BACKGROUND: Increased hemoglobin (Hb) concentration accompanying hypoxemia is a compensatory response to maintain tissue oxygen delivery. Near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is used clinically to detect abnormalities in the balance of cerebral tissue oxygen delivery and consumption, including in children with congenital heart disease (CHD). Although NIRS-measured cerebral tissue O2 saturation (ScO2) correlates with arterial oxygen saturation (SaO2), jugular bulb O2 saturation (SjbO2), and Hb, little data exist on the interplay between these factors and cerebral O2 extraction (COE). This study investigated the associations of ScO2 and ΔSaO2−ScO2 with SaO2 and Hb and verified the normal range of ScO2 in children with CHD.
METHODS: Children undergoing cardiac catheterization for CHD were enrolled in a calibration and validation study of the FORE-SIGHT NIRS monitor. Two pairs of simultaneous arterial and jugular bulb samples were drawn for co-oximetry, calculation of a reference ScO2 (REF CX), and estimation of COE. Pearson correlation and linear regression were used to determine relationships between O2 saturation parameters and Hb. Data were also analyzed according to diagnostic group defined as acyanotic (SaO2 ≥ 90%) and cyanotic (SaO2 < 90%).
RESULTS: Of 65 children studied, acceptable jugular bulb samples (SjbO2 absolute difference between samples ≤10%) were obtained in 57 (88%). The ΔSaO2−SjbO2, ΔSaO2−ScO2, and ΔSaO2−REF CX were positively correlated with SaO2 and negatively correlated with Hb (all P < .001). Although by diagnostic group ScO2 differed statistically (P = .002), values in the cyanotic patients were within the range considered normal (69% ± 6%). COE estimated by the difference between arterial and jugular bulb O2 content (ΔCaO2−CjbO2, mL O2/100 mL) was not different for cyanotic and acyanotic patients (P = .10), but estimates using ΔSaO2−SjbO2, ΔSaO2−ScO2, or ΔSaO2−ScO2/SaO2 were significantly different between the cyanotic and acyanotic children (P < .001).
CONCLUSIONS: Children with adequately compensated chronic hypoxemia appear to have ScO2 values within the normal range. The ΔSaO2−ScO2 is inversely related to Hb, with the implication that in the presence of reduced Hb, particularly if coupled with a decreased cardiac output, the ScO2 can fall to values associated with brain injury in laboratory studies.
From the *Department of Anesthesiology, Perioperative and Pain Medicine, Boston Children’s Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts; †Department of Critical Care Medicine, Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario, Canada; ‡CAS Medical Systems Inc, Branford, Connecticut; §Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care Medicine, The Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; and ‖Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Stanford Medical Center, Palo Alto, California.
Accepted for publication February 17, 2017.
Funding: NIH Small Business Innovation Research Grant R44NS045488 (PBB) by contract between CAS Medical Systems, Inc and Boston Children’s Hospital. Data for this study are derived from the calibration and validation study of the FORE-SIGHT tissue oximeter funded by SBIR Grant R44NS045488 from the National Institutes of Health, and Children’s Hospital Medical Center Anesthesia Foundation intramural funds.
The authors declare no conflicts of interest.
Address correspondence to Barry D. Kussman, MBBCh, FFA(SA), Department of Anesthesiology, Perioperative and Pain Medicine, Boston Children’s Hospital, 300 Longwood Ave, Boston, MA 02115. Address e-mail to firstname.lastname@example.org.