This article reviews recent trends in nongyn cytology with an emphasis on error reduction, second opinion, and critical diagnosis. Compared with the surgical pathology literature, there is only a limited number of reports addressing these topics in nongyn cytology. Discussion of the error literature in nongyn cytology is presented with the intent to better identify error-prone cytology cases that could prompt intradepartmental consultation or an outside cytology expert's second opinion. The cytology second-opinion literature is also reviewed with the recommendation that interinstitutional second opinions add value to patient care. Last, the recent concept of critical value (critical diagnosis) in cytopathology is presented. All these initiatives promote patient safety, improve quality, decrease errors, and benefit patients.