Skip Navigation LinksHome > March 2009 - Volume 16 - Issue 2 > Utility of Diagnostic and Prognostic Markers in Urothelial C...
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Advances in Anatomic Pathology:
doi: 10.1097/PAP.0b013e318199f89e
Review Articles

Utility of Diagnostic and Prognostic Markers in Urothelial Carcinoma of the Bladder

Coleman, Joshua F. MD; Hansel, Donna E. MD, PhD

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Abstract

Urothelial carcinoma (UCC) of the bladder demonstrates diverse morphologic features, often leading to diagnostic challenges in the discrimination between UCC and benign mimickers of neoplasia, and between primary UCC and secondary neoplasms involving the bladder. In situ lesions also provide diagnostic difficulty in some instances, most prominently in the distinction between normal, reactive urothelium and flat urothelial carcinoma in situ. The use of ancillary techniques, including panels of immunohistochemical markers, in distinguishing these entities has aided not only in the diagnosis of UCC, but has also provided insight into the molecular pathogenesis and prognostic value of numerous molecular pathways in UCC. This review focuses on some of the more commonly encountered biomarkers in UCC and their role in addressing key diagnostic and prognostic issues in this disease process.

© 2009 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc.

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