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Anesthesia & Analgesia:
doi: 10.1213/ANE.0000000000000142
Regional Anesthesia: Brief Report

Intraneural and Perineural Inflammatory Changes in Piglets After Injection of Ultrasound Gel, Endotoxin, 0.9% NaCl, or Needle Insertion without Injection

Pintaric, Tatjana Stopar MD, PhD, DEAA*; Cvetko, Erika DMD, PhD; Strbenc, Malan DVM, PhD; Mis, Katarina PhD§; Podpecan, Ozbalt DVM, PhD; Mars, Tomaz MD, PhD§; Hadzic, Admir MD, PhD

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Abstract

BACKGROUND: Ultrasound gel nerve inflammation has been reported. We evaluated the extent and nature of inflammation after gel injection with endotoxin (positive), saline, or dry needle puncture (negative) controls after peripheral blocks in piglets.

METHODS: Selected nerves of 12 piglets were localized by landmarks and nerve stimulator. Forty-eight hours after injection, specimens were examined for immunohistochemical cell differentiation/quantification and cytokine expression by using quantitative polymerase chain reaction.

RESULTS: Both gel and endotoxin injections resulted in a significantly higher density of inflammatory cells (lymphocytes/granulocytes) as compared with needle insertions and/or saline injections (both P < 0.001). Cytokines were not detected in any of the specimens.

CONCLUSIONS: Perineural gel injections cause significant inflammation. The lack of cytokines suggests injectate-related changes rather than mechanical trauma.

© 2014 International Anesthesia Research Society

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