Skip Navigation LinksHome > July 2013 - Volume 20 - Issue 4 > Ras, Raf, and MAP Kinase in Melanoma
Advances in Anatomic Pathology:
doi: 10.1097/PAP.0b013e3182976c94
Review Articles

Ras, Raf, and MAP Kinase in Melanoma

Solus, Jason F. MD; Kraft, Stefan MD

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Abstract

A growing understanding of the biology and molecular mechanisms of melanoma has led to the identification of a number of driver mutations for this aggressive tumor. The most common mutations affect signaling of the Ras/Raf/MAPK (mitogen-activated protein kinase) pathway. This review will focus on mutations in genes encoding proteins that play a role in the MAPK pathway and that have been implicated in melanoma biology, such as BRAF, NRAS, and MEK (MAPK kinase), and detail the current understanding of their role in melanoma progression from a molecular biology perspective. Furthermore, this review will also consider some additional mutations in genes such as KIT, GNAQ, and GNA11, which can be seen in certain subtypes of melanoma and whose gene products interact with the MAPK pathway. In addition, the association of these molecular changes with clinical and classical histopathologic characteristics of melanoma will be outlined and their role in diagnosis of melanocytic lesions discussed. Finally, a basic overview of the current targeted therapy landscape, as far as relevant to the pathologist, will be provided.

Copyright © 2013 by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins

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