Introduction: Previous separate studies have shown associations of coronary artery disease (CAD) with acid phosphatase locus 1 (ACP1) and adenosine deaminase locus 1 (ADA1) genetic polymorphisms. Because it is known that the 2 systems interact and have important immunologic and metabolic functions, these 2 genes were both examined in the same sets of subjects.
Method: Two-hundred forty subjects with CAD, 156 subjects with cardiovascular diseases without CAD, 279 subjects with Non Insulin Dependent Diabetes Mellitus (NIDDM) without CAD and 771 consecutive healthy newborn infants have been studied.
Results: The association of ACP1 and ADA1 with CAD depends on sex and diabetes. In particular, the association between ADA1 and CAD is present in nondiabetic subjects only, and it is dependent on sex (males), whereas the association of CAD with ACP1 is present in diabetic subjects only, and it is dependent on sex (females).
Conclusions: The fact that the association of ACP1 with CAD is evident only in diabetic subjects, whereas the association of ADA1 with CAD is evident only in nondiabetic subjects suggests an heterogeneity in the pathogenetic mechanisms leading to CAD. In addition, the association with sex that could be based on hormonal differences is in favor of heterogenity.