Classic treatment options for prostate cancer consist of radical prostatectomy, antiandrogen (or hormonal) therapy, and radiation therapy. Hormonal and radiation therapy, in particular, have well known, often profound effects on the histologic appearance of benign prostate tissue and prostatic carcinoma. The tissue changes induced by these treatments have been comprehensively described in several sources. Novel therapies ranging from focal ablative treatments to highly targeted molecular therapies are beginning to emerge and pathologists will play a central role in documenting the effects of these treatments on normal and malignant prostate tissue. It is therefore important that pathologists have access to basic treatment information and a solid working knowledge of the morphologic changes induced by these therapies. This will ensure accurate interpretation and reporting of posttreatment prostate specimens. This review is based on a presentation given by Dr A. Evans at the International Society of Urological Pathology Companion Society Meeting (Hot Topics in Urological Pathology) at The United States Canadian Academy of Pathology Meeting in Washington DC on March 20, 2010. This review will cover the histopathologic features seen in benign prostate tissue and prostatic carcinoma seen following: hormonal therapy, radiation therapy, ablative therapies such as vascular-targeted photodynamic therapy, interstitial laser thermotherapy, and high-intensity focussed ultrasound. An emphasis is placed on these specific modalities as they are currently in use as primary, salvage, or investigational therapy in the treatment of prostate cancer.