Ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) is an established precursor of invasive breast carcinoma. Immunoperoxidase stains for selected markers can assist pathologists in the diagnosis of challenging ductal epithelial proliferations, but they cannot replace morphologic evaluation as the primary and critical assessment of this disease. Molecular studies provide further insight into how DCIS progresses to invasive carcinoma and also confirm the heterogeneity of this lesion. Morphology-based knowledge, immunohistochemistry, and molecular advances in DCIS are the subjects of this review.
Department of Pathology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY
The authors declare that neither pharmaceutical nor industry support was provided for this work. No funding for this project was received from any of the following organizations: National Institutes of Health (NIH); Wellcome Trust; Howard Hughes Medical Institute (HHMI); or others.
The authors have no funding or conflicts of interest to disclose.
Reprints: Edi Brogi, MD, PhD, Department of Pathology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, 300 East 66th Street, Room 803, New York, NY 10065 (e-mail: email@example.com).