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Persistent Pain After Cardiac Surgery: An Audit of High Thoracic Epidural and Primary Opioid Analgesia Therapies

Ho, Sue C. MBBS, FANZCA*,; Royse, Colin F. MBBS, MD, FANZCA†‡,; Royse, Alistair G. MBBS, MD, FRACS†§,; Penberthy, Arthur MBBS, FANZCA*,; McRae, Roderick MBBS, FANZCA, FFIANZCA‡

doi: 10.1213/00000539-200210000-00006

Persistent pain is an underreported morbidity after cardiac surgery. We sent pain surveys to all patients who underwent coronary artery bypass graft surgery from 1997 to 1999 from a single surgeon’s experience. Two analgesia strategies were used: high thoracic epidural (HTEA) or IV and oral opiates (OPIOID) for 48–72 h after surgery. Persistent pain was defined as pain still present two or more months after surgery, and all questions referred to the time of survey only. From 356 questionnaires, 305 patients responded, and 61 of them refused consent, leaving 244 patients with complete surveys (HTEA, 150 patients [69%]; OPIOID, 94 patients [68%]). The incidence of persistent pain at any site was 29% and for sternotomy was 25%. The intensity of pain reported was mild, with only 7% reporting interference with daily living. Other common locations of persistent pain were the shoulders (17.4%), back (15.9%), and neck (5.8%). Twenty patients (8%) described symptoms suggestive of the internal mammary artery syndrome. A comparative audit of the HTEA and OPIOID groups showed no significant differences in the frequency or intensity of pain, although the time of survey from operation was longer in the OPIOID group. Mild persistent chest pain after sternotomy is common but infrequently interferes with daily life.

*Department of Anaesthesia, Monash Medical Centre; †Department of Pharmacology, University of Melbourne; and Departments of ‡Anaesthesia and Pain Management and §Cardiothoracic Surgery, The Royal Melbourne Hospital, Melbourne, Australia

May 30, 2002.

Address correspondence and reprint requests to Dr. Colin Royse, PO Box 1022, Research, Victoria, Australia, 3095. Address e-mail to

© 2002 International Anesthesia Research Society