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Carbon Dioxide Elimination during Total Cardiopulmonary Bypass in Infants and Children.

Larach, David R. ; M.D., Ph.D.; High, Kane M. M.D.; Derr, Janice A. Ph.D.; Hensley, Frederick A. Jr., M.D.; Myers, John L. M.D.; Williams, Dennis R. C.C.P.; Snider, Michael T. M.D., Ph.D.

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Abstract

The authors measured the rate of carbon dioxide elimination (VCO2) in 25 pediatric patients (age 2 days to 9 yr) during total cardiopulmonary bypass at average venous blood temperatures ranging from 19.5 to 35.9[degrees]C. A multiplexed mass spectrometer was connected to the gas inlet and exhaust ports of the bubble oxygenator, and the gas-phase Fick principle was used to determine VCO2. A curvilinear relationship was found between log VCO2 and venous blood temperature, and a quadratic regression equation (r2 = 0.74) was fit to the data. Q10 (the ratio of VCO2 before and after a 10[degrees]C temperature change) was estimated to be 2.7 or 3.0, depending on the analytic method used. Venous blood temperature as a predictor variable explained a greater proportion of the variability of log VCO2 than did nasopharyngeal or rectal temperatures. Analysis of covariance revealed that total circulatory arrest during bypass (utilized in 10 patients for 34 +/- 4 min, mean +/- SEM) affected the relationship of venous blood temperature with log VCO2, by increasing the y-intercept (P = .008) but not the slope. These data, with associated 95% prediction intervals, define the expected CO2 elimination rates at various temperatures during standard bypass conditions in our patients. Real-time measurement of VCO2 using mass spectrometry can be a useful routine monitor during CPB that may help to assess patient metabolic function, adequacy of perfusion, and oxygenator performance.
(C) 1988 American Society of Anesthesiologists, Inc.
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