Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFD) comprises a spectrum of conditions characterized by the presence of predominantly macrovesicular fatty change in the liver and the absence of alcohol consumption in amounts considered detrimental to the liver. The histologic spectrum of NAFLD includes fatty liver alone or steatohepatitis (NASH). Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis is associated with increasing fibrosis is some cases and may progress to cirrhosis. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease is often associated with insulin resistance. It is likely that there are one or more additional pathophysiologic defects in those with NASH, rendering them more susceptible to injury from oxidative stress. The clinical and histologic features of NASH are described, and an approach to the diagnosis and treatment of NAFLD is provided.