This paper reviews the pathologic features of lesions which are oncocytic and involve classic endocrine organs. The history of the oncocytic cell, its morphologic and ultrastructural features, and important immunohistochemical findings are reviewed. Oncocytic proliferations including non-neoplastic and neoplastic of the thyroid, parathyroid, adrenal (both cortex and medulla), and pituitary are described. Their clinical relevance, functional capacity and capability, and where appropriate, prognostic implications are discussed. Important and relevant molecular biological information is included where appropriate.