm. This algorithm was then used to reprocess the raw EEG recordings to produce a new BIS 3.0 profile for every case (see Appendix 1). The BIS levels recorded immediately (10–30 s) before the start of each clinical assessment were used for subsequent statistical data analysis.
Table 1
Table 1
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Once all monitoring had been instituted, the volunteers were given a 15‐minute resting period. Thereafter baseline readings were obtained. These consisted of a sedation score using the responsiveness component of the Observer Assessment of Alertness and Sedation rating scale (Table 1). This assessment procedure involves presentation of progressively more intense stimulation, ranging from a moderate speaking voice to physical shaking or moderate noxious stimuli (trapezius squeeze), until a response is observed. Other baseline readings included loss of eyelash reflex, arterial blood sample (2 two samples per drug level), and a picture/word recall test.
Participants were asked to remember a unique, randomly chosen picture or word at each assessment. After recovery at the end of the study, the participants were asked to remember all pictures or words they were given during the study (correct responses were considered evidence of free recall). They were then shown a list containing the target items as well as similar “distracters” that were not used during the study. Volunteers were asked only to list an item if they could recall it and not to pick any item. Correct identification (recognition) of items actually presented during the study was considered evidence of cued recall. Patients having no free or cued recall were classified as having complete lack of recall (no memory) in subsequent analysis.
The effect of isoflurane, propofol, midazolam, and alfentanil on the BIS score and level of sedation was evaluated. The intravenous drugs (propofol, midazolam, and alfentanil) were administered via a target‐controlled infusion device (either CACI [14] or STANPUMP [15]) to a target effect site concentration. Isoflurane was administered via a tight‐fitting mask using a calibrated vaporizer through a semiclosed non‐rebreathing circuit. End‐tidal isoflurane concentration was monitored using a Rascal 2 agent analyzer (Albion Instruments, Salt Lake City, Utah). Isoflurane was administered in steps to achieve loss of consciousness (i.e., OAAS score of 2 or less) by increasing the end‐tidal concentrations to 0.25%, 0.5%, 0.75%, and 1%. Once loss of consciousness had been achieved, the end‐tidal isoflurane concentration was decreased by the same steps until consciousness was regained. The isoflurane concentration was again increased until loss of consciousness occurred again and then decreased so that at least two crossovers in consciousness occurred for each volunteer.
Propofol was similarly administered in increasing steps to target effect site concentrations of 1, 2, 4, and 6 micro gram/ml until volunteers lost consciousness. The propofol concentration was decreased by the same steps until consciousness occurred and then increased and decreased so that at least two crossovers of consciousness/unconsciousness occurred. Midazolam and alfentanil were administered via a slightly different protocol. Midazolam was administered in a stepwise manner to target effect site concentrations of 0, 75, 150, 300, and back down to 150 ng/ml. Alfentanil was administered in a similar stepwise manner to target effect site concentrations of 0, 50, 100, 200, and back down to 100 ng/ml. At each step, the target concentration was maintained for a minimum of 10 min to ensure equilibration with the effect site. Drug plasma concentrations were determined from the arterial blood samples collected at the end of each steady‐state assessment period. The following analytical methods were used:
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Propofol
Propofol determinations were made using high‐powered liquid chromatography analysis at the Anesthesia Research Laboratory at Duke University Medical Center. The separation and quantification procedures was conducted with a C‐18, 15 cm x 4.6 mm column (Supelcosil LC‐18; Supelco, Bellefonte, PA) and detection was fluorometric. Spiked standards (0.5 and 5 g/ml) were required to be within 20% of the true value with an interassay variability of 12%. The duplicate assays of the participant samples were required to be within 20% of each other.
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Midazolam
Midazolam and alfentanil assays were performed at North Carolina State University. Midazolam samples were assayed by gas chromatography with an electron capture detector according to the method of Greenblatt et al. [16] Interassay variability was less than 10.1%.
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Alfentanil
Plasma samples were measured in duplicate by radioimmunoassay using kits from Janssen Pharmaceutical (Olen, Belgium). Interassay variability averaged 11.2% over the therapeutic range of concentrations.
Results were analyzed for each drug to determine agent‐specific relations among the EEG, measured drug concentration, and the hypnotic and memory end points. Readings for BIS obtained during the second blood sample (when arousal had occurred due to stimulation of the volunteer) or outside of the protocol when a steady state had not yet been achieved were excluded from any data analysis because they may have negatively biased the relation between responsiveness score and drug concentration. Linear correlations between variables at each assessment point were first examined. All volunteers who responded to any verbal command (sedation categories 3, 4, and 5) were classified as conscious. Those who did not respond (sedation scores of 0, 1, and 2) were considered to be unresponsive and unconscious. Logistic regression techniques were used to analyze these relations for quantal end points such as loss of consciousness and lack of recall. The means and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) surrounding the BIS50 and BIS95 values were calculated using the covariance matrix of the logistic regression parameters to estimate the standard error of the predicted estimates of BIS50 and BIS95 (SAS Stat User's Guide; SAS Institute, Cary, NC). The prediction probability was also determined as described by Smith et al. [17] Any systematic differences among the groups and drugs were analyzed using analysis of variance or t tests when appropriate. Because no significant differences were observed for the relation between BIS and consciousness or unconsciousness for propofol, isoflurane, and midazolam, data from these three treatment groups were pooled to derive the common relation between responsiveness score and BIS. Descriptive statistics were used to characterize demographic variables of each of the study groups. Probability values less than 0.05 were considered significant.
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Results

Table 2
Table 2
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Seventy‐two volunteers were enrolled at the four sites of this study. Table 2 shows the demographic distribution of participants at each study site. Two volunteers were withdrawn from the study prematurely (and subsequently replaced) when signs of an irritable airway (isoflurane group) and early airway obstruction (propofol group) were noted at low dose levels. Further dose increases were not attempted in these persons and they recovered fully without adverse sequelae.
Figure 1
Figure 1
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Figure 2
Figure 2
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Figure 3
Figure 3
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Figure 4
Figure 4
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Table 3
Table 3
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Figure 5
Figure 5
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Figure 6
Figure 6
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Table 4
Table 4
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(Figure 1, Figure 2, Figure 3, Figure 4) show the relation among BIS 3.0, measured drug concentration, and sedation score at each assessment point. Table 3 also summarizes this information. Figure 5 and Figure 6 show logistic regression curves describing the probability of loss of consciousness and recall versus BIS 3.0 for each agent. The logistic regression curves for absence of lash reflex were indistinguishable from the probability of loss of consciousness curves. The prediction probability values for BIS, which indicate the probability of correctly predicting the state of consciousness versus loss of consciousness with the drugs tested, ranged from 0.885–0.976 and are listed in Table 4.
Table 5
Table 5
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Figure 7
Figure 7
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(Table 5) lists the BIS 3.0 values for each drug at which 50% and 95% of volunteers were unconscious (BIS50 and BIS95, respectively) and demonstrated complete lack of recall. No values could be derived for participants receiving alfentanil, because only two of them across all dose levels had loss of cued recall and no participant lost consciousness. Because no significant differences among agents were observed, the propofol, isoflurane, and midazolam groups were combined to yield a BIS50 for loss of consciousness of 65 (95% CI, 64.6–65.4) and a BIS95 of 51 (95% CI, 46.9–51.5). The BIS50 and BIS95 values for complete lack of recall (i.e., the BIS value at which there is a 50% or 95% probability of no free or cued recall) when all drugs were combined were 86 (95% CI, 85.0–87.4) and 64 (95% CI, 51.8–68.6), respectively. Figure 7 shows the logistic regression curves describing the probability of loss of consciousness and recall versus BIS when the data for propofol, isoflurane, and midazolam are combined.
The Cp50 for loss of loss of consciousness/unconscious (i.e. plasma concentration of the drug in equilibrium with its effect site at which 50% of participants score an OAAS of 2 or less) for propofol was 2.35 micro gram/ml (95% CI, 2.28–2.43) and for midazolam it was 270 ng/ml (95% CI, 226–314). Similarly, the MAC of isoflurane for loss of consciousness (i.e., end‐tidal concentration of the drug in equilibrium with its effect site at which 50% of volunteers score an OAAS of 2 or less) was 0.51% (95% CI, 0.50–0.53). The corresponding concentrations for 50% probability of loss of recall were 0.43 micro gram/ml propofol, 92 ng/ml midazolam, and 0.19% end‐tidal isoflurane.
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Discussion

Results from this volunteer trial provide a quantitative comparison of the correlations among drug concentrations, BIS, and clinical measures of sedation and memory function for four widely used anesthetic agents. These results show that the BIS, a value derived from the EEG, can be used as a pharmacodynamic measure of hypnotic drug effect. Most importantly, BIS showed a similar dose‐response relation with isoflurane, propofol, and midazolam across the dose/concentration range required to impair memory and induce unconsciousness in volunteers.
In this study, we address the previously recognized need for a systematic investigation of the relation among anesthetic drug concentration, EEG parameters, and clinical measures of depth of anesthesia for individual anesthetic drugs. [4] Previous reports have shown that BIS is a useful predictor of patient response (movement or increased blood pressure) during surgery using various anesthetic regimens. [18–22] However, in a large, prospective multicenter study using movement response as a clinical end point, it was noted that BIS seemed to correlate best with the effects of hypnotic drugs (isoflurane, propofol), whereas opioid analgesics attenuated movement at dose levels that had little effect on the EEG. [23] This suggested that movement at incision primarily reflects the ability of the drug to obtund noxious reflexes and may not be the most appropriate measure for assessing the consciousness/loss of consciousness effects of many anesthetics. This study contrasts with most previous studies evaluating the utility of BIS (or other EEG parameters) in that we evaluated the relation among increasing levels of sedation (as determined by the responsiveness measure of the OAAS), drug concentration, and BIS.
The OAAS scale was chosen because it provides a good correlation with the clinical evaluation of sedation and has been tested prospectively. [24] In our initial analysis, it was assumed that this scale would provide a linear correlation between the observed clinical effect and the BIS value or drug concentration. Recently the techniques used to evaluate performance of anesthetic depth indicators was reviewed. [17] As discussed by Smith et al., [17] ordinal values obtained using a responsiveness rating scale may not allow a perfect linear relation between the observed effect and the measure of anesthetic depth. To account for this uncertainty, they proposed calculating a prediction probability value, which may provide a better measure to monitor performance. The prediction probability value for BIS with the drugs for which loss of response occurred ranged from 0.885 (for midazolam) to 0.976 (for propofol). The good correlation between BIS and level of sedation, coupled with the excellent prediction probability values, supports the value of the BIS to monitor increasing sedation and loss of consciousness.
In a preliminary report from this trial, [25] we noted that increasing intensity of stimulation applied during this clinical assessment process can lead to participant arousal, thereby resulting in a variable clinical state despite maintenance of constant drug levels. These factors undoubtedly contributed to the observed intersubject variability for all the quantitative measures, especially near the critical transition between consciousness and unconsciousness. In addition, the assessment of sedation was done by several observers at four institutions in an open study. This type of study design could also lead to observer bias and variability in assessing sedation levels. Despite these potential sources of inherent variability in the assessment and description of clinical state, consistent relations between the BIS and other measures of drug effect were observed for each of the drugs.
To reduce intersubject variability resulting from drug dose and the hysteresis that may exist between plasma concentration and drug effect, the intravenous anesthetics evaluated in this protocol were administered using computer‐controlled infusion techniques to achieve pseudo‐steady‐state concentrations in equilibrium with their effect site. This should have provided a more precise determination of the relation between drug concentration and the level of responsiveness (i.e., pharmacokinetic variability had been minimized). Variability between drug concentration and drug effect may also exist among the participants. A monitor of drug effect ideally should also account for this pharmacodynamic variability. The BIS had a significantly higher correlation to clinical effect (i.e., sedation scores) than measured propofol blood levels and was as effective in correlating with sedation scores as expired isoflurane measurements or midazolam concentrations.
This study investigated a cross section of anesthetic drugs when administered alone. We found that the correlation between the BIS value and measured effect was independent of the drug administered to induce sedation. Similar probability of response curves were obtained for propofol, midazolam, and isoflurane. When these anesthetics are used alone, BIS values greater than 70 are associated with a high probability of response to verbal stimulus, whereas values less than 50 indicate a low probability of response to verbal command. Across all drugs tested, BIS values less than 64 were associated with a low probability of recall. In a study evaluating midazolam alone in the presence of regional anesthetic block, the BIS50 for loss of consciousness was 79.3. [13] This value is somewhat higher than that obtained for our group of midazolam alone (BIS50 = 70) and the combined agent BIS50 of 65. This difference may reflect either the influence of the regional block in attenuating sensory input or the louder verbal commands that can be used in a volunteer study setting compared with those used during surgery. Leslie et al. [26] reported a BIS50 of 91 for propofol‐induced suppression of learning using a “Trivial Pursuit” type of question task that is similar to the BIS50 of 86 that we obtained using a picture or word recall test.
Our observation that the BIS versus clinical response relation is independent of the choice of anesthetic drug is encouraging for its clinical utility. However, modern anesthesia is provided by a combination of several drugs, and it will be equally important to determine if the relation between the BIS and sedation remains independent of drug when drug combinations are used. Although previous work from several groups suggested that different EEG descriptors might provide the best measure of each drug effect, we sought to evaluate an optimized BIS variable as a common measure of the hypnotic effect induced by all three drug classes.
In this study, we prospectively tested the real‐time performance of one BIS version (revision 2.5) and then further refined the BIS algorithm (revision 3.0) using a more extensive database that included observations from this trial. One potential drawback of retrospective analysis is the possibility of introducing significant bias based on the particular composition of the database used to optimize performance. Comparison of these two versions of BIS in this population of participants (Table 3) did not result in any significant improvement in the correlation between BIS and patient responsiveness, indicating that significant bias had not been introduced. The BIS 3.0 algorithm has been selected for future use because it provided a better performance at more awake levels of the responsiveness score, as described in the appendix.
The drug concentration ranges required to interfere with memory function and induce unconsciousness in this study are consistent with previous published reports concerning each of the drugs. [27–32] Our results confirm that midazolam, propofol, and isoflurane produce amnestic effects at concentrations that are insufficient to induce loss of consciousness. We recognize that relatively simple tests of memory function (picture or word recall) were used in this study, so it is possible that some “implicit” memory function may have been preserved even when volunteers appeared to be unconscious. For example, one volunteer correctly recognized (cued recall test) the word snake, which had been presented after he had been at a steady‐state end‐tidal isoflurane concentration of 1% for at least 11 min. During this assessment period, he had a sedation score of 0 (no response to trapezius squeeze) and a BIS of 35. We assume that he simply guessed correctly when shown the list of presented words, because he had no specific recollection of having heard the word snake, but we cannot eliminate the possibility that some form of implicit priming may have occurred.
Ideally a monitor of anesthetic depth should (1) have a perfect correlation between the measured effect and the value obtained by the monitor, (2) this correlation should be independent of the drug administered, and (3) there should be no interpatient variability. Does BIS achieve this ideal monitor? Adequate anesthesia appears to depend on providing an adequate concentration of a drug to suppress reflex responses to noxious stimuli and to provide a concentration of drug to ensure loss of consciousness. Our results show that during the administration of propofol, isoflurane, and midazolam, the BIS provided a good correlation with the level of responsiveness, loss of consciousness and recall that was drug independent, albeit with some degree of intersubject variability. Initial reports with drug combinations commonly used to provide anesthesia have reported a small increase in the BIS50 value for loss of consciousness. [33,34] The results from these studies are sufficiently encouraging to suggest that BIS is likely to be helpful in guiding titration of the loss‐of‐consciousness component of the anesthetic.
In summary, this study showed that the BIS correlated well with the effects of propofol, midazolam, and isoflurane on level of consciousness and recall. The correlation of BIS to the level of sedation is equal to, or better than, using measured drug concentrations. Across all drug combinations, BIS levels less than 50 indicate that a participant is probably unconscious and will have no recall. Therefore we believe that the BIS may be used effectively to measure the absence of consciousness after midazolam, propofol, or isoflurane.
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Appendix 1. Bispectral Index (Revision 3.0) Development

Clinical Database
A large database of high‐fidelity EEG recordings was collected from patients or volunteers receiving a wide variety of anesthetic regimens. From this large database (n > 600), a heterogeneous subset of cases (n = 215), including 70 cases from this volunteer study, were selected for inclusion in a development database. Selection of cases was based on the following criteria: availability of complete clinical records, use of a frontal montage, distribution of representative anesthetics, and assessment of sedation/hypnotic end points. Anesthetic regimens included in this development database included propofol, isoflurane, midazolam, and thiopental, supplemented with various amounts of opioids and nitrous oxide. The database consisted of 1,223 EEG segments of 100 s each recorded at multiple electrode sites from 215 patients, totaling more than 33 h of EEG recordings. The database therefore consists of a segment of EEG and an associated, clinically derived hypnotic/sedation state.
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Learn/Test Paradigm
The development database was divided in thirds to form three data sets: two retrospective development sets (i.e., a learning set A and a testing set B), and a prospective evaluation set (C). Two retrospective sets were created to allow a pseudo‐prospective evaluation on set B of indices developed using set A (i.e., a learn/test paradigm). Set C was reserved for the final prospective statistical evaluation of candidate indices that occurred at the end of the development process. An equal number of patients were randomly assigned to each data set, controlling for anesthetic protocol.
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Feature Extraction
The segments of EEG immediately preceding each of the 1,223 observation points (i.e., snippet) were used to compute candidate parameters, or features, for evaluation. A set of candidate bispectral and power spectral features were extracted from the last 60 artifact‐free seconds of each 100‐s EEG snippet. The power spectrum and bispectrum of the EEG snippet data were computed and divided into regions of different sizes of frequency (e.g., the value of the power spectrum between 10 and 20 Hz). A series of different parameters (mean, maximum, and so on) were used to characterize the data in the frequency bands.
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Feature Selection
The ability of each member of the set of candidate features to discriminate between sedation groups was assessed by a multivariate step‐wise regression (using SPSS Release 6.0, SPSS Inc., Chicago, Illinois, running on a Sun Microsystems Sparc System, Burlington, Massachusetts) with sedation level using development set A. The observation points were equally weighted by sedation group. The features were ranked by the multiple regression coefficient (multiple R). In addition to individual features, the scope of the multivariate regression was expanded to incorporate interaction terms of two features. The interaction terms often resulted in higher multiple Rs than did their components considered individually.
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Combination of Features into an Index
Equation 1
Equation 1
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The features and interaction terms that produced high correlations with sedation level (R > 0.80) on set A were combined into multivariate indices using a multivariate regression to estimate the regression coefficients. The algorithm of the loss of consciousness/sedation index is Equation 1 where a1, a2, and a3 are the coefficients of the first, second, and third features and c is a constant. Feature 1 is a low‐frequency bispectral feature associated with “deep” anesthetic effect. This feature is a normalized measure of the relative consistency of the relations among the very low (< 1 Hz) and the very high (40–47 Hz) frequency components. Feature 2 is a high‐frequency feature associated with light anesthetic effect and beta activation. It is an aggregate measure of the activity of the components in the middle frequencies (11–20 Hz) relative to the activity of the components in the very high frequencies (40–47 Hz). Feature 3 is the degree of EEG suppression. The proprietary coefficients and the constant are determined by the multivariate regression model.
The candidate index developed using set A was evaluated by determining its classification performance on set B. This helped to ensure that the set of EEG features selected for a candidate index were statistically significant for the anesthetic regimens represented in the clinical database. Full case trends on a subset of cases were generated for candidate indices that exhibited good classification performance on both retrospective development sets. Candidate indices with poor trending performance were rejected.
The loss of consciousness/sedation model was developed using only segments of artifact‐free, nonsuppressed EEG. To evaluate the performance of the revised BIS on nonideal data, final validation of the combined index was performed by trending the index on prospective databases containing all types of EEG. Trending was performed on cases included in the trending databases (n = 429). Therefore, even though about 33 h of EEG data were used for the development database, evaluation of performance was conducted on more than 1,000 h of EEG recordings.
The best candidate index based on statistical and trending performance was selected as the revised BIS and is called BIS 3.0. In contrast to earlier versions of the BIS, the addition of the high‐frequency feature yields an index that decreases monotonically with increasing dose of hypnotic agent, even in the light sedation levels in which beta activation may occur. The result is a BIS with an improved correlation with light sedation/anesthetic levels. Although these index refinements have improved performance in the lighter sedation ranges, intraoperative trending performance remains similar to previous versions.
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American Journal of Gastroenterology
Auditory Evoked Potentials Compared With Bispectral Index for Monitoring of Midazolam and Propofol Sedation During Colonoscopy
von Delius, S; Thies, P; Rieder, T; Wagenpfeil, S; Herberich, E; Karagianni, A; Frimberger, E; Meining, A; Ludwig, L; Ebert, MPA; Schulte-Frohlinde, E; Neu, B; Prinz, C; Schmid, RM; Huber, W
American Journal of Gastroenterology, 104(2): 318-325.
10.1038/ajg.2008.73
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Neuroscience Letters
Modeling the effects of midazolam on cortical and thalamic neurons
Judge, O; Hill, S; Antognini, JF
Neuroscience Letters, 464(2): 135-139.
10.1016/j.neulet.2009.08.041
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Pediatric Anesthesia
The evaluation of propofol dosage for anesthesia induction in children with cerebral palsy with bispectral index (BIS) monitoring
Saricaoglu, F; Celebi, N; Celik, M; Aypar, U
Pediatric Anesthesia, 15(): 1048-1052.
10.1111/j.1460-9592.2005.01658.x
CrossRef
British Journal of Anaesthesia
Changes in the effect of propofol in response to altered plasma protein binding during normothermic cardiopulmonary bypass
Takizawa, E; Hiraoka, H; Takizawa, D; Goto, F
British Journal of Anaesthesia, 96(2): 179-185.
10.1093/bja/aei293
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Medical Engineering & Physics
Genetic fuzzy modelling and control of bispectral index (BIS) for general intravenous anaesthesia
Shieh, JS; Kao, MH; Liu, CC
Medical Engineering & Physics, 28(2): 134-148.
10.1016/j.medengphy.2005.04.023
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Anesthesia and Analgesia
Anesthetic requirements and stress hormone responses in spinal cord-injured patients undergoing surgery below the level of injury
Yoo, KY; Hwang, JH; Jeong, ST; Kim, SJ; Bae, HB; Choi, JI; Chung, SS; Lee, JU
Anesthesia and Analgesia, 102(4): 1223-1228.
10.1213/01.ane.0000198429.09694.d3
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2006 American Control Conference, Vols 1-12
Adaptive and neural network adaptive control of depth of anesthesia during surgery
Bailey, JM; Haddad, WM; Im, JJ; Hayakawa, T; Nagel, PA
2006 American Control Conference, Vols 1-12, 1-12(): 3409-3414.

British Journal of Anaesthesia
Effect of an intubation dose of rocuronium on Spectral Entropy and Bispectral Index (TM) responses to laryngoscopy during propofol anaesthesia
Hans, P; Giwer, J; Brichant, JF; Dewandre, PY; Bonhomme, V
British Journal of Anaesthesia, 97(6): 842-847.
10.1093/bja/ael253
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Anesthesia and Analgesia
Is the patient state analyzer with the PSArray(2) a cost-effective alternative to the bispectral index monitor during the perioperative period?
White, PF; Tang, J; Ma, H; Wender, RH; Sloninsky, A; Kariger, R
Anesthesia and Analgesia, 99(5): 1429-1435.
10.1213/01.ANE.0000132784.57622.CC
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British Journal of Anaesthesia
Bispectral index and A-line AAI index as guidance for desflurane-remifentanil anaesthesia compared with a standard practice group: a multicentre study
Bruhn, J; Kreuer, S; Bischoff, P; Kessler, P; Schmidt, GN; Grzesiak, A; Wilhelm, W
British Journal of Anaesthesia, 94(1): 63-69.
10.1093/bja/aei013
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Ieee Control Systems Magazine
Paradigms, benefits, and challenges - Drug dosing control in clinical pharmacology
Bailey, JM; Haddad, WM
Ieee Control Systems Magazine, 25(2): 35-51.

Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica
A-line autoregression index monitoring to titrate inhalational anaesthesia: effects on sevoflurane consumption, emergence time and memory
Rinaldi, S; Consales, G; Gallerani, E; Ortolani, O; De Gaudio, AR
Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica, 49(5): 692-697.
10.1111/j.1399-6576.2004.00658.x
CrossRef
Anesthesia and Analgesia
The influence of gender on loss of consciousness with sevoflurane or propofol
Kodaka, M; Johansen, JW; Sebel, PS
Anesthesia and Analgesia, 101(2): 377-381.
10.1213/01.ANE.0000154534.71371.4F
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Neuropsychological Rehabilitation
Bispectral analysis of electroencephalogram signals during recovery from coma: Preliminary findings
Schnakers, C; Majerus, S; Laureys, S
Neuropsychological Rehabilitation, 15(): 381-388.

Anesthesia and Analgesia
Narcotrend, bispectral index, and classical electroencephalogram variables during emergence from propofol/remifentanil anesthesia
Schmidt, GN; Bischoff, P; Standl, T; Voigt, M; Papavero, L; Esch, JSA
Anesthesia and Analgesia, 95(5): 1324-1330.
10.1213/01.ANE.0000030380.32119.5C
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Journal of Cardiothoracic and Vascular Anesthesia
Bispectral index is an indicator of adequate cerebral perfusion during cardiopulmonary resuscitation
Chakravarthy, M; Patil, T; Jayaprakash, K; Shivananda, N; Jawali, V
Journal of Cardiothoracic and Vascular Anesthesia, 17(4): 506-508.
10.1016/S1053-0770(03)00160-6
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Anesthesia and Analgesia
BIS monitoring requires proper electrode placement for optimum performance
Manberg, PJ
Anesthesia and Analgesia, 97(4): 1206.
10.1213/01.ANE.0000077642.19309.9E
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Anesthesia and Analgesia
Unusually low bispectral index values during emergence from anesthesia
Hagihira, S; Okitsu, K; Kawaguchi, M
Anesthesia and Analgesia, 98(4): 1036-1038.
10.1213/01.ANE.0000103261.86889.DE
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Academic Emergency Medicine
Bispectral electroencephalographic analysis of head-injured patients in the emergency department
Haug, E; Miner, J; Dannehy, M; Seigel, T; Biros, M
Academic Emergency Medicine, 11(4): 349-352.
10.1197/j.aem.2003.12.015
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Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica
Comparison of BIS and AAI as measures of anaesthetic drug effect during desflurane-remifentanil anaesthesia
Kreuer, S; Bruhn, J; Larsen, R; Bauer, C; Wilhelm, W
Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica, 48(9): 1168-1173.
10.1111/j.1399-6576.2004.00498.x
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Paediatric Anaesthesia
Duration of action of atracurium when given by infusion to critically ill children
Playfor, SD; Thomas, DA; Choonara, I
Paediatric Anaesthesia, 10(1): 77-81.

Anesthesia and Analgesia
EEG-bispectral index monitoring of midazolam-ketamine anesthesia
Mok, MS; Wu, CC; Han, SR
Anesthesia and Analgesia, 90(2): .

Anesthesia and Analgesia
Isoflurane depresses electroencephalographic and medial thalamic responses to noxious stimulation via an indirect spinal action
Antognini, JF; Carstens, E; Sudo, M; Sudo, S
Anesthesia and Analgesia, 91(5): 1282-1288.

Ieee Transactions on Biomedical Engineering
Derived fuzzy knowledge model for estimating the depth of anesthesia
Zhang, XS; Roy, RJ
Ieee Transactions on Biomedical Engineering, 48(3): 312-323.

British Journal of Anaesthesia
Onset of propofol-induced burst suppression may be correctly detected as deepening of anaesthesia by approximate entropy but not by bispectral index
Bruhn, J; Bouillon, TW; Shafer, SL
British Journal of Anaesthesia, 87(3): 505-507.

Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica
Auditory evoked potential monitoring with the AAI (TM)-index during spinal surgery: decreased desflurane consumption
Maattanen, H; Anderson, R; Uusijarvi, J; Jakobsson, J
Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica, 46(7): 882-886.

Resuscitation
Bispectral index monitoring is useless during cardiac arrest patients' resuscitation
Chollet-Xemard, C; Combes, X; Soupizet, F; Jabre, P; Penet, C; Bertrand, C; Margenet, A; Marty, J
Resuscitation, 80(2): 213-216.
10.1016/j.resuscitation.2008.10.011
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Journal of International Medical Research
Comparison of Entropy and Bispectral Index during Propofol and Fentanyl Sedation in Monitored Anaesthesia Care
Balci, C; Karabekir, HS; Kahraman, F; Sivaci, RG
Journal of International Medical Research, 37(5): 1336-1342.

Psychogeriatrics
Preliminary application of processed electroencephalogram monitoring to differentiate senile dementia from depression
Oshima, N; Chinzei, M; Kikuchi, E; Hayashida, M
Psychogeriatrics, 9(3): 116-120.
10.1111/j.1479-8301.2009.00280.x
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Journal of Anesthesia
Electroencephalographic response following midazolam-induced general anesthesia: relationship to plasma and effect-site midazolam concentrations
Miyake, W; Oda, Y; Ikeda, Y; Hagihira, S; Iwaki, H; Asada, A
Journal of Anesthesia, 24(3): 386-393.
10.1007/s00540-010-0907-4
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Anaesthesia
Closed loop controlled administration of propofol using bispectral analysis
Mortier, E; Struys, M; De Smet, T; Versichelen, L; Rolly, G
Anaesthesia, 53(8): 749-754.

Critical Care Clinics
Adjuncts to analgesia - Sedation and neuromuscular blockade
Lowson, SM; Sawh, S
Critical Care Clinics, 15(1): 119-+.

Anesthesia and Analgesia
To BIS or not to BIS? That is the question
Kerssens, C; Sebel, PS
Anesthesia and Analgesia, 102(2): 380-382.
10.1213/01.ANE.0000198371.28973.97
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Anesthesia and Analgesia
Validation of the bispectral index monitor for measuring the depth of sedation in children
Sadhasivam, S; Ganesh, A; Robison, A; Kaye, R; Watcha, MF
Anesthesia and Analgesia, 102(2): 383-388.
10.1213/01.ANE.0000184115.57837.30
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Canadian Journal of Anaesthesia-Journal Canadien D Anesthesie
Bispectral index and regional cerebral oxygen saturation during propofol/N2O anesthesia
Kanemaru, Y; Nishikawa, K; Goto, F
Canadian Journal of Anaesthesia-Journal Canadien D Anesthesie, 53(4): 363-369.

British Journal of Anaesthesia
BIS guided sedation with propofol during spinal anaesthesia: influence of anaesthetic level on sedation requirement
Ozkan-Seyhan, T; Sungur, MO; Senturk, E; Karadeniz, M; Basel, A; Senturk, M; Akpir, K
British Journal of Anaesthesia, 96(5): 645-649.
10.1093/bja/ael055
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Journal of the Neurological Sciences
Multimodal monitoring in the ICU: When could it be useful?
Wright, WL
Journal of the Neurological Sciences, 261(): 10-15.
10.1016/j.jns.2007.04.027
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Anesthesia and Analgesia
Bispectral index values during sevoflurane-nitrous oxide general anesthesia in women undergoing cesarean delivery: A comparison between women with and without prior labor
Yoo, KY; Jeong, CW; Kang, MW; Kim, SJ; Chung, ST; Shin, MH; Lee, J
Anesthesia and Analgesia, 106(6): 1827-1832.
10.1213/ane.0b013e318172c4d7
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British Journal of Anaesthesia
Comparative effects of ketamine on Bispectral Index and spectral entropy of the electroencephalogram under sevoflurane anaesthesia
Hans, P; Dewandre, PY; Brichant, JF; Bonhomme, V
British Journal of Anaesthesia, 94(3): 336-340.
10.1093/bja/aei047
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Critical Care
Bispectral index versus COMFORT score to determine the level of sedation in paediatric intensive care unit patients: a prospective study
Triltsch, AE; Nestmann, G; Orawa, H; Moshirzadeh, M; Sander, M; Grosse, J; Genahr, A; Konertz, W; Spies, CD
Critical Care, 9(1): R9-R17.
10.1186/cc2977
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Anesthesia and Analgesia
The effects of lsoflurane and desflurane titrated to a bispectral index of 60 on the cortical somatosensory evoked potential during pediatric scoliosis surgery
Fletcher, JE; Hinn, AR; Heard, CM; Georges, LS; Freid, EB; Keifer, A; Brooks, SD; Bailey, AG; Valley, RD
Anesthesia and Analgesia, 100(6): 1797-1803.
10.1213/01.ANE.0000152193.90756.4E
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Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia
Bispectral analysis of the electroencephalogram: a review of its development and use in anesthesia
March, PA; Muir, WW
Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia, 32(5): 241-255.

Drug and Alcohol Dependence
Within-subject comparison of the subjective and psychomotor effects of a gaseous anesthetic and two volatile anesthetics in healthy volunteers
Beckman, NJ; Zacny, JP; Walker, DJ
Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 81(1): 89-95.
10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2005.06.002
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Laboratory Animals
Relationship of bispectral index values, haemodynamic changes and recovery times during sevoflurane or propofol anaesthesia in rabbits
Martin-Cancho, MF; Lima, JR; Luis, L; Crisostomo, V; Carrasco-Jimenez, MS; Uson-Gargallo, J
Laboratory Animals, 40(1): 28-42.

Journal of Clinical Anesthesia
Relationship between clinical endpoints for induction of anesthesia and bispectral index and effect-site concentration values
Kim, DW; Kil, HY; White, PF
Journal of Clinical Anesthesia, 14(4): 241-245.
PII S0952-8180(02)00348-3
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Anesthesia and Analgesia
ARX-derived auditory evoked potential index and bispectral index during the induction of anesthesia with propofol and remifentanil
Schmidt, GN; Bischoff, P; Standl, T; Issleib, M; Voigt, M; Schulte, J
Anesthesia and Analgesia, 97(1): 139-144.
10.1213/01.ANE.0000065546.78919.82
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Anasthesiologie Intensivmedizin Notfallmedizin Schmerztherapie
Comparison between TCI-TIVA, manual TIVA and balanced anaesthesia for stereotactic biopsy of the brain
Weninger, B; Czerner, S; Steude, U; Weninger, E
Anasthesiologie Intensivmedizin Notfallmedizin Schmerztherapie, 39(4): 212-219.
10.1055/s-2004-814363
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Anesthesia and Analgesia
A comparison of frontal and occipital bispectral index values obtained during neurosurgical procedures
Shiraishi, T; Uchino, H; Sagara, T; Ishii, N
Anesthesia and Analgesia, 98(6): 1773-1775.
10.1213/01.ANE.0000121344.69058.09
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Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
Bispectral analysis: An objective method of assessing anesthetic depth
Sandler, NA
Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, 62(8): 1002-1004.
10.1016/j.joms.2003.12.028
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Anesthesia and Analgesia
Anesthetic management and one-year mortality after noncardiac surgery
Monk, TG; Saini, V; Weldon, BC; Sigl, JC
Anesthesia and Analgesia, 100(1): 4-10.
10.1213/01.ANE.0000147519.82841.5E
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British Journal of Anaesthesia
Effects of premedication on dose requirements for propofol: comparison of clonidine and hydroxyzine
Guglielminotti, J; Descraques, C; Petitmaire, S; Almenza, L; Grenapin, O; Mantz, J
British Journal of Anaesthesia, 80(6): 733-736.

Anesthesiology
Forty-hertz midlatency auditory evoked potential activity predicts wakeful response during desflurane and propofol anesthesia in volunteers
Dutton, RC; Smith, WD; Rampil, IJ; Chortkoff, BS; Eger, EI
Anesthesiology, 91(5): 1209-1220.

British Journal of Anaesthesia
Biphasic EEG changes in relation to loss of consciousness during induction with thiopental, propofol, etomidate, midazolam or sevoflurane
Kuizenga, K; Wierda, JMKH; Kalkman, CJ
British Journal of Anaesthesia, 86(3): 354-360.

Anesthesia and Analgesia
Explicit intraoperative recall at a Bispectral Index of 47
Mychaskiw, G; Horowitz, M; Sachdev, V; Heath, BJ
Anesthesia and Analgesia, 92(4): 808-809.

Anesthesia and Analgesia
Mild core hypothermia and anesthetic requirement for loss of responsiveness during propofol anesthesia for craniotomy
Leslie, K; Bjorksten, AR; Ugoni, A; Mitchell, P
Anesthesia and Analgesia, 94(5): 1298-1303.

Anesthesia and Analgesia
The bispectral index and explicit recall during the intraoperative wake-up test for scoliosis surgery
McCann, ME; Brustowicz, RM; Bacsik, J; Sullivan, L; Auble, SG; Laussen, PC
Anesthesia and Analgesia, 94(6): 1474-1478.

Anaesthesia
Evaluation of a new method of assessing depth of sedation using two-choice visual reaction time testing on a mobile phone
Thomson, AJ; Nimmo, AF; Tiplady, B; Glen, JB
Anaesthesia, 64(1): 32-38.
10.1111/j.1365-2044.2008.05683.x
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Journal of International Medical Research
The Effects of Midazolam on the Bispectral Index after Fetal Expulsion in Caesarean Section under General Anaesthesia with Sevoflurane
Ok, SJ; Kim, WY; Lee, YS; Kim, KG; Shin, HW; Chang, MS; Kim, JH; Park, YC
Journal of International Medical Research, 37(1): 154-162.

International Journal of Adaptive Control and Signal Processing
Progress of automatic drug delivery in anaesthesia-The 'Rostock assistant system for anaesthesia control (RAN)'
Simanski, O; Janda, M; Schubert, A; Bajorat, J; Hofmockel, R; Lampe, B
International Journal of Adaptive Control and Signal Processing, 23(5): 504-521.
10.1002/acs.1068
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American Journal of Gastroenterology
BIS: Hit or Miss?
Qadeer, MA; Vargo, JJ
American Journal of Gastroenterology, 104(7): 1850.
10.1038/ajg.2009.207
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Anaesthesia
Effect of intra-operative pressure support vs pressure controlled ventilation on oxygenation and lung function in moderately obese adults
Zoremba, M; Kalmus, G; Dette, F; Kuhn, C; Wulf, H
Anaesthesia, 65(2): 124-129.
10.1111/j.1365-2044.2009.06187.x
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Anesthesia and Analgesia
Provider survey of bispectral index utility
Johansen, JW
Anesthesia and Analgesia, 86(): .

British Journal of Anaesthesia
Correlation and agreement between bispectral index and state entropy of the electroencephalogram during propofol anaesthesia
Bonhomme, V; Deflandre, E; Hans, P
British Journal of Anaesthesia, 97(3): 340-346.
10.1093/bja/ael171
CrossRef
Research in Veterinary Science
Bispectral index, spectral edge frequency 95% and median frequency recorded at varying desflurane concentrations in pigs
Martin-Cancho, MF; Lima, JR; Luis, L; Crisostomo, V; Lopez, MA; Ezquerra, LJ; Carrasco-Jimenez, MS; Uson-Gargallo, J
Research in Veterinary Science, 81(3): 373-381.
10.1016/j.rvsc.2006.01.003
CrossRef
Minerva Anestesiologica
BIS - AAI and clinical measures during propofol target controlled infusion with Schnider's pharmacokinetic model
Iannuzzi, E; Iannuzzi, M; Viola, G; Sidro, L; Cardinale, A; Chiefari, M
Minerva Anestesiologica, 73(): 23-31.

Anaesthesist
Pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic models for inhaled anaesthetics
Kreuer, S; Bruhn, J; Wilhelm, W; Bouillon, T
Anaesthesist, 56(6): 538-556.
10.1007/s00101-007-1188-7
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Anesthesia and Analgesia
The relationship between bispectral index and propofol during target-controlled infusion anesthesia: A comparative study between children and young adults
Rigouzzo, A; Girault, L; Louvet, N; Servin, F; De-Smet, T; Piat, V; Seeman, R; Murat, I; Constant, I
Anesthesia and Analgesia, 106(4): 1109-1116.
10.1213/ane.0b013e318164f388
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Journal of Clinical Anesthesia
Brain tumors may alter the relationship between bispectral index values and propofol concentrations during induction of anesthesia
Ferreira, DA; Nunes, CS; Lobo, F; Casal, M; Antunes, LM; Amorim, P
Journal of Clinical Anesthesia, 20(2): 116-121.
10.1016/j.jclinane.2007.09.011
CrossRef
British Journal of Anaesthesia
Prediction of depth of sedation and anaesthesia by the Narcotrend (TM) EEG monitor
Bauerle, K; Greim, CA; Schroth, M; Geisselbrecht, M; Kobler, A; Roewer, N
British Journal of Anaesthesia, 92(6): 841-845.
10.1093/bja/aeh142
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Annales Francaises D Anesthesie Et De Reanimation
Evaluation of the depth of sedation in neurocritical care: clinical scales, electrophysiological methods and BIS
Mantz, J
Annales Francaises D Anesthesie Et De Reanimation, 23(5): 535-540.
10.1016/j.annfar.2004.03.003
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Proceedings of the 2004 American Control Conference, Vols 1-6
Closed-loop control in clinical pharmacology: Paradigms, benefits, and challenges
Bailey, JM; Haddad, WM; Hayakawa, T
Proceedings of the 2004 American Control Conference, Vols 1-6, (): 2268-2277.

Anesthesia and Analgesia
The short-acting beta(1)-adrenoceptor antagonists esmolol and landiolol suppress the bispectral index response to tracheal intubation during sevoflurane anesthesia
Oda, Y; Nishikawa, K; Hase, I; Asada, A
Anesthesia and Analgesia, 100(3): 733-737.
10.1213/01.ANE.0000154441.22654.11
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Anesthesia and Analgesia
Gender and recovery after general anesthesia combined with neuromuscular blocking drugs
Buchanan, FF; Myles, PS; Leslie, K; Forbes, A; Cicuttini, F
Anesthesia and Analgesia, 102(1): 291-297.
10.1213/01.ane.0000181321.55422.C6
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Pediatric Anesthesia
Measuring anesthesia in children using the EEG
Davidson, AJ
Pediatric Anesthesia, 16(4): 374-387.
10.1111/j.1460-9592.2006.01877.x
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Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica
Citation classics in anaesthesia and pain journals: a literature review in the era of the internet
Terajima, K; Aneman, A
Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica, 47(6): 655-663.

Saudi Medical Journal
Awareness during surgery
Messahel, FM; Al-Qahtani, AS
Saudi Medical Journal, 24(9): 967-970.

American Journal of Veterinary Research
Use of the bispectral index as a monitor of anesthetic depth in cats anesthetized with isoflurane
March, PA; Muir, WW
American Journal of Veterinary Research, 64(): 1534-1541.

Annals of Emergency Medicine
Bispectral index monitoring quantifies depth of sedation during emergency department procedural sedation and analgesia in children
Agrawal, D; Feldman, HA; Krauss, B; Waltzman, ML
Annals of Emergency Medicine, 43(2): 247-255.
10.1016/mem.2004.400
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British Journal of Anaesthesia
The Patient State Index as an indicator of the level of hypnosis under general anaesthesia
Prichep, LS; Gugino, LD; John, ER; Chabot, RJ; Howard, B; Merkin, H; Tom, ML; Wolter, S; Rausch, L; Kox, WJ
British Journal of Anaesthesia, 92(3): 393-399.
10.1093/bja/aeh082
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American Journal of Emergency Medicine
Can the Bispectral Index Monitor the sedation adequacy of intubated ED adults?
Gill, M; Haycock, K; Green, SM; Krauss, B
American Journal of Emergency Medicine, 22(2): 76-82.
10.1016/j.ajem.2003.12.006
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Proceedings of the 2000 Ieee International Conference on Control Applications
On the application of system identification and model validation methods for constructing multivariable anesthesia response models
Beck, C; Smith, R; Lin, HH; Bloom, M
Proceedings of the 2000 Ieee International Conference on Control Applications, (): 784-790.

Anaesthesia
Effect of nitrous oxide on the bispectral index and the 95% spectral edge frequency of the electroencephalogram during surgery
Hans, P; Bonhomme, V; Benmansour, H; Dewandre, PY; Brichant, JF; Lamy, M
Anaesthesia, 56(): 999-1002.

Critical Care Medicine
Use of bispectral electroencephalogram monitoring to assess neurologic status in unsedated, critically ill patients
Gilbert, TT; Wagner, MR; Halukurike, V; Paz, HL; Garland, A
Critical Care Medicine, 29(): 1996-2000.

Canadian Journal of Anaesthesia-Journal Canadien D Anesthesie
Brain injury under general anesthesia: is monitoring of the EEG helpful?
Billard, V
Canadian Journal of Anaesthesia-Journal Canadien D Anesthesie, 48(): 1055-1060.

British Journal of Anaesthesia
Changes in the rapidly extracted auditory evoked potentials index and the bispectral index during sedation induced by propofol or midazolam under epidural block
Ge, SJ; Zhuang, XL; Wang, YT; Wang, ZD; Li, HT
British Journal of Anaesthesia, 89(2): 260-264.

Drugs
Postoperative analgesia and sedation in the adult intensive care unit
Liu, LL; Gropper, MA
Drugs, 63(8): 755-767.

2008 American Control Conference, Vols 1-12
Multivariable LPV control of anesthesia delivery during surgery
Lin, HH; Beck, C; Bloom, M
2008 American Control Conference, Vols 1-12, (): 825-831.

Computers in Biology and Medicine
Dissociating the effects of nitrous oxide on brain electrical activity using fixed order time series modeling
Liley, DTJ; Leslie, K; Sinclair, NC; Feckie, M
Computers in Biology and Medicine, 38(): 1121-1130.
10.1016/j.compbiomed.2008.08.011
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Anaesthesia and Intensive Care
Patient sex and its influence on general anaesthesia
Buchanan, FF; Myles, PS; Cicuttini, F
Anaesthesia and Intensive Care, 37(2): 207-218.

Annales Francaises D Anesthesie Et De Reanimation
Optimization of anesthesia for emergency abdominal surgery in the elderly
Varvat, C; Passot, S; Beauchesne, B; Dufraisse, G; Molliex, S
Annales Francaises D Anesthesie Et De Reanimation, 28(): 634-639.
10.1016/j.annfar.2009.05.006
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Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia
The bispectral index during recovery from halothane and sevoflurane anaesthesia in horses
Beldao, E; Blissitt, KJ; Duncan, JC; Laredo, FG; de Montes, MEG; Clutton, RE
Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia, 37(1): 25-34.
10.1111/j.1467-2995.2009.00507.x
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Canadian Journal of Anaesthesia-Journal Canadien D Anesthesie
Awareness during anesthesia
McLeskey, CH
Canadian Journal of Anaesthesia-Journal Canadien D Anesthesie, 46(5): R80-R83.

Canadian Journal of Anaesthesia-Journal Canadien D Anesthesie
The A-line ARX index may be a more sensitive detector of arousal than the bispectral index during propofol-fentanyl-nitrous oxide anesthesia: a preliminary investigation
Nishiyama, T; Hanaoka, K
Canadian Journal of Anaesthesia-Journal Canadien D Anesthesie, 51(6): 539-544.

Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica
Pitfalls and challenges when assessing the depth of hypnosis during general anaesthesia by clinical signs and electronic indices
Jensen, EW; Litvan, H; Struys, M; Vazquez, PM
Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica, 48(): 1260-1267.
10.1111/j.1399-6576.2004.00521.x
CrossRef
Engineering Applications of Artificial Intelligence
A hierarchical system of on-line advisory for monitoring and controlling the depth of anaesthesia using self-organizing fuzzy
Shieh, JS; Linkens, DA; Asbury, AJ
Engineering Applications of Artificial Intelligence, 18(3): 307-316.
10.1016/j.engappai.2004.09.009
CrossRef
Anesthesia and Analgesia
The effect of different isoflurane-fentanyl dose combinations on early recovery from anesthesia and postoperative adverse effects
Munoz, HR; Altermatt, FR; Gonzalez, JA; Leon, PJ
Anesthesia and Analgesia, 101(2): 371-376.
10.1213/01.ANE.0000156950.21292.1A
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Anesthesia and Analgesia
Nitrous oxide and anesthetic requirement for loss of response to command during propofol anesthesia
Karalapillai, D; Leslie, K; Umranikar, A; Bjorksten, AR
Anesthesia and Analgesia, 102(4): 1088-1093.
10.1213/01.ane.0000198672.05639.0a
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Swiss Medical Weekly
Effects of dexmedetomidine on performance of bispectral index as an indicator of loss of consciousness during propofol administration
Chen, Z; Shao, DH; Hang, LH
Swiss Medical Weekly, 143(): -.
ARTN w13762
CrossRef
Comparative Medicine
Relationship of feline bispectral index to multiples of isoflurane minimum alveolar concentration
Lamont, LA; Greene, SA; Grimm, KA; Tranquilli, WJ
Comparative Medicine, 55(3): 269-274.

Annals of Emergency Medicine
A study of the bispectral index monitor during procedural sedation and analgesia in the emergency department
Gill, M; Green, SM; Krauss, B
Annals of Emergency Medicine, 41(2): 234-241.
10.1067/mem.2003.53
CrossRef
American Journal of Veterinary Research
Effect of medetomidine administration on bispectral index measurements in dogs during anesthesia with isoflurane
Greene, SA; Tranquilli, WJ; Benson, J; Grimm, KA
American Journal of Veterinary Research, 64(3): 316-320.

Proceedings of the 41St Ieee Conference on Decision and Control, Vols 1-4
On the use of hybrid multivariable models for predicting human response to anesthesia
Lin, HH; Beck, C; Bloom, M; Chudoung, J
Proceedings of the 41St Ieee Conference on Decision and Control, Vols 1-4, (): 910-916.

Anesthesia and Analgesia
The presence of working memory without explicit recall in a critically ill patient
Ozcan, MS; Gravenstein, D
Anesthesia and Analgesia, 98(2): 469-470.
10.1213/01.ANE.000096184.32247.D0
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Anesthesia and Analgesia
Bispectral index values at sevoflurane concentrations of 1% and 1.5% in lower segment cesarean delivery
Chin, KJ; Yeo, SW
Anesthesia and Analgesia, 98(4): 1140-1144.
10.1213/01.ANE.0000103186.64302.38
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Anesthesia and Analgesia
Bispectral index during isoflurane anesthesia in pediatric patients
Whyte, SD; Booker, PD
Anesthesia and Analgesia, 98(6): 1644-1649.

Anesthesia and Analgesia
Assessing sedation with regional anesthesia: Inter-rater agreement on a modified Wilson sedation scale
Nemethy, M; Paroli, L; Williams-Russo, PG; Blanck, TJJ
Anesthesia and Analgesia, 94(3): 723-728.

Journal of Clinical Anesthesia
Bispectral index monitoring during hypoglycemic coma
Wu, CC; Lin, CS; Mok, MS
Journal of Clinical Anesthesia, 14(4): 305-306.
PII S0952-8180(02)00362-8
CrossRef
Anaesthesia
The effects of nitrous oxide on the auditory evoked potential index during sevoflurane anaesthesia
Barr, G; Anderson, R; Jakobsson, J
Anaesthesia, 57(8): 736-739.

Anesthesia and Analgesia
Bispectral index in patients with target-controlled or manually-controlled infusion of propofol
Lehmann, A; Boldt, J; Thaler, E; Piper, S; Weisse, U
Anesthesia and Analgesia, 95(3): 639-644.
10.1213/01.ANE.0000024203.86693.2E
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American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
Sedation and analgesia in the intensive care unit
Kress, JP; Pohlman, AS; Hall, JB
American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, 166(8): 1024-1028.
10.1164/rccm.200204-270CC
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Anasthesiologie & Intensivmedizin
Comparison of various EEG parameters: 95% spectral edge frequency, approximate entropy and bispectral index
Bruhn, J
Anasthesiologie & Intensivmedizin, 44(1): 17-21.

Addiction
Reinforcing, subjective, and psychomotor effects of sevoflurane and nitrous oxide in moderate-drinking healthy volunteers
Zacny, JP; Janiszewski, D; Sadeghi, P; Black, ML
Addiction, 94(): 1817-1828.

British Journal of Anaesthesia
Increasing isoflurane concentration may cause paradoxical increases in the EEG bispectral index in surgical patients
Detsch, O; Schneider, G; Kochs, E; Hapfelmeier, G; Werner, C
British Journal of Anaesthesia, 84(1): 33-37.

Anesthesia and Analgesia
Pediatric evaluation of the bispectral index (BIS) monitor and correlation of BIS with end-tidal sevoflurane concentration in infants and children
Denman, WT; Swanson, EL; Rosow, D; Ezbicki, K; Connors, PD; Rosow, CE
Anesthesia and Analgesia, 90(4): 872-877.

Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica
Reduced isoflurane consumption with bispectral index monitoring
Guignard, B; Coste, C; Menigaux, C; Chauvin, M
Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica, 45(3): 308-314.

Canadian Journal of Anaesthesia-Journal Canadien D Anesthesie
Values of the bispectral index do not parallel the hemodynamic response to the rapid increase in isoflurane concentration
Nakayama, M; Hayashi, N; Ichinose, H; Yamamoto, S; Kanaya, N; Namiki, A
Canadian Journal of Anaesthesia-Journal Canadien D Anesthesie, 48(): 958-962.

Anesthesia and Analgesia
The correlation of the bispectral index monitor with clinical sedation scores during mechanical ventilation in the pediatric intensive care unit
Berkenbosch, JW; Fichter, CR; Tobias, JD
Anesthesia and Analgesia, 94(3): 506-511.

Anesthesia and Analgesia
C-50 for Propofol-Remifentanil Target-Controlled Infusion and Bispectral Index at Loss of Consciousness and Response to Painful Stimulus in Chinese Patients: A Multicenter Clinical Trial
Xu, ZP; Liu, F; Yue, Y; Ye, TH; Zhang, BX; Zuo, MZ; Xu, MJ; Hao, RR; Xu, Y; Yang, N; Che, XM
Anesthesia and Analgesia, 108(2): 478-483.
10.1213/ane.0b013e31818f8a30
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Chinese Medical Journal
Relationship between depth of anesthesia and effect-site concentration of propofol during induction with the target-controlled infusion technique in elderly patients
Liu, SH; Wei, W; Ding, GN; Ke, JD; Hong, FX; Tian, M
Chinese Medical Journal, 122(8): 935-940.
10.3760/cma.j.issn.0366-6999.2009.08.011
CrossRef
Pediatric Anesthesia
A randomized trial of propofol consumption and recovery profile with BIS-guided anesthesia compared to standard practice in children
Bhardwaj, N; Yaddanapudi, S
Pediatric Anesthesia, 20(2): 160-167.
10.1111/j.1460-9592.2009.03240.x
CrossRef
Anesthesia and Analgesia
The effect of the interaction of propofol and alfentanil on recall, loss of consciousness, and the bispectral index
Iselin-Chaves, IA; Flaishon, R; Sebel, PS; Howell, S; Gan, TJ; Sigl, J; Ginsberg, B; Glass, PSA
Anesthesia and Analgesia, 87(4): 949-955.

Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing
Predicting movement during anaesthesia by complexity analysis of electroencephalograms
Zhang, XS; Roy, RJ
Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing, 37(3): 327-334.

Anasthesiologie Intensivmedizin Notfallmedizin Schmerztherapie
Electrophysiologic monitoring in multiple injured patients
Dinkel, M
Anasthesiologie Intensivmedizin Notfallmedizin Schmerztherapie, 34(): S66-S70.

Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica
Amnesia for electric dental pulp stimulation and picture recall test under different levels of propofol or midazolam sedation
Matsuki, Y; Ichinohe, T; Kaneko, Y
Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica, 51(1): 16-21.
10.1111/j.1399-6576.2006.01170.x
CrossRef
Journal of Emergency Medicine
The effect of the assignment of a pre-sedation target level on procedural sedation using propofol
Miner, JR; Huber, D; Nichols, S; Biros, M
Journal of Emergency Medicine, 32(3): 249-255.
10.1016/j.jemermed.2006.07.023
CrossRef
Biology and Control Theory: Current Challenges
Modeling and control of anesthetic pharmacodynamics
Beck, C; Lin, HH; Bloom, M
Biology and Control Theory: Current Challenges, 357(): 263-289.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Bispectral index for improving anaesthetic delivery and postoperative recovery
Punjasawadwong, Y; Boonjeungmonkol, N; Phongchiewboon, A
Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, (4): -.
ARTN CD003843
CrossRef
Anesthesia and Analgesia
Bispectral index and middle latency auditory evoked potentials in children younger than two-years-old
Lamas, A; Lopez-Herce, J; Sancho, L; Mencia, S; Carrillo, A; Santiago, MJ; Martinez, V
Anesthesia and Analgesia, 106(2): 426-432.
10.1213/ane.0b013e3181602be1
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Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica
Surgical stress index as a measure of nociception/antinociception balance during general anesthesia
Wennervirta, J; Hynynen, M; Koivusalo, AM; Uutela, K; Huiku, M; Vakkuri, A
Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica, 52(8): 1038-1045.
10.1111/j.1399-6576.2008.01687.x
CrossRef
Journal of Clinical Anesthesia
The timing of electroconvulsive therapy and bispectral index after anesthesia induction using different drugs does not affect seizure duration
Lemmens, HJM; Levi, DC; Debattista, C; Brock-Utne, JG
Journal of Clinical Anesthesia, 15(1): 29-32.
10.1016/S0952-8180(02)00477-4
CrossRef
Canadian Journal of Anaesthesia-Journal Canadien D Anesthesie
Desflurane accelerates patient response during the wake-up test for scoliosis surgery
Ting, CK; Hu, JS; Teng, YH; Chang, YY; Tsou, MY; Tsai, SK
Canadian Journal of Anaesthesia-Journal Canadien D Anesthesie, 51(4): 393-397.

Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica
Electromyographic assessment of blink reflexes correlates with a clinical scale of depth of sedation/anaesthesia and BIS during propofol administration
Mourisse, J; Lerou, J; Zwarts, M; Booij, L
Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica, 48(9): 1174-1179.
10.1111/j.1399-6576.2004.00485.x
CrossRef
Journal of Intellectual Disability Research
Intravenous sedation for dental patients with intellectual disability
Miyawaki, T; Kohjitani, A; Maeda, S; Egusa, M; Mori, T; Higuchi, H; Kita, F; Shimada, M
Journal of Intellectual Disability Research, 48(): 764-768.

Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica
The relationship between bispectral index and targeted propofol concentration is biphasic in patients with major burns
Han, TH; Lee, JH; Kwak, IS; Kil, HY; Han, KW; Kim, KM
Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica, 49(1): 85-91.
10.1111/j.1399-6576.2004.00532.x
CrossRef
Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica
Response Entropy (TM) is not more sensitive than State Entropy (TM) in distinguishing the use of esmolol instead of remifentanil in patients undergoing gynaecological laparoscopy
Valjus, M; Ahonen, J; Jokela, R; Korttila, K
Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica, 50(1): 32-39.
10.1111/j.1399-6576.2005.00876.x
CrossRef
British Journal of Anaesthesia
Effects of fentanyl, alfentanil, remifentanil and sufentanil on loss of consciousness and bispectral index during propofol induction of anaesthesia
Lysakowski, C; Dumont, L; Pellegrini, M; Clergue, F; Tassonyi, E
British Journal of Anaesthesia, 86(4): 523-527.

Paediatric Anaesthesia
Effect of oral midazolam premedication on the awakening concentration of sevoflurane, recovery times and bispectral index in children
Brosius, KK; Bannister, CF
Paediatric Anaesthesia, 11(5): 585-590.

Journal of Cardiothoracic and Vascular Anesthesia
Less isoflurane is required after than before cardiopulmonary bypass to maintain a constant bispectral index value
Lundell, JC; Scuderi, PE; Butterworth, JF
Journal of Cardiothoracic and Vascular Anesthesia, 15(5): 551-554.

Anasthesiologie Intensivmedizin Notfallmedizin Schmerztherapie
Is measuring the depth of anesthesia sensible? An overview on the currently available monitoring systems
Lehmann, A; Thaler, E; Boldt, J
Anasthesiologie Intensivmedizin Notfallmedizin Schmerztherapie, 36(): 683-692.

Comparative Medicine
Anesthesia update: Agents, definitions, and strategies
Heavner, JE
Comparative Medicine, 51(6): 500-503.

British Journal of Anaesthesia
In vivo characterization of clinical anaesthesia and its components
Antognini, JF; Carstens, E
British Journal of Anaesthesia, 89(1): 156-166.

Canadian Journal of Anaesthesia-Journal Canadien D Anesthesie
Intravenous Infusion Techniques: how to do it and why we should do it
Glass, PSA
Canadian Journal of Anaesthesia-Journal Canadien D Anesthesie, 45(5): R117-R127.

Anesthesia for the New Millennium
New pharmacokinetic concepts
Glass, PSA
Anesthesia for the New Millennium, 34(): 1-11.

British Journal of Anaesthesia
Comparison of bispectral EEG analysis and auditory evoked potentials for monitoring depth of anaesthesia during propofol anaesthesia
Gajraj, RJ; Doi, M; Mantzaridis, H; Kenny, GNC
British Journal of Anaesthesia, 82(5): 672-678.

European Journal of Anaesthesiology
The effects of nitrous oxide and ketamine on the bispectral index and 95% spectral edge frequency during propofol-fentanyl anaesthesia
Hirota, K; Kubota, T; Ishihara, H; Matsuki, A
European Journal of Anaesthesiology, 16(): 779-783.

Anaesthesia
Target-controlled infusion of propofol and remifentanil combined with bispectral index monitoring for awake craniotomy
Hans, P; Bonhomme, V; Born, JD; de Noordhoudt, AM; Brichant, JF; Dewandre, PY
Anaesthesia, 55(3): 255-259.

Sleep
Propofol action in both spinal cord and brain blunts electroencephalographic responses to noxious stimulation in goats
Antognini, JF; Saadi, J; Wang, XW; Carstens, E; Piercy, M
Sleep, 24(1): 26-31.

Anaesthesia
Pre-operative forced-air warming as a method of anxiolysis
Wen, RJ; Leslie, K; Rajendra, P
Anaesthesia, 64(): 1077-1080.
10.1111/j.1365-2044.2009.06036.x
CrossRef
2009 American Control Conference, Vols 1-9
Neuroadaptive Output Feedback Control for Nonlinear Nonnegative Dynamical Systems with Actuator Amplitude and Integral Constraints
Volyanskyy, KY; Haddad, WM; Bailey, JM
2009 American Control Conference, Vols 1-9, (): 4494-4499.

Anesthesia and Analgesia
Early Cognitive Impairment After Sedation for Colonoscopy: The Effect of Adding Midazolam and/or Fentanyl to Propofol
Padmanabhan, U; Leslie, K; Eer, AS; Maruff, P; Silbert, BS
Anesthesia and Analgesia, 109(5): 1448-1455.
10.1213/ane.0b013e3181a6ad31
CrossRef
Journal of Anesthesia
Effect of remifentanil on cardiovascular and bispectral index responses following the induction of anesthesia with midazolam and subsequent tracheal intubation
Miyake, W; Oda, Y; Ikeda, Y; Tanaka, K; Hagihira, S; Iwaki, H; Asada, A
Journal of Anesthesia, 24(2): 161-167.
10.1007/s00540-010-0895-4
CrossRef
British Journal of Anaesthesia
Bispectral and spectral entropy indices at propofol-induced loss of consciousness in young and elderly patients
Lysakowski, C; Elia, N; Czarnetzki, C; Dumont, L; Haller, G; Combescure, C; Tramer, MR
British Journal of Anaesthesia, 103(3): 387-393.
10.1093/bja/aep162
CrossRef
Anesthesia and Analgesia
The Correlation Between Bispectral Index and Observational Sedation Scale in Volunteers Sedated with Dexmedetomidine and Propofol
Kasuya, Y; Govinda, R; Rauch, S; Mascha, EJ; Sessler, DI; Turan, A
Anesthesia and Analgesia, 109(6): 1811-1815.
10.1213/ANE.0b013e3181c04e58
CrossRef
Electronics and Communications in Japan Part III-Fundamental Electronic Science
A probability-density-based autoregressive model using support vector method and higher-order spectra estimation
Nishiguchi, Y; Toda, N; Usui, S
Electronics and Communications in Japan Part III-Fundamental Electronic Science, 89(): 1-10.
10.1002/ecjc.20225
CrossRef
Pharmacology & Therapeutics
Interactions of anesthetics with their targets: Non-specific, specific or both?
Urban, BW; Bleckwenn, M; Barann, M
Pharmacology & Therapeutics, 111(3): 729-770.
10.1016/j.pharmthera.2005.12.005
CrossRef
Pediatric Anesthesia
Changes of bispectral index during recovery from general anesthesia with 2% propofol and remifentanil in children
Park, HJ; Kim, YL; Kim, CS; Kim, SD; Kim, HS
Pediatric Anesthesia, 17(4): 353-357.
10.1111/j.1460-9592.2006.02096.x
CrossRef
Anesthesia and Analgesia
Bispectral index-guided general anesthesia in combination with thoracic epidural analgesia reduces recovery time in fast-track colon surgery
Mayer, J; Boldt, J; Schelhaass, A; Hiller, B; Suttner, SW
Anesthesia and Analgesia, 104(5): 1145-1149.
10.1213/01.ane.0000260566.39244.bd
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Anesthesia and Analgesia
Spectral entropy predicts auditory recall in volunteers
Moller, DH; Rampil, IJ
Anesthesia and Analgesia, 106(3): 873-879.
10.1213/ane.0b013618163201d
CrossRef
British Journal of Anaesthesia
Bispectral Index asymmetry and COMFORT score in paediatric intensive care patients
Froom, SR; Malan, CA; Mecklenburgh, JS; Price, M; Chawathe, MS; Hall, JE; Goodwin, N
British Journal of Anaesthesia, 100(5): 690-696.
10.1093/bja/aen035
CrossRef
Journal of Clinical Neuroscience
A marked decrease in bispectral index with elevation of suppression ratio by cervical haematoma reducing cerebral perfusion pressure
Umegaki, N; Hirota, K; Kitayama, M; Yatsu, Y; Ishihara, H; Mtasuki, A
Journal of Clinical Neuroscience, 10(6): 694-696.
10.1016/j.jocn.2002.11.001
CrossRef
British Journal of Anaesthesia
The Bispectral Index in children: comparing isoflurane and halothane
Davidson, AJ; Czarnecki, C
British Journal of Anaesthesia, 92(1): 14-17.
10.1093/bja/aeh011
CrossRef
Anesthesia and Analgesia
Assessing propofol induction of anesthesia dose using bispectral index analysis
Gurses, E; Sungurtekin, H; Tomatir, E; Dogan, H
Anesthesia and Analgesia, 98(1): 128-131.
10.1213/01.ANE.0000090314.43496.1D
CrossRef
Clinical Pharmacokinetics
Strategies to optimise propofol-opioid anaesthesia
Lichtenbelt, BJ; Mertens, M; Vuyk, J
Clinical Pharmacokinetics, 43(9): 577-593.

Anesthesia and Analgesia
The effects of propofol, small-dose isoflurane, and nitrous oxide on cortical somatosensory evoked potential and bispectral index monitoring in adolescents undergoing spinal fusion
Clapcich, AJ; Emerson, RG; Roye, DP; Xie, H; Gallo, EJ; Dowling, KC; Ramnath, B; Heyer, EJ
Anesthesia and Analgesia, 99(5): 1334-1340.
10.1213/01.ANE.0000134807.73615.5C
CrossRef
Anesthesia and Analgesia
The association between propofol-induced loss of consciousness and the SNAP (TM) index
Wong, CA; Fragen, RJ; Fitzgerald, PC; McCarthy, RJ
Anesthesia and Analgesia, 100(1): 141-148.
10.1213/01.ANE.0000138057.61904.FD
CrossRef
Clinical Pharmacokinetics
Context-sensitive half-times - What are they and how valuable are they in anaesthesiology?
Bailey, JM
Clinical Pharmacokinetics, 41(): 793-799.

Journal of the Chinese Institute of Chemical Engineers
The intelligent model of a patient using artificial neural networks for inhalational anaesthesia
Shieh, MS; Fan, SZ; Shi, WL
Journal of the Chinese Institute of Chemical Engineers, 33(6): 609-620.

Anesthesia and Analgesia
Intravenous droperidol causes a reduction in the bispectral index in propofol-sedated patients during spinal anesthesia
Nakayama, M; Kanaya, N; Ichinose, H; Yamamoto, S; Namiki, A
Anesthesia and Analgesia, 96(3): 765-768.
10.1213/01.ANE.0000048517.98692.53
CrossRef
Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica
Electromyographic assessment of blink and corneal reflexes during midazolam administration: useful methods for assessing depth of anesthesia?
Mourisse, J; Gerrits, W; Lerou, J; van Egmond, J; Zwarts, MJ; Booij, L
Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica, 47(5): 593-600.

Gastrointestinal Endoscopy
Conscious analgesia/sedation with remifentanil and propofol versus total intravenous anesthesia with fentanyl, midazolam, and propofol for outpatient colonoscopy
Rudner, R; Jalowiecki, P; Kawecki, P; Gonciarz, M; Mularczyk, A; Petelenz, M
Gastrointestinal Endoscopy, 57(5): 657-663.
10.1067/mge.2003.207
CrossRef
Anesthesia and Analgesia
The bispectral index declines during neuromuscular block in fully awake persons
Messner, M; Beese, U; Romstock, J; Dinkel, M; Tschaikowsky, K
Anesthesia and Analgesia, 97(2): 488-491.
10.1213/01.ANE.0000072741.78244.C0
CrossRef
Journal of Neurological Sciences-Turkish
The Assesment of Acoustical and Electromagnetic Noise On EEG Monitoring During Spinal Surgery Operations
Gokmen, N; Oniz, A; Bayazit, O; Erdogan, U; Akkan, T; Ozkurt, A; Ozgoren, M
Journal of Neurological Sciences-Turkish, 26(4): 472-483.

Anasthesiologie Intensivmedizin Notfallmedizin Schmerztherapie
Electrophysiological arousal reactions during sufentanil/isoflurane anaesthesia
Bischoff, P; Drogemeier, K; Scholz, J; Nahm, W; von Knobelsdorff, G; Esch, JSA
Anasthesiologie Intensivmedizin Notfallmedizin Schmerztherapie, 33(2): 88-95.

Anesthesiology
Beneficial effects from beta-adrenergic blockade in elderly patients undergoing noncardiac surgery
Zaugg, M; Tagliente, T; Lucchinetti, E; Jacobs, E; Krol, M; Bodian, C; Reich, DL; Silverstein, JH
Anesthesiology, 91(6): 1674-1686.

Journal of Clinical Anesthesia
Clinical impact of hypnotic-titration guidelines based on EEG bispectral index (BIS) monitoring during routine anesthetic care
Johansen, JW; Sebel, PS; Sigl, JC
Journal of Clinical Anesthesia, 12(6): 433-443.

Journal of Cardiothoracic and Vascular Anesthesia
Electroencephalogram bispectral index predicts hemodynamic and arousal reactions during induction of anesthesia in patients undergoing cardiac surgery
Heck, M; Kumle, B; Boldt, J; Lang, J; Lehmann, A; Saggau, W
Journal of Cardiothoracic and Vascular Anesthesia, 14(6): 693-697.

Annales Francaises D Anesthesie Et De Reanimation
Intraoperative memory. A study of his incidence after general anaesthesia in 326 patients
Leclerc, C; Gerard, JL; Bricard, H
Annales Francaises D Anesthesie Et De Reanimation, 20(7): 592-599.

Anaesthesia and Intensive Care
Current depth of anaesthesia monitors: jacks of all trades and masters of none?
Leslie, K
Anaesthesia and Intensive Care, 35(3): 333-334.

Neurologia Croatica
Sedation in intensive care unit
Kogler, VM
Neurologia Croatica, 51(): 5-10.

Annales Francaises D Anesthesie Et De Reanimation
Difficult extubation: Extubation criteria and management of risk situations - Question 6
Francon, D; Jaber, S; Pean, D; Bally, B; Marciniak, B
Annales Francaises D Anesthesie Et De Reanimation, 27(1): 46-53.
10.1016/j.annfar.2007.10.026
CrossRef
Cardiology in the Young
Can analysis of the bispectral index prove helpful when monitoring titration of doses of midazolam and ketamine for sedation during paediatric cardiac catheterization
Baysal, A; Polat, TB; Yalcin, Y; Celebi, A
Cardiology in the Young, 18(1): 51-57.
10.1017/S1047951107001679
CrossRef
Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research
A Comprehensive Evaluation of PID, Cascade, Model-Predictive, and RTDA Controllers for Regulation of Hypnosis
Sreenivas, Y; Yeng, TW; Rangaiah, GP; Lakshminarayanan, S
Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research, 48(): 5719-5730.
10.1021/ie800927u
CrossRef
Neurocritical Care
A Randomized Evaluation of Bispectral Index-Augmented Sedation Assessment in Neurological Patients
Olson, DM; Thoyre, SM; Peterson, ED; Graffagnino, C
Neurocritical Care, 11(1): 20-27.
10.1007/s12028-008-9184-6
CrossRef
Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
Bispectral index monitor for conscious sedation: The case against its use
Lieblich, SE
Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, 62(8): 1005-1009.
10.1016/j.joms.2003.12.029
CrossRef
British Journal of Anaesthesia
Randomized controlled trial of the haemodynamic and recovery effects of xenon or propofol anaesthesia
Coburn, M; Kunitz, O; Baumert, JH; Hecker, K; Haaf, S; Zuhlsdorff, A; Beeker, T; Rossaint, R
British Journal of Anaesthesia, 94(2): 198-202.
10.1093/bja/aei023
CrossRef
Anesthesia and Analgesia
Emergence from propofol Anesthesia in a nonagenarian at a bispectral index of 52
Kakinohana, M; Nakamura, S; Miyata, Y; Sugahara, K
Anesthesia and Analgesia, 101(1): 169-170.
10.1213/01.ANE.0000153528.66576.BE
CrossRef
Anaesthesia
The role of magnesium as an adjuvant during general anaesthesia
Gupta, K; Vohra, V; Sood, J
Anaesthesia, 61(): 1058-1063.
10.1111/j.1365-2044.2006.04801.x
CrossRef
Anesthesia and Analgesia
The validity of bispectral index values from a dislocated sensor: A comparison with values from a sensor located in the commercially recommended position
Horiuchi, T; Kawaguchi, M; Kurita, N; Inoue, S; Furuya, H
Anesthesia and Analgesia, 104(4): 857-859.
10.1213/01.ane.0000258764.37968.bb
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Pediatric Anesthesia
AEP-monitor/2 derived, composite auditory evoked potential index (AAI-1.6) and bispectral index as predictors of sevoflurane concentration in children
Ironfield, CM; Davidson, AJ
Pediatric Anesthesia, 17(5): 452-459.
10.1111/j.1460-9592.2006.02155.x
CrossRef
Paediatric Anaesthesia
The correlation of bispectral index with endtidal sevoflurane concentration and haemodynamic parameters in preschoolers
McCann, ME; Bacsik, J; Davidson, A; Auble, S; Sullivan, L; Laussen, P
Paediatric Anaesthesia, 12(6): 519-525.

Comparative Medicine
Relationship of canine bispectral index to multiples of sevoflurane minimal alveolar concentration, using patch or subdermal electrodes
Greene, SA; Benson, GJ; Tranquilli, WJ; Grimm, KA
Comparative Medicine, 52(5): 424-428.

Advances in Modelling and Clinical Application of Intravenous Anaesthesia
Bispectral index scale (BIS) monitoring and intravenous anaesthesia
Vuyk, J; Mertens, M
Advances in Modelling and Clinical Application of Intravenous Anaesthesia, 523(): 95-104.

American Journal of Veterinary Research
Minimum alveolar concentration measures of central nervous system activation in cats anesthetized with isoflurane
March, PA; Muir, WW
American Journal of Veterinary Research, 64(): 1528-1533.

Anasthesiologie Intensivmedizin Notfallmedizin Schmerztherapie
Neuromonitoring for estimating the depth of narcosis
Schmidt, N; Bischoff, P
Anasthesiologie Intensivmedizin Notfallmedizin Schmerztherapie, 39(1): 33-60.

Anesthesia and Analgesia
The relationship between bispectral index and electroencephalographic parameters during isoflurane anesthesia
Morimoto, Y; Hagihira, S; Koizumi, Y; Ishida, K; Matsumoto, M; Sakabe, T
Anesthesia and Analgesia, 98(5): 1336-1340.
10.1213/01.ANE.0000105867.17108.B6
CrossRef
Anesthesiology
Comparison of the bispectral index and the mid-latency evoked potentials as predictors of anesthesia
Iselin-Chaves, IA; El Moalem, H; Gan, TJ
Anesthesiology, 89(): U805.

Circulation
Evidence for unconscious memory processing during elective cardiac surgery
Adams, DC; Hilton, HJ; Madigan, JD; Szerlip, NJ; Cooper, LA; Emerson, RG; Smith, CR; Rose, EA; Oz, MC
Circulation, 98(): II289-II292.

Anesthesia and Analgesia
Depth of anesthesia and bispectral index monitoring
Kissin, I
Anesthesia and Analgesia, 90(5): 1114-1117.

Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica
Effects on the bispectral index during medium-high dose fentanyl induction with or without propofol supplement
Barr, G; Anderson, RE; Owall, A; Jakobsson, JG
Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica, 44(7): 807-811.

Anaesthesia and Intensive Care
Propofol anaesthesia via target controlled infusion or manually controlled infusion: Effects on the bispectral index as a measure of anaesthetic depth
Gale, T; Leslie, K; Kluger, M
Anaesthesia and Intensive Care, 29(6): 579-584.

Anesthesia and Analgesia
Muscle relaxation does not alter hypnotic level during propofol anesthesia
Greif, R; Greenwald, S; Schweitzer, E; Laciny, S; Rajek, A; Caldwell, JE; Sessler, DI
Anesthesia and Analgesia, 94(3): 604-608.

Anaesthesia
M-Entropy guidance vs standard practice during propofol-remifentanil anaesthesia: a randomised controlled trial
Gruenewald, M; Zhou, J; Schloemerkemper, N; Meybohm, P; Weiler, N; Tonner, PH; Scholz, J; Bein, B
Anaesthesia, 62(): 1224-1229.
10.1111/j.1365-2044.2007.05252.x
CrossRef
Minerva Anestesiologica
Changes in auditory evoked potentials induced by postsurgical sepsis
Rinaldi, S; Consales, G; De Gaudio, AR
Minerva Anestesiologica, 74(6): 245-250.

Digestive Diseases and Sciences
Bispectral index monitoring for nurse-administered propofol sedation during upper endoscopic ultrasound: A prospective, randomized controlled trial
DeWitt, JM
Digestive Diseases and Sciences, 53(): 2739-2745.
10.1007/s10620-008-0198-x
CrossRef
Anaesthesia
A study to assess the value of bispectral analysis in intravenous sedation with midazolam during third molar surgery under local anaesthesia
Cheung, CW; Irwin, MG; Chiu, WK; Ying, CLA
Anaesthesia, 63(): 1302-1308.
10.1111/j.1365-2044.2008.05652.x
CrossRef
Journal of Cardiothoracic and Vascular Anesthesia
Predicted and Measured Plasma Propofol Concentration and Bispectral Index During Deep Sedation in Patients With Impaired Left Ventricular Function
Keyl, C; Trenk, D; Laule, S; Schuppe, C; Staier, K; Wiesenack, C; Albiez, G
Journal of Cardiothoracic and Vascular Anesthesia, 23(2): 182-187.
10.1053/j.jvca.2008.08.016
CrossRef
Journal of Cardiothoracic and Vascular Anesthesia
Central nervous system monitoring during open heart surgery: An update
Sebel, PS
Journal of Cardiothoracic and Vascular Anesthesia, 12(2): 3-8.

Journal of Clinical Anesthesia
Influence of bispectral index monitoring on decision making during cardiac anesthesia
Vretzakis, G; Argiriadou, H; Mikroulis, D; Bitzikas, G; Ferdi, E; Papziogas, B; Lazarides, M; Bougioukas, G
Journal of Clinical Anesthesia, 17(7): 509-516.
10.1016/j.jclinane.2004.12.018
CrossRef
Journal of Clinical Anesthesia
Gender differences between predicted and measured propofol C-P50 for loss of consciousness
Kodaka, M; Suzuki, T; Maeyama, A; Koyama, K; Miyao, H
Journal of Clinical Anesthesia, 18(7): 486-489.
10.1016/j.jclinane.2006.08.004
CrossRef
British Journal of Anaesthesia
Transient decreases in Bispectral Index without associated changes in the level of consciousness during photic stimulation in an epileptic patient
Ohshima, N; Chinzei, M; Mizuno, K; Hayashida, M; Kitamura, T; Shibuya, H; Hanaoka, K
British Journal of Anaesthesia, 98(1): 100-104.
10.1093/bja/ael309
CrossRef
Journal of International Medical Research
Effect of nicardipine on haemodynamic and bispectral index changes following endotracheal intubation
Kim, JH; Lee, YS; Kim, WY; Kim, HJ; Chang, MS; Park, JY; Shin, HW; Park, YC
Journal of International Medical Research, 35(1): 52-58.

Anaesthesia
Effect site concentration during propofol TCI sedation: a comparison of sedation score with two pharmacokinetic models
Barakat, AR; Sutcliffe, N; Schwab, M
Anaesthesia, 62(7): 661-666.
10.1111/j.1365-2044.2007.05059.x
CrossRef
Annals of Emergency Medicine
Clinical practice advisory: Emergency department procedural sedation with propofol
Miner, JR; Burton, JH
Annals of Emergency Medicine, 50(2): 182-187.
10.1016/j.annemergmed.2006.12.017
CrossRef
Endoscopy
Sympathovagal balance fluctuates during colonoscopy
Petelenz, M; Gonciarz, M; Macfarlane, P; Rudner, R; Kawecki, P; Musialik, J; Jalowiecki, P; Gonciarz, Z
Endoscopy, 36(6): 508-514.
10.1055/s-2004-814402
CrossRef
Journal of Chromatography B-Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
A new method for the quantitation of propofol in human plasma: efficient solid-phase extraction and liquid chromatography/APCI-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry detection
Bajpai, L; Varshney, M; Seubert, CN; Dennis, DM
Journal of Chromatography B-Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences, 810(2): 291-296.
10.1016/j.jchromb.2004.08.023
CrossRef
British Journal of Anaesthesia
Spectral entropy measurement of patient responsiveness during propofol and remifentanil. A comparison with the bispectral index
Vanluchene, ALG; Struys, MMRF; Heyse, BEK; Mortier, EP
British Journal of Anaesthesia, 93(5): 645-654.
10.1093/bja/aeh251
CrossRef
Ieee Transactions on Biomedical Engineering
On the use of multivariable piecewise-linear models for predicting human response to anesthesia
Lin, HH; Beck, CL; Bloom, MJ
Ieee Transactions on Biomedical Engineering, 51(): 1876-1887.
10.1109/TBME.2004.831541
CrossRef
British Journal of Anaesthesia
Increases in bispectral index lead to interventions that prevent possible intraoperative awareness
Mathews, DM; Rahman, SS; Cirullo, PM; Malik, RJ
British Journal of Anaesthesia, 95(2): 193-196.
10.1093/bja/aei162
CrossRef
Anaesthesia and Intensive Care
Perioperative cerebral ischaemia in cardiac surgery and BIS
Villacorta, J; Kerbaul, E; Collart, F; Guidon, C; Bonnet, M; Guillen, JC; Gouin, F
Anaesthesia and Intensive Care, 33(4): 514-517.

Anesthesia and Analgesia
Isoflurane dosage for equivalent intraoperative electroencephalographic suppression in patients with and without epidural blockade
Morley, AP; Derrick, J; Seed, PT; Tan, PE; Chung, DC; Short, TG
Anesthesia and Analgesia, 95(5): 1412-1418.
10.1213/01.ANE.0000030873.78187.D3
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Anesthesia and Analgesia
A comparison of patient state index and bispectral index values during the perioperative period
Chen, XG; Tang, J; White, PF; Wender, RH; Ma, H; Sloninsky, A; Kariger, R
Anesthesia and Analgesia, 95(6): 1669-1674.
10.1213/01.ANE.0000033099.01395.13
CrossRef
Academic Emergency Medicine
Randomized clinical trial of propofol versus methohexital for procedural sedation during fracture and dislocation reduction in the emergency department
Miner, JR; Biros, M; Krieg, S; Johnson, C; Heegaard, W; Plummer, D
Academic Emergency Medicine, 10(9): 931-937.
10.1197/S1069-6563(03)00310-5
CrossRef
British Journal of Anaesthesia
Implicit memory formation in sedated ICU patients after cardiac surgery
Clark, J; Voss, L; Barnard, J; Sleigh, J
British Journal of Anaesthesia, 91(6): 810-814.
10.1093/bja/aeg274
CrossRef
British Journal of Anaesthesia
Comparison of 1 % and 2 % lidocaine epidural anaesthesia combined with sevoflurane general anaesthesia utilizing a constant bispectral index
Shono, A; Sakura, S; Saito, Y; Doi, K; Nakatani, T
British Journal of Anaesthesia, 91(6): 825-829.
10.1093/bja.aeg266
CrossRef
Journal of International Medical Research
Effects of propofol target-controlled infusion on haemodynamic and respiratory changes with regard to safety
Lee, YS
Journal of International Medical Research, 32(1): 19-24.

Veterinary Clinics of North America-Small Animal Practice
Propofol anesthesia
Short, CE; Bufalari, A
Veterinary Clinics of North America-Small Animal Practice, 29(3): 747-+.

British Journal of Anaesthesia
Nitrous oxide does not alter bispectral index: study with nitrous oxide as sole agent and as an adjunct to i.v. anaesthesia
Barr, G; Jakobsson, JG; Owall, A; Anderson, RE
British Journal of Anaesthesia, 82(6): 827-830.

Anesthesiology
Influence of age on hypnotic requirement, bispectral index, and 95% spectral edge frequency associated with sedation induced by sevoflurane
Katoh, T; Bito, H; Sato, S
Anesthesiology, 92(1): 55-61.

Annales Francaises D Anesthesie Et De Reanimation
Monitoring bispectral index of the EEG and management of hypertension during laparoscopic surgery
Mavoungou, P; Billard, V; Moussaud, R; Potiron, L
Annales Francaises D Anesthesie Et De Reanimation, 19(8): 582-587.

Anesthesia and Analgesia
Auditory information processing during adequate propofol anesthesia monitored by electroencephalogram bispectral index
Kerssens, C; Klein, J; van der Woerd, A; Bonke, B
Anesthesia and Analgesia, 92(5): 1210-1214.

Journal of Clinical Anesthesia
Propofol and remifentanil pharmacodynamic interaction during orthopedic surgical procedures as measured by effects on bispectral index
Ropcke, H; Konen-Bermann, M; Cuhls, M; Bouillon, T; Hoeft, A
Journal of Clinical Anesthesia, 13(3): 198-207.

European Journal of Medical Research
Prospective Study Comparing Skin Impedance With Eeg Parameters During the Induction of Anaesthesia With Fentanyl and Etomidate
Winterhalter, M; Munte, S; Gerhard, M; Danzeisen, O; Juttner, T; Monaca, E; Hoy, L; Rahe-Meyer, N; Kienbaum, P
European Journal of Medical Research, 15(2): 47-53.

Archives of Iranian Medicine
Correlation between Bispectral Index and Predicted Effect-site Concentration of Propofol in Different Levels of Target-Controlled, Propofol Induced Sedation in Healthy Volunteers
Yeganeh, N; Roshani, B; Almasi, A; Jamshidi, N
Archives of Iranian Medicine, 13(2): 126-134.

Anaesthesia
Effect of midazolam on memory: a study of process dissociation procedure and functional magnetic resonance imaging
Tian, SY; Zou, L; Quan, X; Zhang, Y; Xue, FS; Ye, TH
Anaesthesia, 65(6): 586-594.
10.1111/j.1365-2044.2010.06343.x
CrossRef
Journal of Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics
Assessing circadian rhythms in propofol PK and PD during prolonged infusion in ICU patients
Bienert, A; Kusza, K; Wawrzyniak, K; Grzeskowiak, E; Kokot, ZJ; Matysiak, J; Grabowski, T; Wolc, A; Wiczling, P; Regulski, M
Journal of Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics, 37(3): 289-304.
10.1007/s10928-010-9161-5
CrossRef
British Journal of Anaesthesia
Prediction of movement at laryngeal mask airway insertion: comparison of auditory evoked potential index, bispectral index, spectral edge frequency and median frequency
Doi, M; Gajraj, RJ; Mantzaridis, H; Kenny, GNC
British Journal of Anaesthesia, 82(2): 203-207.

Anesthesia and Analgesia
Bispectral index and memory during cardiac surgery
Adams, DC; Schwarzenberger, JC; Hilton, HJ; Frost, JH; Cooper, LA; Raju, N; Smith, CR; Rose, EA; Oz, MC
Anesthesia and Analgesia, 88(4): .

Saudi Medical Journal
Comparative assessment of induction efficacy of propofol preparations
Oz, G; Uzun, S; Dal, D; Akinci, SB; Aypar, U
Saudi Medical Journal, 28(7): 1055-1058.

American Journal of Emergency Medicine
The association of a decreased level of awareness and blood alcohol concentration with both agitation and sedation in intoxicated patients in the ED
Miner, JR; Gaetz, A; Biros, MH
American Journal of Emergency Medicine, 25(7): 743-748.
10.1016/j.ajem.2006.12.002
CrossRef
British Journal of Anaesthesia
Sedation and regional anaesthesia in the adult patient
Hohener, D; Blumenthal, S; Borgeat, A
British Journal of Anaesthesia, 100(1): 8-16.
10.1093/bja/aem342
CrossRef
British Journal of Anaesthesia
Variation of bispectral index under TIVA with propofol in a paediatric population
Tirel, O; Wodey, E; Harris, R; Bansard, JY; Ecoffey, C; Senhadji, L
British Journal of Anaesthesia, 100(1): 82-87.
10.1093/bja/aem339
CrossRef
Minerva Anestesiologica
Bispectral index-guided intraoperative sedation with dexmedetomidine and midazolam infusion in outpatient cataract surgery
Apan, A; Doganci, N; Ergan, A; Buyukkocak, U
Minerva Anestesiologica, 75(5): 239-244.

Academic Emergency Medicine
Randomized Clinical Trial of Propofol With and Without Alfentanil for Deep Procedural Sedation in the Emergency Department
Miner, JR; Gray, RO; Stephens, D; Biros, MH
Academic Emergency Medicine, 16(9): 825-834.
10.1111/j.1553-2712.2009.00487.x
CrossRef
Journal of Cardiothoracic and Vascular Anesthesia
Correlation of BIS with Tet spells
Chauhan, S; Ingole, P; Kale, S; Kiran, U
Journal of Cardiothoracic and Vascular Anesthesia, 18(5): 682-683.
10.1053/j.jvca.2004.07.028
CrossRef
Pediatric Anesthesia
Bispectral index in pediatrics: fashion or a new tool?
Murat, I; Constant, I
Pediatric Anesthesia, 15(3): 177-180.
10.1111/j.1460-9592.2004.01564.x
CrossRef
Anesthesia and Analgesia
Narcotrend or bispectral index monitoring during desflurane-remifentanil anesthesia: A comparison with a standard practice protocol
Kreuer, S; Bruhn, J; Stracke, C; Aniset, L; Silomon, M; Larsen, R; Wilhelm, W
Anesthesia and Analgesia, 101(2): 427-434.
10.1213/01.ANE.0000157656.00359.E2
CrossRef
British Journal of Anaesthesia
Novel multiparameter approach for measurement of nociception at skin incision during general anaesthesia
Rantanen, M; Yli-Hankala, A; van Gils, M; Ypparila-Wolters, H; Takala, P; Huiku, M; Kymalainen, M; Seitsonen, E; Korhonen, I
British Journal of Anaesthesia, 96(3): 367-376.
10.1093/bja/ael005
CrossRef
Journal of Physiology-London
Dopamine-dependent non-linear correlation between subthalamic rhythms in Parkinson's disease
Marceglia, S; Foffani, G; Bianchi, AM; Baselli, G; Tamma, F; Egidi, M; Priori, A
Journal of Physiology-London, 571(3): 579-591.
10.1113/jphysiol.2005.100271
CrossRef
British Journal of Anaesthesia
Multi-level approach to anaesthetic effect produced by sevoflurane or propofol in humans: 2. Bis and tetanic stimulus-induced withdrawal reflex
Mourisse, J; Lerou, J; Struys, M; Zwarts, M; Booij, L
British Journal of Anaesthesia, 98(6): 746-755.
10.1093/bja/aem105
CrossRef
British Journal of Anaesthesia
Comparison of ocular microtremor and bispectral index during sevoflurane anaesthesia
Kevin, LG; Cunningham, AJ; Bolger, C
British Journal of Anaesthesia, 89(4): 551-555.

Clinical Neurophysiology
Assessment of postoperative sedation level with spectral EEG parameters
Ypparila, H; Korhonen, I; Westeren-Punnonen, S; Musialowicz, T; Partanen, J; Ruokonen, E
Clinical Neurophysiology, 113(): 1633-1639.
PII S1388-2457(02)00217-1
CrossRef
Canadian Journal of Anaesthesia-Journal Canadien D Anesthesie
Recovery of psychomotor function after propofol sedation is prolonged in the elderly
Shinozaki, N; Usui, Y; Yamaguchi, S; Okuda, Y; Kitajima, T
Canadian Journal of Anaesthesia-Journal Canadien D Anesthesie, 49(9): 927-931.

Anesthesia and Analgesia
Needle electrodes can be used for bispectral index monitoring of sedation in burn patients
Hemmerling, TM; Coimbra, C; Harvey, P; Choiniere, M
Anesthesia and Analgesia, 95(6): 1675-1677.
10.1213/01.ANE.0000037148.19988.F1
CrossRef
British Journal of Anaesthesia
Is there any alternative to the Bispectral Index Monitor?
Tempe, DK; Satyanarayana, L
British Journal of Anaesthesia, 92(1): 1-3.
10.1093/bja/aeh002
CrossRef
American Journal of Gastroenterology
An initial investigation of bispectral monitoring as an adjunct to nurse-administered propofol sedation for colonoscopy
Chen, SC; Rex, DK
American Journal of Gastroenterology, 99(6): 1081-1086.

Journal of Anesthesia
Bispectral index during epidural puncture predicts anterograde amnesia in patients given midazolam premedication
Nakasuji, M; Nakamura, M; Imanaka, N; Tanaka, M; Nomura, M; Wada, M; Kawashima, H
Journal of Anesthesia, 23(3): 329-333.
10.1007/s00540-009-0748-1
CrossRef
Anaesthesia
Bispectral index monitoring: comparison of two types of electrode
Thogersen, B; Ording, H
Anaesthesia, 55(3): 242-246.

Veterinary Research Communications
Isoflurane anaesthetic depth in goats monitored using the bispectral index of the electroencephalogram
Antognini, JF; Wang, XW; Carstens, E
Veterinary Research Communications, 24(6): 361-370.

Journal of Clinical Anesthesia
Bispectral analysis during cardiopulmonary bypass: The effect of hypothermia on the hypnotic state
Mathew, JP; Weatherwax, KJ; East, CJ; White, WD; Reves, J
Journal of Clinical Anesthesia, 13(4): 301-305.

Ieee Transactions on Biomedical Engineering
Modeling and closed-loop control of hypnosis by means of bispectral index (BIS) with isoflurane
Gentilini, A; Rossoni-Gerosa, M; Frei, CW; Wymann, R; Morari, M; Zbinden, AM; Schnider, TW
Ieee Transactions on Biomedical Engineering, 48(8): 874-889.

British Journal of Anaesthesia
Value of bispectral index monitoring during cardiopulmonary resuscitation
Szekely, B; Saint-Marc, T; Degremont, AC; Castelain, MH; Fischler, M
British Journal of Anaesthesia, 88(3): 443-444.

Journal of Child Neurology
Bispectral index monitoring in confirmation of brain death in children
Okuyaz, C; Birbicer, H; Doruk, N; Atici, A
Journal of Child Neurology, 21(9): 799-801.
10.2310/7010.2006.00131
CrossRef
American Journal of Emergency Medicine
An assessment of the association of bispectral index with 2 clinical sedation scales for monitoring depth of procedural sedation
Weaver, CS; Hauter, WH; Duncan, CE; Brizendine, EJ; Cordell, WH
American Journal of Emergency Medicine, 25(8): 918-924.
10.1016/j.ajem.2007.02.042
CrossRef
Anesthesia and Analgesia
A comparison of sedation with dexmedetomidine or propofol during shockwave lithotripsy: A Randomized controlled trial
Kaygusuz, K; Gokce, G; Gursoy, S; Ayan, S; Mimaroglu, C; Gultekin, Y
Anesthesia and Analgesia, 106(1): 114-119.
10.1213/01.ane.0000296453.75494.64
CrossRef
Archives of Medical Science
Comparison of entropy and bispectral index values during propofol induction
Balci, C; Karabekir, HS; Yigit, M
Archives of Medical Science, 3(4): 383-387.

Clinical Pharmacology & Therapeutics
Processed EEG (bispectral index) is not appropriate for characterizing opioid sedation
Gupta, DK
Clinical Pharmacology & Therapeutics, 83(5): 667-668.
10.1038/sj.clpt.6100265
CrossRef
Journal of Anesthesia
Low bispectral index values following electroconvulsive therapy associated with memory impairment
Koitabashi, T; Oyaizu, T; Ouchi, T
Journal of Anesthesia, 23(2): 182-187.
10.1007/s00540-008-0722-3
CrossRef
European Journal of Anaesthesiology
Effects of nicardipine and diltiazem on the bispectral index and 95% spectral edge frequency
Hirota, K; Kabara, S; Kushikata, T; Kitayama, M; Ishihara, H; Matsuki, A
European Journal of Anaesthesiology, 20(): 809-812.

British Journal of Anaesthesia
Bispectral index, serum drug concentrations and emergence associated with individually adjusted target-controlled infusions of remifentanil and propofol for laparoscopic surgery
Hoymork, SC; Raeder, J; Grimsmo, B; Steen, PA
British Journal of Anaesthesia, 91(6): 773-780.
10.1093/bja/aeg258
CrossRef
Pediatric Dentistry
Bispectral Index System (BIS) monitoring reduces time to discharge in children requiring intramuscular sedation and general anesthesia for outpatient dental rehabilitation
Messieha, ZS; Ananda, RC; Hoffman, WE; Punwani, IC; Koenig, HM
Pediatric Dentistry, 26(3): 256-260.

Anesthesia and Analgesia
Epidural ropivacaine anesthesia decreases the bispectral index during the awake phase and sevoflurane general anesthesia
Ishiyama, T; Kashimoto, S; Oguchi, T; Yamaguchi, T; Okuyama, K; Kumazawa, T
Anesthesia and Analgesia, 100(3): 728-732.
10.1213/01.ANE.0000159868.06847.47
CrossRef
Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica
Rapid fluid infusion therapy decreases the plasma concentration of continuously infused propofol
Adachi, YU; Satomoto, M; Higuchi, H; Watanabe, K
Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica, 49(3): 331-336.
10.1111/j.1399-6576.2004.00564.x
CrossRef
Pediatric Anesthesia
Use of BIS monitor in a child with congenital insensitivity to pain with anhidrosis
Brandes, IF; Stuth, EAE
Pediatric Anesthesia, 16(4): 466-470.
10.1111/j.1460-9592.2005.01745.x
CrossRef
European Journal of Anaesthesiology
Cost-reduction analysis of propofol versus sevoflurane: maintenance of anaesthesia for gynaecological surgery using the bispectral index
Struys, MMRF; Somers, AAL; Van Den Eynde, N; Herregods, LLG; Dyzers, D; Robays, HM; Mortier, EP
European Journal of Anaesthesiology, 19(): 727-734.

Anaesthesia
The AAI((TM)) index, the BIS index and end-tidal concentration during wash in and wash out of sevoflurane
Anderson, RE; Barr, G; Assareh, H; Jakobsson, J
Anaesthesia, 58(6): 531-535.

British Journal of Anaesthesia
Sedation caused by clonidine in patients with spinal cord injury
Malinovsky, JM; Malinge, M; Lepage, JY; Pinaud, M
British Journal of Anaesthesia, 90(6): 742-745.
10.1093/bja/aeg134
CrossRef
Annales Francaises D Anesthesie Et De Reanimation
Which propofol target concentration for ASA III elderly patients for conscious sedation combined with regional anaesthesia?
Villeret, I; Laffon, M; Ferrandiere, M; Delerue, D; Fusciardi, J
Annales Francaises D Anesthesie Et De Reanimation, 22(3): 196-201.
10.1016/S0750-7658(02)00005-9
CrossRef
British Journal of Anaesthesia
Detection of awareness in surgical patients with EEG-based indices - bispectral index and patient state index
Schneider, G; Gelb, AW; Schmeller, B; Tschakert, R; Kochs, E
British Journal of Anaesthesia, 91(3): 329-335.
10.1093/bja/aeg188
CrossRef
Critical Care
Comparison of sufentanil with sufentanil plus magnesium sulphate for sedation in the intensive care unit using bispectral index
Memis, D; Turan, A; Karamanlioglu, B; Oguzhan, N; Pamukcu, Z
Critical Care, 7(5): R123-R128.
10.1186/cc2365
CrossRef
Ieee Engineering in Medicine and Biology Magazine
Multitasked closed-loop control in anesthesia
Gentilini, A; Frei, CW; Glattfedler, AH; Morari, M; Sieber, TJ; Wymann, R; Schnider, TW; Zbinden, AM
Ieee Engineering in Medicine and Biology Magazine, 20(1): 39-53.

Anasthesiologie & Intensivmedizin
The interaction of desflurane and nitrous oxide on EEG during surgery is additive
Ropcke, H; Wartenberg, HC; Konen-Bergmann, M; Hoeft, A
Anasthesiologie & Intensivmedizin, 42(1): 16-22.

Anesthesia and Analgesia
The effect of noise on the Bispectral index during propofol sedation
Kim, DW; Kil, HY; White, PF
Anesthesia and Analgesia, 93(5): 1170-1173.

American Journal of Veterinary Research
Evaluation of the bispectral index as an indicator of degree of central nervous system depression in isoflurane-anesthetized horses
Haga, HA; Dolvik, NI
American Journal of Veterinary Research, 63(3): 438-442.

British Journal of Anaesthesia
EEG signal processing in anaesthesia. Use of a neural network technique for monitoring depth of anaesthesia
Ortolani, O; Conti, A; Di Filippo, A; Adembri, C; Moraldi, E; Evangelisti, A; Maggini, M; Roberts, SJ
British Journal of Anaesthesia, 88(5): 644-648.

Canadian Journal of Anaesthesia-Journal Canadien D Anesthesie
Burst suppression ratio is the only determinant for BIS values below 30
Bruhn, J
Canadian Journal of Anaesthesia-Journal Canadien D Anesthesie, 49(7): 755-756.

Anesthesiology
Comparison of plasma compartment versus two methods for effect compartment-controlled target-controlled infusion for propofol
Struys, MMRF; De Smet, T; Depoorter, B; Versichelen, LFM; Mortier, EP; Dumortier, FJE; Shafer, SL; Rolly, G
Anesthesiology, 92(2): 399-406.

Anesthesiology
Isoflurane action in the spinal cord blunts electroencephalographic and thalamic-reticular formation responses to noxious stimulation in goats
Antognini, JF; Wang, XW; Carstens, E
Anesthesiology, 92(2): 559-566.

British Journal of Anaesthesia
Randomized placebo-controlled trial to assess the effect of remifentanil and propofol on bispectral index and sedation
Strachan, AN; Edwards, ND
British Journal of Anaesthesia, 84(4): 489-490.

Anesthesia and Analgesia
Postoperative recovery after desflurane, propofol, or isoflurane anesthesia among morbidly obese patients: A prospective, randomized study
Juvin, P; Vadam, C; Malek, L; Dupont, H; Marmuse, JP; Desmonts, JM
Anesthesia and Analgesia, 91(3): 714-719.

Anaesthesia
The sedative and electroencephalographic effects of regional anaesthesia
Morley, AP; Chung, DC; Wong, ASY; Short, TG
Anaesthesia, 55(9): 864-869.

Journal of Cardiothoracic and Vascular Anesthesia
CASE 8-2000 - Intraoperative bispectral index monitoring and early extubation after cardiac surgery in patients with a history of awareness under anesthesia
Kelly, SJ; Myles, PS; Bain, D; Rosow, C; Ramsay, J
Journal of Cardiothoracic and Vascular Anesthesia, 14(6): 726-730.

British Journal of Anaesthesia
Magnesium sulphate has beneficial effects as an adjuvant during general anaesthesia for Caesarean section
Lee, DH; Kwon, IC
British Journal of Anaesthesia, 103(6): 861-866.
10.1093/bja/aep265
CrossRef
Anesthesia and Analgesia
Bispectral index periodically changes during spontaneous sleep in man
Takahashi, S; Sakai, T; Matsuki, A
Anesthesia and Analgesia, 86(): .

Anesthesia and Analgesia
Continuous intraoperative bispectral index monitoring and perioperative outcome in children
Johansen, JW
Anesthesia and Analgesia, 86(): .

Anesthesia for the New Millennium
Drug interactions: Opioids and inhaled anesthetics
Glass, PSA
Anesthesia for the New Millennium, 34(): 181-194.

British Journal of Anaesthesia
Effect of remifentanil and propofol on BIS and sedation score
Strachan, AN; Edwards, ND
British Journal of Anaesthesia, 83(1): 177P-178P.

Anesthesia and Analgesia
Preoperative anxiety and intraoperative anesthetic requirements
Maranets, I; Kain, ZN
Anesthesia and Analgesia, 89(6): 1346-1351.

Anaesthesia and Intensive Care
Bispectral index as a predictor of sedation depth during isoflurane or midazolam sedation in ICU patients
Sackey, PV; Radell, RJ; Granath, F; Martling, CR
Anaesthesia and Intensive Care, 35(3): 348-356.

Anesthesia and Analgesia
Can remifentanil replace nitrous oxide during anesthesia for ambulatory orthopedic surgery with desflurane and fentanyl?
Mathews, DM; Gaba, V; Zaku, B; Neuman, GG
Anesthesia and Analgesia, 106(1): 101-108.
10.1213/01.ane.0000289526.20117.26
CrossRef
British Journal of Anaesthesia
Awareness and memory function during paediatric anaesthesia
Andrade, J; Deeprose, C; Barker, I
British Journal of Anaesthesia, 100(3): 389-396.
10.1093/bja/aem378
CrossRef
Auris Nasus Larynx
Risk of respiratory distress in the patients who were applied nasal packing at the end of nasal surgery
Muluk, NB; Apan, A; Ozcakir, S; Arikan, OK; Koc, C
Auris Nasus Larynx, 35(4): 521-526.
10.1016/j.anl.2007.12.007
CrossRef
Journal of Clinical Anesthesia
Age-dependent relationship between bispectral index and sedation level
Yamashita, K; Terao, Y; Inadomi, C; Takada, M; Fukusaki, M; Sumikawa, K
Journal of Clinical Anesthesia, 20(7): 492-495.
10.1016/j.jclinane.2008.05.004
CrossRef
British Journal of Anaesthesia
Effects of remifentanil on cardiovascular and bispectral index responses to endotracheal intubation in severe pre-eclamptic patients undergoing Caesarean delivery under general anaesthesia
Yoo, KY; Jeong, CW; Park, BY; Kim, SJ; Jeong, ST; Shin, MH; Lee, J
British Journal of Anaesthesia, 102(6): 812-819.
10.1093/bja/aep099
CrossRef
Annales Francaises D Anesthesie Et De Reanimation
Target-controlled infusion of propofol for intraoperative sedation: determination of effect-site concentration and assessment of bispectral index
Quinart, A; Nouette-Gaulain, K; Pfeiff, R; Revel, P; Sztark, F
Annales Francaises D Anesthesie Et De Reanimation, 23(7): 675-680.
10.1016/j.annfar.2004.04.017
CrossRef
Ieee Transactions on Neural Networks
Passivity-based neural network adaptive output feedback control for nonlinear nonnegative dynamical systems
Hayakawa, T; Haddad, WM; Bailey, JM; Hovakimyan, N
Ieee Transactions on Neural Networks, 16(2): 387-398.
10.1109/TNN.2004.841782
CrossRef
Anesthesia and Analgesia
The evidence that deep anesthesia impacts long term mortality is not compelling
Scarlett, J; Hahn, N; Jacobsohn, E; Avidan, MS
Anesthesia and Analgesia, 101(6): 1880.

Systems & Control Letters
Adaptive control for nonlinear compartmental dynamical systems with applications to clinical pharmacology
Haddad, WA; Hayakawa, T; Bailey, JA
Systems & Control Letters, 55(1): 62-70.
10.1016/j.sysconle.2005.05.002
CrossRef
British Journal of Anaesthesia
Bispectral index is a topographically dependent variable in patients receiving propofol anaesthesia
Pandin, P; Van Cutsem, N; Tuna, T; D'hollander, A
British Journal of Anaesthesia, 97(5): 676-680.
10.1093/bja/ael235
CrossRef
Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica
Reduction in anaesthetic drug consumption is correlated with mean titrated intra-operative Bispectral Index values
Ellerkmann, RK; Kreuer, S; Wilhelm, W; Ropcke, H; Hoeft, A; Bruhn, J
Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica, 50(): 1244-1249.
10.1111/j.1399-6576.2006.01146.x
CrossRef
Academic Emergency Medicine
Bispectral electroencephalographic analysis of patients undergoing procedural sedation in the emergency department
Miner, JR; Biros, MH; Heegaard, W; Plummer, D
Academic Emergency Medicine, 10(6): 638-643.

Journal of Medical Ethics
Non-heart beating organ donation: old procurement strategy - new ethical problems
Bell, MDD
Journal of Medical Ethics, 29(3): 176-181.

Anesthesia and Analgesia
Human auditory steady-state responses: The effects of recording technique and state of arousal
Picton, TW; John, MS; Purcell, DW; Plourde, G
Anesthesia and Analgesia, 97(5): 1396-1402.
10.1213/01.ANE.0000082994.22466.DD
CrossRef
American Journal of Veterinary Research
Relationship of bispectral index to minimum alveolar concentration multiples of sevoflurane in cats
Lamont, LA; Greene, SA; Grimm, KA; Tranquilli, WJ
American Journal of Veterinary Research, 65(1): 93-98.

Anesthesia and Analgesia
A comparison of the clinical usefulness of three different electroencephalogram monitors: Bispectral index, processed electroencephalogram, and alaris auditory evoked potentials
Nishiyama, T; Matsukawa, T; Hanaoka, K
Anesthesia and Analgesia, 98(5): 1341-1345.
10.1213/01.ANE.0000111109.42728.51
CrossRef
Anesthesia and Analgesia
Change in bispectral index during epileptiform electrical activity under sevoflurane anesthesia in a patient with epilepsy
Chinzei, M; Sawamura, S; Hayashida, M; Kitamura, T; Tamai, H; Hanaoka, K
Anesthesia and Analgesia, 98(6): 1734-1736.
10.1213/01.ANE.000011782.72866.26
CrossRef
Anesthesiology
Combination of propofol and remifentanil to achieve a bispectral index of 50 during surgical stimulation
Koenen-Bergmann, M; Roepcke, H; Cuhls, M; Hoeft, A
Anesthesiology, 91(): U224.

Journal of Cardiothoracic and Vascular Anesthesia
Ketamine interferes with bispectral index monitoring in cardiac patients undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass
Roffey, P; Mikhail, M; Thangathurai, D
Journal of Cardiothoracic and Vascular Anesthesia, 14(4): 494-495.

British Journal of Anaesthesia
Bispectral analysis of the electroencephalogram does not predict responsiveness to verbal command in patients emerging from xenon anaesthesia
Goto, T; Nakata, Y; Saito, H; Ishiguro, Y; Niimi, Y; Suwa, K; Morita, S
British Journal of Anaesthesia, 85(3): 359-363.

British Journal of Anaesthesia
Comparing the effects of stimulation and propofol infusion rate on implicit and explicit memory formation
Andrade, J; Englert, L; Harper, C; Edwards, ND
British Journal of Anaesthesia, 86(2): 189-195.

Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica
Remifentanil-propofol vs. sufentanil-propofol: optimal combinations in clinical anesthesia
Lentschener, C; Ghimouz, A; Bonnichon, P; Pepion, C; Gomola, A; Ozier, Y
Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica, 47(1): 84-89.

Anasthesiologie & Intensivmedizin
The EEG interpretation as monitoring tool in anesthesiology
Wilhelm, W; Kreuer, S
Anasthesiologie & Intensivmedizin, 44(1): 8-15.

Anesthesia and Analgesia
Bispectral index monitoring does not improve anesthesia performance in patients with movement disorders undergoing deep brain stimulating electrode implantation
Schulz, U; Keh, D; Barner, C; Kaisers, U; Boemke, W
Anesthesia and Analgesia, 104(6): 1481-1487.
10.1213/01.ane.0000261516.45687.ee
CrossRef
Ieee Transactions on Neural Networks
Neural network adaptive output feedback control for intensive care unit sedation and intraoperative anesthesia
Haddad, WM; Bailey, JM; Hayakawa, T; Hovakimyan, N
Ieee Transactions on Neural Networks, 18(4): 1049-1066.
10.1109/TNN.2007.899164
CrossRef
Neurosciences
Comparison of entropy and bispectral index values during propofol induction
Balci, C; Karabekir, HS; Yigit, M
Neurosciences, 13(2): 122-126.

Journal of Cardiothoracic and Vascular Anesthesia
Closed-loop control of consciousness during lung transplantation: An observational study
Liu, N; Chazot, T; Trillat, B; Michel-Cherqui, M; Marandon, JY; Law-Koune, JD; Rives, B; Fischler, M
Journal of Cardiothoracic and Vascular Anesthesia, 22(4): 611-615.
10.1053/j.jvca.2008.04.022
CrossRef
Journal of Cardiothoracic and Vascular Anesthesia
No Evidence of Memory Processing During Propofol-Remifentanil Target-Controlled Infusion Anesthesia With Bispectral Index Monitoring in Cardiac Surgery
Bejjani, G; Lequeux, PY; Schmartz, D; Engelman, E; Barvais, L
Journal of Cardiothoracic and Vascular Anesthesia, 23(2): 175-181.
10.1053/j.jvca.2008.09.016
CrossRef
Journal of Clinical Monitoring and Computing
Effect of ketamine on bispectral index and levels of sedation
Suzuki, M; Edmonds, HL; Tsueda, K; Malkani, AL; Roberts, CS
Journal of Clinical Monitoring and Computing, 14(5): 373.

Proceedings of the 13th World Congress of Neurological Surgery, Vols 1 and 2
Usefulness of bispectral index (BIS) monitoring during intraoperative cortical mapping for brain ibmor resection
Ichikawa, T; Kawasaki, A; Nakatsuka, H; Matsui, T; Date, I
Proceedings of the 13th World Congress of Neurological Surgery, Vols 1 and 2, (): 891-895.

Anesthesia and Analgesia
The influence of a muscle relaxant bolus on bispectral and Datex-Ohmeda entropy values during propofol-remifentanil induced loss of consciousness
Liu, N; Chazot, T; Huybrechts, I; Law-Koune, JD; Barvais, L; Fischler, M
Anesthesia and Analgesia, 101(6): 1713-1718.
10.1213/01.ANE.0000184038.49429.8F
CrossRef
Pediatric Anesthesia
Value of bispectral index monitor in differentiating between moderate and deep Ramsay Sedation Scores in children
Mason, KP; Michna, E; Zurakowski, D; Burrows, PE; Pirich, MA; Carrier, M; Fontaine, PJ; Sethna, NF
Pediatric Anesthesia, 16(): 1226-1231.
10.1111/j.1460-9592.2006.01975.x
CrossRef
Pediatric Anesthesia
Can Bispectral Index aid laryngeal mask placement in children?
Lim, SI; Chambers, NA; Somerville, NS
Pediatric Anesthesia, 16(): 1244-1250.
10.1111/j.1460-9592.2006.02005.x
CrossRef
Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica
Can the Cerebral State Monitor replace the Bispectral Index in monitoring hypnotic effect during propofol/remifentanil anaesthesia?
Hoymork, SC; Hval, K; Jensen, EW; Raeder, J
Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica, 51(2): 210-216.

Clinical Neurophysiology
Effects of GABA(A) and GABA(B) agonists on interhemispheric inhibition in man
Irlbacher, K; Brocke, J; Mechow, JV; Brandt, SA
Clinical Neurophysiology, 118(2): 308-316.
10.1016/j.clinph.2006.09.023
CrossRef
Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica
Automated responsiveness test and bispectral index monitoring during propofol and propofol/N2O sedation
Doufas, AG; Bakhshandeh, M; Haugh, GS; Bjorksten, AR; Greif, R; Sessler, DI
Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica, 47(8): 951-957.

Proceedings of the 2003 American Control Conference, Vols 1-6
Nonlinear adaptive control for intensive care unit sedation and operating room hypnosis
Haddad, WM; Hayakawa, T; Bailey, JM
Proceedings of the 2003 American Control Conference, Vols 1-6, (): 1808-1813.

Clinics in Chest Medicine
Management of agitation in the intensive care unit
Siegel, MD
Clinics in Chest Medicine, 24(4): 713-+.
10.1016/S0272-5231(03)00104-7
CrossRef
European Journal of Anaesthesiology
Performance of bispectral index and auditory evoked potential monitors in detecting loss of consciousness during anaesthetic induction with propofol with and without fentanyl
Mi, WD; Sakai, T; Kudo, T; Kudo, M; Matsuki, A
European Journal of Anaesthesiology, 21(): 807-811.

Academic Emergency Medicine
Assessment of the onset and persistence of amnesia during procedural sedation with propofol
Miner, JR; Bachman, A; Kosman, L; Teng, B; Heegaard, W; Biros, MH
Academic Emergency Medicine, 12(6): 491-496.
10.1197/j.aem.2005.01.011
CrossRef
Anesthesia and Analgesia
Increased progesterone production during the luteal phase of menstruation may decrease anesthetic requirement
Erden, V; Yangin, Z; Erkalp, K; Delatioglu, H; Bahceci, F; Seyhan, A
Anesthesia and Analgesia, 101(4): 1007-1011.
10.1213/01.ane.0000168271.76090.63
CrossRef
Anesthesia and Analgesia
Electrocardiographic electrodes provide the same results as expensive special sensors in the routine monitoring of anesthetic depth
Hemmerling, TM; Harvey, P
Anesthesia and Analgesia, 94(2): 369-371.

Hospital Medicine
Use of the bispectral index to monitor anaesthesia
Gan, TJ; Habib, AS
Hospital Medicine, 63(2): 68-69.

British Journal of Anaesthesia
Evaluation of effects of magnesium sulphate in reducing intraoperative anaesthetic requirements
Telci, L; Esen, F; Akcora, D; Erden, T; Canbolat, AT; Akpir, K
British Journal of Anaesthesia, 89(4): 594-598.

British Journal of Anaesthesia
Mechanisms of action of midazolam on expression of contextual fear in rats
Pain, L; Launoy, A; Fouquet, N; Oberling, P
British Journal of Anaesthesia, 89(4): 614-621.

Neurological Surgery
BIS monitoring is useful for reliable intraoperative cortical mapping during brain tumor operations
Yamaguchi, F; Oi, Y; Aoki, W; Nakamura, R; Igarashi, A; Kubota, M; Sawada, K; Shimura, T; Takahashi, H; Kobayashi, S; Teramoto, A
Neurological Surgery, 30(): 1181-1188.

Anesthesia and Analgesia
The influence of hemorrhagic shock on etomidate: A pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic analysis
Johnson, KB; Egan, TD; Layman, J; Kern, SE; White, JL; McJames, SW
Anesthesia and Analgesia, 96(5): 1360-1368.
10.1213/01.ANE.0000055804.30509.69
CrossRef
Anaesthesia
Closed loop control of anaesthesia: an assessment of the bispectral index as the target of control
Morley, A; Derrick, J; Mainland, P; Lee, BB; Short, TG
Anaesthesia, 55(): 953-959.

Anesthesia and Analgesia
Auditory steady-state response and bispectral index for assessing level of consciousness during propofol sedation and hypnosis
Bonhomme, V; Plourde, G; Meuret, P; Fiset, P; Backman, SB
Anesthesia and Analgesia, 91(6): 1398-1403.

British Journal of Anaesthesia
Sedative, analgesic and cognitive effects of clonidine infusions in humans
Hall, JE; Uhrich, TD; Ebert, TJ
British Journal of Anaesthesia, 86(1): 5-11.

Paediatric Anaesthesia
Use of the Bispectral Index monitor to aid titration of propofol during a drug-assisted interview
Palmer, GM; Davidson, AJ; Sethna, N; Laussen, P
Paediatric Anaesthesia, 11(2): 245-248.

Anesthesia and Analgesia
In search of a reliable awareness monitor
Tempe, DK
Anesthesia and Analgesia, 92(4): 801-804.

Anaesthesist
The Narcotrend (TM) - a new EEG monitor designed measure the depth of anaesthesia - A comparison with bispectral index monitoring during propofol-remifentanil-anaesthesia
Kreuer, S; Biedler, A; Larsen, R; Schoth, S; Altmann, S; Wilhelm, W
Anaesthesist, 50(): 921-925.

Journal of the American Dental Association
Flumazenil reversal of sublingual triazolam A randomized controlled clinical trial
Hosaka, K; Jackson, D; Pickrell, JE; Heima, M; Milgrom, P
Journal of the American Dental Association, 140(5): 559-566.

British Journal of Anaesthesia
Influence of different remifentanil concentrations on the performance of the surgical stress index to detect a standardized painful stimulus during sevoflurane anaesthesia
Gruenewald, M; Meybohm, P; Ilies, C; Hocker, J; Hanss, R; Scholz, J; Bein, B
British Journal of Anaesthesia, 103(4): 586-593.
10.1093/bja/aep206
CrossRef
Pediatric Anesthesia
Anesthetic-specific electroencephalographic patterns during emergence from sevoflurane and isoflurane in infants and children
Lo, SS; Sobol, JB; Mallavaram, N; Carson, M; Chang, C; Grieve, PG; Emerson, RG; Stark, RI; Sun, LS
Pediatric Anesthesia, 19(): 1157-1165.
10.1111/j.1460-9592.2009.03128.x
CrossRef
Journal of Critical Care
Bilateral measurement of bispectral index and mid-latency auditory evoked potentials in patients with unilateral brain lesions
Fudickar, A; Jacobsen, JH; Weiler, N; Scholz, J; Bein, B
Journal of Critical Care, 24(4): 545-550.
10.1016/j.jcrc.2009.02.015
CrossRef
Anaesthesia
Effect of epidural bupivacaine on the relationship between the bispectral index and end-expiratory concentrations of desflurane
Hans, P; Lecoq, JP; Brichant, JF; Dewandre, PY; Lamy, M
Anaesthesia, 54(9): 899-902.

British Journal of Anaesthesia
Fentanyl and midazolam anaesthesia for coronary bypass surgery: a clinical study of bispectral electroencephalogram analysis, drug concentrations and recall
Barr, G; Anderson, RE; Samuelsson, S; Owall, A; Jakobsson, JG
British Journal of Anaesthesia, 84(6): 749-752.

Annals of Biomedical Engineering
A cascade feedback control approach for hypnosis
Puebla, H; Alvarez-Ramirez, J
Annals of Biomedical Engineering, 33(): 1449-1463.
10.1007/s10439-005-6490-4
CrossRef
Anaesthesia
Propofol/rernifentanil vs sevoflurane/remifentanil for long lasting surgical procedures: a randomised controlled trial
Hocker, J; Tonner, PH; Bollert, P; Paris, A; Scholz, J; Meier-Paika, C; Bein, B
Anaesthesia, 61(8): 752-757.
10.1111/j.1365-2044.2006.04715.x
CrossRef
Journal of Dental Research
Oral clonidine pre-treatment and diazepam/meperidine sedation
Hall, DL; Tatakis, DN; Walters, JD; Rezvan, E
Journal of Dental Research, 85(9): 854-858.

Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology
Bispectra index monitoring of conscious sedation with the combination of meperidine and midazolam during endoscopy
Qadeer, MA; Vargo, JJ; Patel, S; Dumot, JA; Lopez, AR; Trolli, PA; Conwell, DL; Stevens, T; Zuccaro, G
Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology, 6(1): 102-108.
10.1016/j.cgh.2007.10.005
CrossRef
Laboratory Animals
EEG power spectrum analysis for monitoring depth of anaesthesia during experimental surgery
Otto, KA
Laboratory Animals, 42(1): 45-61.
10.1258/la.2007.006025
CrossRef
Journal of Anesthesia
Auditory evoked potentials index versus bispectral index during propofol sedation in spinal anesthesia
Nishiyama, T
Journal of Anesthesia, 23(1): 26-30.
10.1007/s00540-008-0678-3
CrossRef
Consciousness and Cognition
Invariant reversible QEEG effects of anesthetics
John, ER; Prichep, LS; Kox, W; Valdes-Sosa, P; Bosch-Bayard, J; Aubert, E; Tom, M; diMichele, F; Gugino, LD
Consciousness and Cognition, 10(2): 165-183.
10.1006/ccog.2001.0507
CrossRef
British Journal of Anaesthesia
Effect site concentrations of remifentanil and pupil response to noxious stimulation
Barvais, L; Engelman, E; Eba, JM; Coussaert, E; Cantraine, F; Kenny, GN
British Journal of Anaesthesia, 91(3): 347-352.
10.1093/bja/aeg178
CrossRef
Anesthesia and Analgesia
Correlation of bispectral index and Guedel's stages of ether anesthesia
Bhargava, AK; Setlur, R; Sreevastava, D
Anesthesia and Analgesia, 98(1): 132-134.
10.1213/01.ANE.0000090740.32274.72
CrossRef
British Journal of Anaesthesia
Agitation and changes of Bispectral Index(TM) and electroencephalographic-derived variables during sevoflurane induction in children: clonidine premedication reduces agitation compared with midazolam
Constant, I; Leport, Y; Richard, P; Moutard, ML; Murat, I
British Journal of Anaesthesia, 92(4): 504-511.
10.1093/bja/aeh093
CrossRef
Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica
Requirements of propofol at different end-points without adjuvant and during two different steady infusions of remifentanil
Mustola, ST; Baer, GA; Neuvonen, PJ; Toivonen, KJ
Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica, 49(2): 215-221.
10.1111/j.1399-5676.2004.00582.x
CrossRef
Chest
Concomitant assessment of depth of sedation by changes in bispectral index and changes in autonomic variables (heart rate and/or BP) in pediatric critically ill patients receiving neuromuscular blockade
Trope, RM; Silver, PC; Sagy, M
Chest, 128(1): 303-307.

Anesthesia and Analgesia
Sedative, amnestic, and analgesic properties of small-dose dexmedetomidine infusions
Hall, JE; Uhrich, TD; Barney, JA; Arain, SR; Ebert, TJ
Anesthesia and Analgesia, 90(3): 699-705.

Acp-Applied Cardiopulmonary Pathophysiology
Evaluation of bispectral index (BIS) for anaesthetic depth monitoring in pigs
Schmidt, M; Papp-Jambor, C; Marx, T; Schirmer, U; Reinelt, H
Acp-Applied Cardiopulmonary Pathophysiology, 9(2): 83-86.

British Journal of Anaesthesia
Paradoxical changes in bispectral index during nitrous oxide administration
Puri, GD
British Journal of Anaesthesia, 86(1): 141-142.

Anesthesia and Analgesia
The effect of bispectral index monitoring on anesthetic use and recovery in children anesthetized with sevoflurane in nitrous oxide
Bannister, CF; Brosius, KK; Sigl, JC; Meyer, BJ; Sebel, PS
Anesthesia and Analgesia, 92(4): 877-881.

British Journal of Anaesthesia
Monitoring level of sedation with bispectral EEG analysis: comparison between hypothermic and normothermic cardiopulmonary bypass
Schmidlin, D; Hager, P; Schmid, ER
British Journal of Anaesthesia, 86(6): 769-776.

Anaesthesist
Anesthesia for diagnostic procedures in a nonoperating room area
Krayer, S
Anaesthesist, 50(6): 465-478.

Anaesthesist
Comparision of premedication regimes - A randomized, controlled trial
Meybohm, P; Hanss, R; Bein, B; Schaper, C; Buttgereit, B; Scholz, J; Bauer, M
Anaesthesist, 56(9): 890-+.
10.1007/s00101-007-1208-7
CrossRef
Anaesthesist
Measurement of the depth of anaesthesia
Schmidt, GN; Muller, J; Bischoff, P
Anaesthesist, 57(1): 9-+.
10.1007/s00101-007-1294-6
CrossRef
Journal of Physical Chemistry B
Fluorine-19 NMR chemical shift probes molecular binding to lipid membranes
Chekmenev, EY; Chow, SK; Tofan, D; Weitekamp, DP; Ross, BD; Bhattacharya, P
Journal of Physical Chemistry B, 112(): 6285-6287.
10.1021/jp800646k
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Anesthesia and Analgesia
The Use of Bispectral Index to Monitor Barbiturate Coma in Severely Brain-injured Patients with Refractory Intracranial Hypertension
Cottenceau, V; Petit, L; Masson, F; Guehl, D; Asselineau, J; Cochard, JF; Pinaquy, C; Leger, A; Sztark, F
Anesthesia and Analgesia, 107(5): 1676-1682.
10.1213/ane.0b013e318184e9ab
CrossRef
2009 9Th International Conference on Information Technolology and Applications in Biomedicine
Estimating the Depth of Anesthesia by Applying Sub Parameters to an Artificial Neural Network during General Anesthesia
Ghanatbari, M; Dehnavi, ARM; Rabbani, H; Mahoori, AR
2009 9Th International Conference on Information Technolology and Applications in Biomedicine, (): 425-428.

Anesthesiology
The bispectral index correlates with responsiveness to command with sevoflurane sedation
Ibrahim, AE; Taraday, JK; Kharasch, ED
Anesthesiology, 89(): U118.

Annales Francaises D Anesthesie Et De Reanimation
Increase in bispectral index induced by antihyperalgesic dose of ketamine
Chaaben, K; Marret, E; Lamonerie, L; Lembert, N; Bonnet, F
Annales Francaises D Anesthesie Et De Reanimation, 23(5): 513-516.
10.1016/j.annfar.2004.02.048
CrossRef
Anesthesia and Analgesia
The incidence of awareness during anesthesia: A multicenter United States study
Sebel, PS; Bowdle, TA; Ghoneim, MM; Rampil, IJ; Padilla, RE; Gan, TJ; Domino, KB
Anesthesia and Analgesia, 99(3): 833-839.
10.1213/01.ANE.0000130261.90896.6C
CrossRef
Obesity Surgery
General anesthesia, bariatric surgery, and the BIS (R) monitor - INVITED COMMENTARY
Lemmens, HJM; Brodsky, JB
Obesity Surgery, 15(1): 63.

Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica
Cerebral state index during anaesthetic induction: a comparative study with propofol or nitrous oxide
Anderson, RE; Barr, G; Jakobsson, JG
Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica, 49(6): 750-753.
10.1111/j.1399-6576.2005.00737.x
CrossRef
Anesthesia and Analgesia
Nitrous oxide induces paradoxical electroencephalographic changes after tracheal intubation during isoflurane and sevoflurane anesthesia
Oda, Y; Tanaka, K; Matsuura, T; Hase, I; Nishikawa, K; Asada, A
Anesthesia and Analgesia, 102(4): 1094-1102.
10.1213/01.ane.0000198509.55543.d6
CrossRef
Anesthesia and Analgesia
Bispectral index does not correlate with observer assessment of alertness and sedation scores during 0.5% bupivacaine epidural anesthesia with nitrous oxide sedation
Park, KS; Hur, EJ; Han, KW; Kil, HY; Han, TH
Anesthesia and Analgesia, 103(2): 385-389.
10.1213/01.ane.0000226090.13170.25
CrossRef
Anesthesia and Analgesia
Changes in consciousness, conceptual memory, and quantitative electroencephalographical measures during recovery from sevoflurane- and remifentanil-based anesthesia
Muncaster, ARG; Sleigh, JW; Williams, M
Anesthesia and Analgesia, 96(3): 720-725.
10.1213/01.ANE.0000040143.95962.36
CrossRef
British Journal of Anaesthesia
Desflurane compared with propofol for postoperative sedation in the intensive care unit
Meiser, A; Sirtl, C; Bellgardt, M; Lohmann, S; Garthoff, A; Kaiser, J; Hugler, P; Laubenthal, HJ
British Journal of Anaesthesia, 90(3): 273-280.
10.1093/bja/aeg059
CrossRef
American Journal of Veterinary Research
Bispectral index, spectral edge frequency 95%, and median frequency recorded for various concentrations of isoflurane and sevoflurane in pigs
Martin-Cancho, MF; Lima, JR; Luis, L; Crisostomo, V; Ezquerra, LJ; Carrasco, MS; Uson-Gargallo, J
American Journal of Veterinary Research, 64(7): 866-873.

Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica
Absence of explicit and implicit memory in unconscious patients using a TCI of propofol
Lequeux, PY; Cantraine, F; Levarlet, M; Barvais, L
Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica, 47(7): 833-837.

Intensive Care Medicine
Comparison of the bispectral index monitor with the Comfort score in assessing level of sedation of critically ill children
Courtman, SP; Wardurgh, A; Petros, AJ
Intensive Care Medicine, 29(): 2239-2246.
10.1007/s00134-003-1997-3
CrossRef
Annals of Emergency Medicine
Bispectral electroencephalogram analysis of pharmacologically paralyzed patients in the emergency department
Miner, JR; Friewald, S; Haug, E; Biros, M
Annals of Emergency Medicine, 43(2): 293-294.
10.1016/j.annemergmed.2003.07.003
CrossRef
Journal of Cardiothoracic and Vascular Anesthesia
Comparison of two different anesthesia regimens in patients undergoing aortocoronary bypass grafting surgery: Sufentanil-midazolam versus remifentanil-propofol
Lehmann, A; Zeitler, C; Thaler, E; Isgro, F; Boldt, J
Journal of Cardiothoracic and Vascular Anesthesia, 14(4): 416-420.

Acp-Applied Cardiopulmonary Pathophysiology
Low flow and intravenous anaesthesia: Allies or combatants?
Coetzee, JF
Acp-Applied Cardiopulmonary Pathophysiology, 9(2): 135-144.

Paediatric Anaesthesia
Bispectral index monitoring during infant cardiac surgery: relationship of BIS to the stress response and plasma fentanyl levels
Kussman, BD; Gruber, EM; Zurakowski, D; Hansen, DD; Sullivan, LJ; Laussen, PC
Paediatric Anaesthesia, 11(6): 663-669.

Annales Francaises D Anesthesie Et De Reanimation
Automatic EEG analysis for monitoring depth of anaesthesia in year 2000
Billard, V; Constant, I
Annales Francaises D Anesthesie Et De Reanimation, 20(9): 763-785.

Anaesthesia
Propofol effective concentration 50 and its relationship to bispectral index
Irwin, MG; Hui, TWC; Milne, SE; Kenny, GNC
Anaesthesia, 57(3): 242-248.

Canadian Journal of Anaesthesia-Journal Canadien D Anesthesie
The bispectral index response to tracheal intubation is similar in normotensive and hypertensive patients
Nakayama, M; Ichinose, H; Yamamoto, S; Kanaya, N; Namiki, A
Canadian Journal of Anaesthesia-Journal Canadien D Anesthesie, 49(5): 458-460.

Plos One
Nociceptive Transmission to Rat Primary Somatosensory Cortex - Comparison of Sedative and Analgesic Effects
Granmo, M; Jensen, T; Schouenborg, J
Plos One, 8(1): -.
ARTN e53966
CrossRef
Journal of International Medical Research
Association between bispectral index and age and use of sedative drugs in high spinal anaesthesia
Yi, YR; Heo, DY; Son, HJ; Joo, Y; Lee, SJ; Hwang, BM
Journal of International Medical Research, 41(2): 378-385.
10.1177/0300060513476437
CrossRef
Journal of Research in Medical Sciences
Comparison of sedation effectiveness of remifentanil-dexmedetomidine and remifentanilmidazolam combinations and their effects on postoperative cognitive functions in cystoscopies: A randomized clinical trial
Arpaci, AH; Bozkirli, F
Journal of Research in Medical Sciences, 18(2): 107-114.

Translational Stroke Research
Gender-Specific Differences in the Central Nervous System's Response to Anesthesia
Mawhinney, LJ; Mabourakh, D; Lewis, MC
Translational Stroke Research, 4(4): 462-475.
10.1007/s12975-012-0229-y
CrossRef
3Rd World Congress of Total Intravenous Anaesthesia & Target Controlled Infusion
How To Assess Sedation And Analgesia During Regional Anaesthesia
Bosco, M; Clemente, A; Monteleone, G; Polletta, A; Volturo, P; Proietti, R
3Rd World Congress of Total Intravenous Anaesthesia & Target Controlled Infusion, (): 1-6.

British Journal of Anaesthesia
National Institute for Clinical Excellence guidance on measuring depth of anaesthesia: limitations of EEG-based technology
Pandit, JJ; Cook, TM
British Journal of Anaesthesia, 110(3): 325-328.
10.1093/bja/aet006
CrossRef
Archives of Medical Science
Comparative effects of sevoflurane and propofol based general anaesthesia for elective surgery on memory
Flouda, L; Pandazi, A; Papageorgiou, C; Perrea, D; Krepi, E; Kostopanagiotou, G
Archives of Medical Science, 9(1): 105-111.
10.5114/aoms.2013.33351
CrossRef
British Journal of Oral & Maxillofacial Surgery
Comparison of dexmedetomidine and midazolam for conscious sedation in dental surgery monitored by bispectral index
Fan, TWV; Ti, LK; Islam, I
British Journal of Oral & Maxillofacial Surgery, 51(5): 428-433.
10.1016/j.bjoms.2012.08.013
CrossRef
Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology
Sex Difference in Formation of Propofol Metabolites: A Replication Study
Choong, E; Loryan, I; Lindqvist, M; Nordling, A; el Bouazzaoui, S; van Schaik, RH; Johansson, I; Jakobsson, J; Ingelman-Sundberg, M
Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology, 113(2): 126-131.
10.1111/bcpt.12070
CrossRef
2011 International Conference on Environment Science and Biotechnology (Icesb 2011)
EEG UNDER ANESTHESIA A general method for calculation of depth of anesthesia
Wang, L; Ni, ZQ; Meng, J; Qiu, FM; Huang, J
2011 International Conference on Environment Science and Biotechnology (Icesb 2011), 8(): 209-214.
10.1016/j.proenv.2011.10.034
CrossRef
Acta Scientiae Veterinariae
Comparison of Bispectral Index and Vital Parameters in Rabbits Receiving Propofol or Isoflurane Anesthesia
Saritas, TB; Saritas, ZK; Korkmaz, M; Sivaci, RG
Acta Scientiae Veterinariae, 41(): -.
ARTN 1137
CrossRef
Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica
Minimal alveolar concentration of sevoflurane for maintaining bispectral index below 50 in morbidly obese patients
Zeidan, A; Mazoit, JX
Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica, 57(4): 474-479.
10.1111/aas.12038
CrossRef
International Anesthesiology Clinics
Sedation in the Intensive Care Unit
Hurford, WE
International Anesthesiology Clinics, 37(4): 113-122.

PDF (477)
Anesthesiology
Closed-loop Control of Anesthesia Using Bispectral Index: Performance Assessment in Patients Undergoing Major Orthopedic Surgery under Combined General and Regional Anesthesia
Absalom, AR; Sutcliffe, N; Kenny, GN
Anesthesiology, 96(1): 67-73.

PDF (156)
Anesthesiology
Effects of Parecoxib, a Parenteral COX-2-specific Inhibitor, on the Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics of Propofol
Ibrahim, A; Park, S; Feldman, J; Karim, A; Kharasch, ED
Anesthesiology, 96(1): 88-95.

PDF (323)
Anesthesiology
Detection of Awareness with the Bispectral Index: Two Case Reports
Luginbühl, M; Schnider, TW
Anesthesiology, 96(1): 241-243.

Anesthesiology
Differential Effects of Propofol and Sevoflurane on Heart Rate Variability
Kanaya, N; Hirata, N; Kurosawa, S; Nakayama, M; Namiki, A
Anesthesiology, 98(1): 34-40.

PDF (271)
Anesthesiology
Monitoring of Immobility to Noxious Stimulation during Sevoflurane Anesthesia Using the Spinal H-reflex
Rehberg, B; Grünewald, M; Baars, J; Fuegener, K; Urban, BW; Kox, WJ
Anesthesiology, 100(1): 44-50.

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Anesthesiology
Low Bispectral Index Values in Awake Volunteers Receiving a Combination of Propofol and Midazolam
Vuyk, J; Lichtenbelt, BJ; Vieveen, J; Dahan, A; Engbers, FH; Burm, AG
Anesthesiology, 100(1): 179-181.

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Anesthesiology
No Evidence of Memory Function during Anesthesia with Propofol or Isoflurane with Close Control of Hypnotic State
Kerssens, C; Ouchi, T; Sebel, PS
Anesthesiology, 102(1): 57-62.

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Anesthesiology
Assessment of Depth of Anesthesia and Postoperative Respiratory Recovery after Remifentanil-versus Alfentanil-based Total Intravenous Anesthesia in Patients Undergoing Ear–Nose–Throat Surgery
Wuesten, R; Van Aken, H; Glass, PS; Buerkle, H
Anesthesiology, 94(2): 211-217.

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Anesthesiology
Use of Dynamic Negative Airway Pressure (DNAP) to Assess Sedative-induced Upper Airway Obstruction
Bailey, PL; Ward, DS; Litman, RS; Hayes, JL; Basco, MG; Schwartz, AR
Anesthesiology, 96(2): 342-345.

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Anesthesiology
Children Undergoing Repeated Exposures for Radiation Therapy Do Not Develop Tolerance to Propofol: Clinical and Bispectral Index Data
Keidan, I; Perel, A; Shabtai, EL; Pfeffer, RM
Anesthesiology, 100(2): 251-254.

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Anesthesiology
The Anesthetic Cascade: A Theory of How Anesthesia Suppresses Consciousness
John, ER; Prichep, LS
Anesthesiology, 102(2): 447-471.

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MAC Should Stand for Maximum Anesthesia Caution, Not Minimal Anesthesiology Care
Hug, CC
Anesthesiology, 104(2): 221-223.

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Intrapatient Reproducibility of the BISxp® Monitor
Hantler, CB; Evers, AS; Avidan, MS; Niedhart, DJ; Kaiser, HA; Jacobsohn, E
Anesthesiology, 104(2): 242-248.

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Anesthesiology
The Position of Aspect
Chamoun, N
Anesthesiology, 92(3): 897.

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Anesthesiology
Surgical Stimulation Shifts EEG Concentration–Response Relationship of Desflurane
Röpcke, H; Rehberg, B; Koenen-Bergmann, M; Bouillon, T; Bruhn, J; Hoeft, A
Anesthesiology, 94(3): 390-399.

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Anesthesiology
BIS Monitoring to Prevent Awareness during General Anesthesia
O’Connor, MF; Daves, SM; Tung, A; Cook, RI; Thisted, R; Apfelbaum, J
Anesthesiology, 94(3): 520-522.

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Anesthesiology
Correlation of Approximate Entropy, Bispectral Index, and Spectral Edge Frequency 95 (SEF95) with Clinical Signs of “Anesthetic Depth” during Coadministration of Propofol and Remifentanil
Bruhn, J; Bouillon, TW; Radulescu, L; Hoeft, A; Bertaccini, E; Shafer, SL
Anesthesiology, 98(3): 621-627.

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Anesthesiology
Sequential Effects of Increasing Propofol Sedation on Frontal and Temporal Cortices as Indexed by Auditory Event-related Potentials
Heinke, W; Kenntner, R; Gunter, TC; Sammler, D; Olthoff, D; Koelsch, S
Anesthesiology, 100(3): 617-625.

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Anesthesiology
When Is a Bispectral Index of 60 Too Low?: Rational Processed Electroencephalographic Targets Are Dependent on the Sedative–Opioid Ratio
Manyam, SC; Gupta, DK; Johnson, KB; White, JL; Pace, NL; Westenskow, DR; Egan, TD
Anesthesiology, 106(3): 472-483.

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Anesthesiology
BIS-Vista™ Occipital Montage in Patients Undergoing Neurosurgical Procedures during Propofol–Remifentanil Anesthesia
Dahaba, AA; Xue, JX; Zhao, GG; Liu, QH; Xu, GX; Bornemann, H; Rehak, PH; Metzler, H
Anesthesiology, 112(3): 645-651.
10.1097/ALN.0b013e3181cf4111
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Performance of the ARX-derived Auditory Evoked Potential Index as an Indicator of Anesthetic Depth: A Comparison with Bispectral Index and Hemodynamic Measures during Propofol Administration
Struys, MM; Jensen, EW; Smith, W; Smith, NT; Rampil, I; Dumortier, FJ; Mestach, C; Mortier, EP
Anesthesiology, 96(4): 803-816.

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Anesthesiology
Practice Advisory for Intraoperative Awareness and Brain Function Monitoring: A Report by the American Society of Anesthesiologists Task Force on Intraoperative Awareness

Anesthesiology, 104(4): 847-864.

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Anesthesiology
Women Emerge from General Anesthesia with Propofol/Alfentanil/Nitrous Oxide Faster than Men
Gan, TJ; Glass, PS; Sigl, J; Sebel, P; Payne, F; Rosow, C; Embree, P
Anesthesiology, 90(5): 1283-1287.

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Anesthesiology
The Dynamic Relationship between End‐tidal Sevoflurane and Isoflurane Concentrations and Bispectral Index and Spectral Edge Frequency of the Electroencephalogram
Olofsen, E; Dahan, A
Anesthesiology, 90(5): 1345-1353.

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Anesthesiology
Changes in the Auditory Evoked Potentials and the Bispectral Index following Propofol or Propofol and Alfentanil
Iselin-Chaves, IA; El Moalem, HE; Gan, TJ; Ginsberg, B; Glass, PS
Anesthesiology, 92(5): 1300-1310.

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Anesthesiology
Epidural Lidocaine Decreases Sevoflurane Requirement for Adequate Depth of Anesthesia as Measured by the Bispectral Index ® Monitor
Hodgson, PS; Liu, SS
Anesthesiology, 94(5): 799-803.

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Anesthesiology
Neural Mechanism of Propofol Anesthesia in Severe Depression: A Positron Emission Tomographic Study
Ogawa, K; Uema, T; Motohashi, N; Nishikawa, M; Takano, H; Hiroki, M; Imabayashi, E; Ohnishi, T; Inoue, T; Takayama, Y; Takeda, M; Matsuda, H; Andoh, T; Yamada, Y
Anesthesiology, 98(5): 1101-1111.

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Anesthesiology
Comparison of Electrophysiologic Effects of Propofol and Isoflurane-based Anesthetics in Children Undergoing Radiofrequency Catheter Ablation for Supraventricular Tachycardia
Kern, FH; Schulman, SR; Erb, TO; Kanter, RJ; Hall, JM; Gan, TJ
Anesthesiology, 96(6): 1386-1394.

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Anesthesiology
Interaction of Propofol and Sevoflurane on Loss of Consciousness and Movement to Skin Incision during General Anesthesia
Harris, RS; Lazar, O; Johansen, JW; Sebel, PS
Anesthesiology, 104(6): 1170-1175.

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Anesthesiology
Automated Anesthesia: Fact or Fantasy?
Glass, PS; Rampil, IJ
Anesthesiology, 95(1): 1-2.

Anesthesiology
Comparison of Closed-loop Controlled Administration of Propofol Using Bispectral Index as the Controlled Variable versus “Standard Practice” Controlled Administration
Struys, MM; De Smet, T; Versichelen, LF; Van de Velde, S; Van den Broecke, R; Mortier, EP
Anesthesiology, 95(1): 6-17.

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Anesthesiology
Patient State Index: Titration of Delivery and Recovery from Propofol, Alfentanil, and Nitrous Oxide Anesthesia
Ornstein, E; Prichep, LS; Chabot, RJ; Gugino, L; Drover, DR; Lemmens, HJ; Pierce, ET; Plourde, G; Loyd, G
Anesthesiology, 97(1): 82-89.

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Anesthesiology
Narcotrend Monitoring Allows Faster Emergence and a Reduction of Drug Consumption in Propofol–Remifentanil Anesthesia
Kreuer, S; Biedler, A; Larsen, R; Altmann, S; Wilhelm, W
Anesthesiology, 99(1): 34-41.

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Anesthesiology
Spectral Entropy as an Electroencephalographic Measure of Anesthetic Drug Effect: A Comparison with Bispectral Index and Processed Midlatency Auditory Evoked Response
Vanluchene, AL; Vereecke, H; Thas, O; Mortier, EP; Shafer, SL; Struys, MM
Anesthesiology, 101(1): 34-42.

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Sympathetic and Hemodynamic Effects of Moderate and Deep Sedation with Propofol in Humans
Ebert, TJ
Anesthesiology, 103(1): 20-24.

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Cerebral State Index during Propofol Anesthesia: A Comparison with the Bispectral Index and the A-Line ARX Index
Jensen, EW; Litvan, H; Revuelta, M; Rodriguez, BE; Caminal, P; Martinez, P; Vereecke, H; Struys, MM
Anesthesiology, 105(1): 28-36.

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Anesthesiology
Quantitative EEG Correlations with Brain Glucose Metabolic Rate during Anesthesia in Volunteers
Alkire, MT
Anesthesiology, 89(2): 323-333.

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Auditory Evoked Potential Index Predicts the Depth of Sedation and Movement in Response to Skin Incision during Sevoflurane Anesthesia
Kurita, T; Doi, M; Katoh, T; Sano, H; Sato, S; Mantzaridis, H; Kenny, GN
Anesthesiology, 95(2): 364-370.

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Anesthesiology
Memory Function during Propofol and Alfentanil Anesthesia: Predictive Value of Individual Differences
Kerssens, C; Lubke, GH; Klein, J; van der Woerd, A; Bonke, B
Anesthesiology, 97(2): 382-389.

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Anesthesiology
The Influence of Hemorrhagic Shock on Propofol: A Pharmacokinetic and Pharmacodynamic Analysis
Johnson, KB; Egan, TD; Kern, SE; White, JL; McJames, SW; Syroid, N; Whiddon, D; Church, T
Anesthesiology, 99(2): 409-420.

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Anesthesiology
Remifentanil Modifies the Relation of Electroencephalographic Spectral Changes and Clinical Endpoints in Propofol Anesthesia
Kortelainen, J; Koskinen, M; Mustola, S; Seppänen, T
Anesthesiology, 109(2): 198-205.
10.1097/ALN.0b013e31817f5bfc
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Monitoring Depth of Anesthesia: With Emphasis on the Application of the Bispectral Index and the Middle Latency Auditory Evoked Response to the Prevention of Recall
Drummond, JC
Anesthesiology, 93(3): 876-882.

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Anesthesiology
A New Closed-Loop Control System for Isoflurane Using Bispectral Index Outperforms Manual Control
Locher, S; Stadler, KS; Boehlen, T; Bouillon, T; Leibundgut, D; Schumacher, PM; Wymann, R; Zbinden, AM
Anesthesiology, 101(3): 591-602.

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Anesthesiology
Upper Airway Collapsibility: An Emerging Paradigm for Measuring the Safety of Anesthetic and Sedative Agents
Litman, RS
Anesthesiology, 103(3): 453-454.

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Anesthesiology
Effects of Remifentanil on the Spectrum and Quantitative Parameters of Electroencephalogram in Propofol Anesthesia
Kortelainen, J; Koskinen, M; Mustola, S; Seppänen, T
Anesthesiology, 111(3): 574-583.
10.1097/ALN.0b013e3181af633c
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Anesthesiology
Effect of Isoflurane on the Auditory Steady‐state Response and on Consciousness in Human Volunteers
Plourde, G; Villemure, C; Fiset, P; Bonhomme, V; Backman, SB
Anesthesiology, 89(4): 844-851.

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A Primer for EEG Signal Processing in Anesthesia
Rampil, IJ
Anesthesiology, 89(4): 980-1002.

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Anesthesiology
Ability of the Bispectral Index, Autoregressive Modelling with Exogenous Input-derived Auditory Evoked Potentials, and Predicted Propofol Concentrations to Measure Patient Responsiveness during Anesthesia with Propofol and Remifentanil
Struys, MM; Vereecke, H; Moerman, A; Jensen, EW; Verhaeghen, D; De Neve, N; Dumortier, FJ; Mortier, EP
Anesthesiology, 99(4): 802-812.

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Anesthesiology
Information Loss over Time Defines the Memory Defect of Propofol: A Comparative Response with Thiopental and Dexmedetomidine
Veselis, RA; Reinsel, RA; Feshchenko, VA; Johnson, R
Anesthesiology, 101(4): 831-841.

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Anesthesiology
Application of Bispectral Index® and Narcotrend® Index to the Measurement of the Electroencephalographic Effects of Isoflurane with and without Burst Suppression
Kreuer, S; Bruhn, J; Larsen, R; Grundmann, U; Shafer, SL; Wilhelm, W
Anesthesiology, 101(4): 847-854.

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Anesthesiology
Detection of Gas Embolism by Bispectral Index and Entropy Monitoring in Two Cases
Chazot, T; Liu, N; Trémelot, L; Joukovsky, P; Fischler, M
Anesthesiology, 101(4): 1053-1054.

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Anesthesiology
Development and Clinical Application of Electroencephalographic Bispectrum Monitoring
Johansen, JW; Sebel, PS
Anesthesiology, 93(5): 1336-1344.

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Anesthesiology
Pharyngeal Function and Airway Protection During Subhypnotic Concentrations of Propofol, Isoflurane, and Sevoflurane: Volunteers Examined by Pharyngeal Videoradiography and Simultaneous Manometry
Sundman, E; Witt, H; Sandin, R; Kuylenstierna, R; Bodén, K; Ekberg, O; Eriksson, LI
Anesthesiology, 95(5): 1125-1132.

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Anesthesiology
Bispectral Index Monitoring during Sedation with Sevoflurane, Midazolam, and Propofol
Ibrahim, AE; Taraday, JK; Kharasch, ED
Anesthesiology, 95(5): 1151-1159.

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Anesthesiology
Intravenous Magnesium Sulfate Administration Reduces Propofol Infusion Requirements during Maintenance of Propofol–N2O Anesthesia: Part I: Comparing Propofol Requirements According to Hemodynamic Responses: Part II: Comparing Bispectral Index in Control and Magnesium Groups
Choi, JC; Yoon, KB; Um, DJ; Kim, C; Kim, JS; Lee, SG
Anesthesiology, 97(5): 1137-1141.

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Anesthesiology
Decrease in Bispectral Index Preceding Intraoperative Hemodynamic Crisis: Evidence of Acute Alteration of Propofol Pharmacokinetics
Honan, DM; Breen, PJ; Boylan, JF; McDonald, NJ; Egan, TD
Anesthesiology, 97(5): 1303-1305.

Anesthesiology
Impact of Bispectral Index Monitoring on Stress Response and Propofol Consumption in Patients Undergoing Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery
Bauer, M; Wilhelm, W; Kraemer, T; Kreuer, S; Brandt, A; Adams, HA; Hoff, G; Larsen, R
Anesthesiology, 101(5): 1096-1104.

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Anesthesiology
Narcotrend® Does Not Adequately Detect the Transition between Awareness and Unconsciousness in Surgical Patients
Schneider, G; Kochs, EF; Horn, B; Kreuzer, M; Ningler, M
Anesthesiology, 101(5): 1105-1111.

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Anesthesiology
Investigation of Implicit Memory during Isoflurane Anesthesia for Elective Surgery Using the Process Dissociation Procedure
Iselin-Chaves, IA; Willems, SJ; Jermann, FC; Forster, A; Adam, SR; Van der Linden, M
Anesthesiology, 103(5): 925-933.

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Anesthesiology
No Sex Differences in Memory Formation during General Anesthesia
Stonell, CA; Leslie, K; He, C; Lee, L
Anesthesiology, 105(5): 920-926.

PDF (263)
Anesthesiology
Respiratory Reflex Responses of the Larynx Differ between Sevoflurane and Propofol in Pediatric Patients
Oberer, C; von Ungern-Sternberg, BS; Frei, FJ; Erb, TO
Anesthesiology, 103(6): 1142-1148.

PDF (556)
Critical Care Medicine
Bispectral index-guided sedation with dexmedetomidine in intensive care: A prospective, randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled phase II study*
Triltsch, AE; Welte, M; von Homeyer, P; Groe, J; Genähr, A; Moshirzadeh, M; Sidiropoulos, A; Konertz, W; Kox, WJ; Spies, CD
Critical Care Medicine, 30(5): 1007-1014.

PDF (847)
Critical Care Medicine
Bispectral Index: Better information for sedation in the intensive care unit?
Shapiro, B
Critical Care Medicine, 27(8): 1663-1664.

Critical Care Medicine
Kinetics and dynamics of lorazepam during and after continuous intravenous infusion
Greenblatt, DJ; von Moltke, LL; Ehrenberg, BL; Harmatz, JS; Corbett, KE; Wallace, DW; Shader, RI
Critical Care Medicine, 28(8): 2750-2757.

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Critical Care Medicine
Bispectral Index monitoring correlates with sedation scales in brain-injured patients*
Deogaonkar, A; Gupta, R; DeGeorgia, M; Sabharwal, V; Gopakumaran, B; Schubert, A; Provencio, JJ
Critical Care Medicine, 32(12): 2403-2406.
10.1097/01.CCM.0000147442.14921.A5
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Critical Care Medicine
Bispectral Index monitoring for assessment of level of consciousness in brain-injured patients: The journey continues*
Fodale, V; Pratico, C
Critical Care Medicine, 32(12): 2545-2546.
10.1097/01.CCM.0000148084.60943.50
PDF (724) | CrossRef
Current Opinion in Anesthesiology
Processed electroencephalogram in depth of anesthesia monitoring
Palanca, BA; Mashour, GA; Avidan, MS
Current Opinion in Anesthesiology, 22(5): 553-559.
10.1097/ACO.0b013e3283304032
PDF (1968) | CrossRef
European Journal of Anaesthesiology (EJA)
Bispectral index (BIS) monitoring during propofol-induced sedation and anaesthesia
Singh, H
European Journal of Anaesthesiology (EJA), 16(1): 31-36.

European Journal of Anaesthesiology (EJA)
A clinical comparison between bispectral index (BIS) and high frequency EEG signal detection (SNAP)
Casati, A; Putzu, M; Vinciguerra, F
European Journal of Anaesthesiology (EJA), 22(1): 75-77.
10.1017/S0265021505260143
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European Journal of Anaesthesiology (EJA)
Fentanyl-mediated reduction in the bispectral index and 95% spectral edge frequency is age-dependent
Anzawa, N; Hirota, K; Kitayama, M; Kushikata, T; Matsuki, A
European Journal of Anaesthesiology (EJA), 20(2): 167-169.

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European Journal of Anaesthesiology (EJA)
What does the bispectral EEG index monitor?
Chan, MT; Gin, T
European Journal of Anaesthesiology (EJA), 17(3): 146-148.

European Journal of Anaesthesiology (EJA)
Bispectral index‐controlled anaesthesia for electroconvulsive therapy*
Hanss, R; Bauer, M; Bein, B; Goeder, R; Buttgereit, B; Schulz-Du Bois, AC; Steinfath, M; Scholz, J
European Journal of Anaesthesiology (EJA), 23(3): 202-207.
10.1017/S026502150500219X
PDF (85) | CrossRef
European Journal of Anaesthesiology (EJA)
Cerebral state monitor, a new small handheld EEG monitor for determining depth of anaesthesia: a clinical comparison with the bispectral index during day‐surgery
Anderson, RE; Jakobsson, JG
European Journal of Anaesthesiology (EJA), 23(3): 208-212.
10.1017/S0265021505002206
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European Journal of Anaesthesiology (EJA)
Subjective assessment of depth of anaesthesia by experienced and inexperienced anaesthetists
Hadzidiakos, D; Nowak, A; Laudahn, N; Baars, J; Herold, K; Rehberg, B
European Journal of Anaesthesiology (EJA), 23(4): 292-299.
10.1017/S026502150600010X
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European Journal of Anaesthesiology (EJA)
The correlation between the richmond agitation–sedation scale and bispectral index during dexmedetomidine sedation
Turkmen, A; Altan, A; Turgut, N; Vatansever, S; Gokkaya, S
European Journal of Anaesthesiology (EJA), 23(4): 300-304.
10.1017/S0265021506000081
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European Journal of Anaesthesiology (EJA)
The effect of a remifentanil bolus on the bispectral index of the EEG (BIS) in anaesthetized patients independently from intubation and surgical stimuli
Ferreira, DA; Nunes, CS; Antunes, LM; Santos, IA; Lobo, F; Casal, M; Ferreira, L; Amorim, P
European Journal of Anaesthesiology (EJA), 23(4): 305-310.
10.1017/S0265021505001997
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European Journal of Anaesthesiology (EJA)
Effect of bispectral index monitoring on sevoflurane consumption
Basar, H; Ozcan, S; Buyukkocak, U; Akpinar, S; Apan, A
European Journal of Anaesthesiology (EJA), 20(5): 396-400.

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European Journal of Anaesthesiology (EJA)
A comparison of the effects on bispectral index of mild vs. moderate hypothermia during cardiopulmonary bypass
Honan, D; Doherty, D; Frizelle, H
European Journal of Anaesthesiology (EJA), 23(5): 385-390.
10.1017/S0265021505002309
PDF (129) | CrossRef
European Journal of Anaesthesiology (EJA)
Melatonin premedication and the induction dose of propofol
Turkistani, A; Abdullah, KM; Al-Shaer, AA; Mazen, KF; Alkatheri, K
European Journal of Anaesthesiology (EJA), 24(5): 399-402.
10.1017/S0265021506001505
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European Journal of Anaesthesiology (EJA)
Effects of dexmedetomidine on the duration of anaesthesia and wakefulness in bupivacaine epidural block
Coskuner, I; Tekin, M; Kati, I; Yagmur, C; Elcicek, K
European Journal of Anaesthesiology (EJA), 24(6): 535-540.
10.1017/S0265021506002237
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European Journal of Anaesthesiology (EJA)
Flurbiprofen does not change the bispectral index and 95% spectral edge frequency during total intravenous anaesthesia with propofol and fentanyl
Hirota, K; Fukushi, S; Baba, S; Matsuki, A
European Journal of Anaesthesiology (EJA), 19(7): 483-486.

European Journal of Anaesthesiology (EJA)
Is naso‐gastric tube insertion necessary to reduce the risk of gastric injury at subcostal laparoscopic insufflation? A pilot study
Brandner, B; Krishnan, P; Sitham, M; Man, A; Saridogan, E; Cutner, A
European Journal of Anaesthesiology (EJA), 24(7): 644&hyhen;645.
10.1017/S0265021507000403
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European Journal of Anaesthesiology (EJA)
Skin impedance correlates to sedation grade, plasma propofol concentrations and bispectral index during a target-controlled infusion of propofol
Grossc, M; Piepenbrockc, S; Rahe-Meyerc, N; Winterhaltera, M; Münted, S; Taschenbreckerc, P; Heckerb, H; Weilbachc, C; Osthausc, AW
European Journal of Anaesthesiology (EJA), 26(7): 589-596.
10.1097/EJA.0b013e328329b149
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European Journal of Anaesthesiology (EJA)
Effects of clonidine and midazolam premedication on bispectral index and recovery after elective surgery
Paris, A; Kaufmann, M; Tonner, PH; Renz, P; Lemke, T; Ledowski, T; Scholz, J; Bein, B
European Journal of Anaesthesiology (EJA), 26(7): 603-610.
10.1097/EJA.0b013e32832a0c7c
PDF (335) | CrossRef
European Journal of Anaesthesiology (EJA)
Relation between bispectral index and plasma catecholamines after oral diazepam premedication
Hirota, K; Matsunami, K; Kudo, T; Ishihara, H; Matsuki, A
European Journal of Anaesthesiology (EJA), 16(8): 516-518.

European Journal of Anaesthesiology (EJA)
Target-controlled propofol requirements at induction of anaesthesia: effect of remifentanil and midazolam
Conway, DH; Hasan, SK; Simpson, ME
European Journal of Anaesthesiology (EJA), 19(8): 580-584.

European Journal of Anaesthesiology (EJA)
Bispectral index-guided administration of anaesthesia: comparison between remifentanil/propofol and remifentanil/isoflurane
Schneider, G; Elidrissi, C; Sebel, PS
European Journal of Anaesthesiology (EJA), 20(8): 624-630.

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European Journal of Anaesthesiology (EJA)
Monitoring sedation in critically ill patients: bispectral index, Ramsay and observer scales
Hernández-Gancedo, C; Pestaña, D; Peña, N; Royo, C; Pérez-Chrzanowska, H; Criado, A
European Journal of Anaesthesiology (EJA), 23(8): 649&hyhen;653.
10.1017/S0265021506000056
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European Journal of Anaesthesiology (EJA)
A comparison between bispectral index analysis and auditory‐evoked potentials for monitoring the time to peak effect to calculate the plasma effect site equilibration rate constant of propofol
Zhang, M; Yu, Q; Huang, Y; Wang, S; Wang, X
European Journal of Anaesthesiology (EJA), 24(10): 876-881.
10.1017/S0265021507000890
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European Journal of Anaesthesiology (EJA)
Light or deep general anaesthesia: does it matter and how to assess it?
Billard, V; Servin, F
European Journal of Anaesthesiology (EJA), 25(10): 781&hyhen;783.
10.1017/S0265021508004705
PDF (52) | CrossRef
European Journal of Anaesthesiology (EJA)
Variation of bispectral index monitoring in paediatric patients undergoing propofol‐remifentanil anaesthesia
Liu, JS; Zhang, JM; Yue, Y
European Journal of Anaesthesiology (EJA), 25(10): 821&hyhen;825.
10.1017/S0265021508004559
PDF (75) | CrossRef
European Journal of Anaesthesiology (EJA)
Comparison of a new composite index based on midlatency auditory evoked potentials and electroencephalographic parameters with bispectral index (BIS) during moderate propofol sedation
Hadzidiakos, D; Petersen, S; Baars, J; Herold, K; Rehberg, B
European Journal of Anaesthesiology (EJA), 23(11): 931-936.
10.1017/S0265021506001050
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European Journal of Anaesthesiology (EJA)
Doxapram and aminophylline on bispectral index under sevoflurane anaesthesia: a comparative study
Wu, CC; Lin, CS; Wu, GJ; Lin, YH; Lee, YW; Chen, JY; Mok, MS
European Journal of Anaesthesiology (EJA), 23(11): 937-941.
10.1017/S0265021506001220
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European Journal of Anaesthesiology (EJA)
An investigation of potential genetic determinants of propofol requirements and recovery from anaesthesia
Iohom, G; Ni Chonghaile, M; O'Brien, JK; Cunningham, AJ; Fitzgerald, DF; Shields, DC
European Journal of Anaesthesiology (EJA), 24(11): 912-919.
10.1017/S0265021507000476
PDF (111) | CrossRef
European Journal of Anaesthesiology (EJA)
Use of a target‐controlled infusion system for propofol does not improve subjective assessment of anaesthetic depth by inexperienced anaesthesiologists*
Rehberg, B; Ryll, C; Hadzidiakos, D; Baars, J
European Journal of Anaesthesiology (EJA), 24(11): 920-926.
10.1017/S0265021507000907
PDF (102) | CrossRef
Journal of Neurosurgical Anesthesiology
Bispectral Index (BIS) May Not Predict Awareness Reaction to Intubation in Surgical Patients
Schneider, G; Wagner, K; Reeker, W; Hänel, F; Werner, C; Kochs, E
Journal of Neurosurgical Anesthesiology, 14(1): 7-11.

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Journal of Neurosurgical Anesthesiology
Does Using the Bispectral Index (BIS) During Craniotomy Affect the Quality of Recovery?
Boztug, N; Bigat, Z; Akyuz, M; Demir, S; Ertok, E
Journal of Neurosurgical Anesthesiology, 18(1): 1-4.

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Journal of Neurosurgical Anesthesiology
Effects of Two Calculated Plasma Sufentanil Concentrations on the Hemodynamic and Bispectral Index Responses to Mayfield Head Holder Application
Hans, P; Brichant, JF; Dewandre, PY; Born, JD; Lamy, M
Journal of Neurosurgical Anesthesiology, 11(2): 81-85.

PDF (359)
Journal of Neurosurgical Anesthesiology
Anesthetic Management for Surgical Placement of Greater Occipital Nerve Stimulators in the Treatment of Primary Headache Disorders
Lim, HB; Hunt, K
Journal of Neurosurgical Anesthesiology, 19(2): 120-124.
10.1097/ANA.0b013e31802ba10f
PDF (112) | CrossRef
Pediatric Emergency Care
Bispectral Analysis During Pediatric Procedural Sedation
Overly, FL; Wright, RO; Connor, FA; Fontaine, B; Jay, G; Linakis, JG
Pediatric Emergency Care, 21(1): 6-11.

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Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology
Pharmacokinetics and Clinical Effects of Multidose Sublingual Triazolam in Healthy Volunteers
Jackson, DL; Milgrom, P; Heacox, GA; Kharasch, ED
Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology, 26(1): 4-8.

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Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology
Expanded Studies of the Pharmacokinetics and Clinical Effects of Multidose Sublingual Triazolam in Healthy Volunteers
Pickrell, JE; Hosaka, K; Jackson, DL; Heima, M; Kharasch, E; Milgrom, PM
Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology, 29(5): 426-431.
10.1097/JCP.0b013e3181b5f45e
PDF (202) | CrossRef
Back to Top | Article Outline
Keywords:
Anesthetics, volatile: isoflurane; Anesthetics, intravenous: propofol; midazolam; alfentanil; Electroencephalogram; Bispectral analysis.

© 1997 American Society of Anesthesiologists, Inc.

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