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Distinctive Patterned Injuries Caused by an Expandable Baton

Armstrong, Erica J. MD

American Journal of Forensic Medicine & Pathology:
Case Report

Identification and documentation of patterned blunt-force injuries at autopsy is of utmost forensic importance, particularly when the object or surface producing the injury is unknown or uncertain. Documentation of patterned injuries produced by known objects contributes to the catalogue of forensic knowledge regarding those objects and the injuries they cause. This report presents a case in which a 27-year-old male sustained multiple nonlethal patterned blunt-force injuries produced by an expandable baton and subsequent multiple gunshot wounds during apprehension by police.

Author Information

From the Office of the Cuyahoga County Coroner, Cleveland, Ohio.

Manuscript received March 9, 2005; accepted March 15, 2005.

Reprints: Erica J. Armstrong, MD, Office of the Cuyahoga County Coroner, 11001 Cedar Avenue, Cleveland, OH 44106. E-mail:

© 2005 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc.