DOG1 (discovered on GIST 1), known also as TMEM16A and ANO1, has emerged in recent years as a promising biomarker for gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST). It was originally discovered through microarray expression profiling analysis as gene that is highly expressed in GIST, and subsequent immunohistochemical studies have shown its use in its diagnosis. The results from several series have shown a high overall sensitivity and specificity for DOG1 in the detection of GISTs and about 6% of GISTs overall exhibiting a DOG1+/KIT-immunoprofile. DOG1 antibodies are more sensitive than KIT antibodies in detecting tumors of gastric origin, tumors with epithelioid morphology, and tumors harboring PDGFRA mutation. Furthermore, DOG1 immunoreactivity is rarely observed in other mesenchymal and nonmesenchymal tumor types. These results support the use of DOG1 as a diagnostic biomarker for GIST. When used in combination with KIT, this panel of diagnostic biomarkers can help pathologists and clinicians to identify more patients who may benefit from targeted therapies.
*Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Vancouver General Hospital, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada
†Department of Pathology, Cathay General Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan
‡Department of Pathology, Hospital de la Santa Creu i Sant Pau, Autonomous University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain
Reprints: Cheng-Han Lee, MD, PhD, Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Vancouver General Hospital, 920 West 10th Avenue, Vancouver, BC, Canada V5Z 1M9 (e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org).
All figures can be viewed online in color at http://www.anatomicpathology.com.
The researchers declare no conflicts of interest.