Elshaikh, Mohamed A. MD*; Yashar, Catheryn M. MD†; Wolfson, Aaron H. MD‡; Cardenes, Higinia Rosa MD, PhD§; Erickson, Beth MD∥; Jhingran, Anuja MD¶; Jolly, Shruti MD#; Kidd, Elizabeth MD**; Lee, Larissa J. MD††; Mayr, Nina A. MD‡‡; Moore, David MD§§; Rao, Gautam G. MD∥∥; Small, William MD¶¶; Varia, Mahesh A. MD##; Wahl, Andrew O. MD***; Yuh, William MD†††; Gaffney, David K. MD, PhD‡‡‡
*Department of Radiation Oncology, Henry Ford Health System, Detroit
#University of Michigan Health System, Ann Arbor, MI
†University of California San Diego, San Diego, CA
**Stanford Cancer Center, Stanford, CA
‡University of Miami, Miami, FL
§Indiana University Medical Center, Indianapolis, IN
§§Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN (American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists)
∥Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI
¶University of Texas, MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX
††Brigham and Women’s Hospital/Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, MA
‡‡UW Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, WA
†††Fred Hutchinson Cancer Center, University of Washington, Seattle, WA
∥∥University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD (American Society of Clinical Oncology)
¶¶Stritch School of Medicine Loyola University Chicago, Maywood, IL
##University of North Carolina School of Medicine, Chapel Hill, NC
***University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE
‡‡‡University of Utah Medical Center, Salt Lake City, UT
The authors declare no conflicts of interest.
The American College of Radiology seeks and encourages collaboration with other organizations on the development of the ACR Appropriateness Criteria through society representation on expert panels. Participation by representatives from collaborating societies on the expert panel does not necessarily imply individual or society endorsement of the final document.
This article is a revised version of the American College of Radiology Appropriateness Criteria Advanced Stage Endometrial Cancer, excerpts of which are reprinted here with permission. Practitioners are encouraged to refer to the complete version at http://www.acr.org/ac.
Reprints: Mohamed A. Elshaikh, MD, Department of Radiation Oncology, Henry Ford Health System, 2799W Grand Blvd M2, Detroit, MI 48202-2689. E-mail: email@example.com.
SUMMARY OF LITERATURE REVIEW
Endometrial cancer is the most common gynecologic malignancy in the United States and ranks second in gynecologic cancer mortality following only ovarian cancer.1 More than 84% of patients present with International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) stage I-II disease.2 By definition, patients with advanced-stage uterine carcinoma (FIGO stages III-IV) are those with extrauterine disease and are at significant risk of dying from uterine cancer. They constitute a very heterogeneous group of patients with varying risk factors yielding highly variable clinical outcomes. Within the same FIGO stage, patients with disease involving multiple extrauterine sites fare worse compared with patients with involvement of a single site.3–5 In a series of patients with FIGO stage IIIC, Mariani et al5 reported a 5-year relapse-free survival of 68% for patients with only lymph node metastases compared with 25% for patients with lymph node metastases plus peritoneal cytologic, vaginal, uterine serosal or adnexal involvement, or a combination of these.
In addition, data suggest that the survival outcome in patients with para-aortic lymphadenopathy is worse compared with those with pelvic only lymphadenopathy.6 The revised FIGO staging system7 acknowledged this difference in outcome and split stage IIIC into stage IIIC1 and IIIC2 to reflect a worse survival rate in women with para-aortic lymphadenopathy. In contrast, uterine serous and clear cell carcinomas are biologically more aggressive than the endometrioid type with tendency for intra-abdominal spread. Although they comprise <15% of all endometrial carcinomas, they account for approximately 40% of the deaths caused by uterine carcinomas.8
Abdominal exploration (either as open or minimally invasive procedure) with hysterectomy, bilateral salpingo-ophorectomy, and surgical staging is the cornerstone of surgical management in patients with uterine carcinoma. Several studies reported a potential survival advantage of cytoreductive surgery in advanced stage endometrial carcinoma.9,10 Postoperatively, patients with advanced stage disease may require adjuvant therapy(s) to reduce the chance of tumor recurrence with the potential to improve survival. However, the optimal adjuvant therapy is yet to be established. At present, adjuvant therapeutic options could be chemotherapy alone, radiation therapy (RT) alone, or a combined modality therapy (CMT) (Table 1).
RATIONALE FOR ADJUVANT CHEMOTHERAPY ALONE
The role of systemic chemotherapy in the adjuvant setting in patients with advanced stage endometrial carcinoma has been established in the last few years based on data from several important studies. In a prospectively randomized phase III study conducted by Gynecologic Oncology Group (GOG), Randall et al11 reported the outcome of stage III-IVA patients who were treated with adjuvant chemotherapy (cisplatin and doxorubicin [CA]) or whole abdominal radiation treatment (WART). The study showed that 5-year overall stage-adjusted survival was 50% for women who received chemotherapy compared with 38% for those who received adjuvant WART, although the pelvic control rate was better in women who were assigned to WART.
To explore more effective chemotherapy regimens, GOG conducted 2 prospective studies in patients with advanced or recurrent endometrial carcinoma. In GOG 0177, patients were randomized to receive cisplatin plus doxorubicin chemotherapy, with or without paclitaxel, for a maximum of 7 cycles. Patients receiving the 3-drug combination also received filgrastim. The authors reported that the addition of paclitaxel improves response rates as well as progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS).12 However, when used as adjuvant treatment following surgery and volume-directed RT, the addition of paclitaxel to cisplatin and doxorubicin (CAP) did not improve survival outcome. The percentage of patients alive and recurrence free at 3 years was 62% for women who received cisplatin and doxorubicin versus 64% for women who received the 3-drug combination with P=0.21.13
The preliminary results of another GOG study were recently presented (GOG 209). The study randomized patients to adjuvant chemotherapy consisting of CAP versus a less toxic regimen consisting of paclitaxel and carboplatin for 7 cycles. In this study adjuvant radiation treatment was also allowed before chemotherapy. The authors reported that paclitaxel and carboplatin were not inferior to CAP in terms of PFS and OS based on interim analysis. The toxicity profile favors the paclitaxel and carboplatin regimen.14
RATIONALE FOR RADIATION TREATMENT ALONE
Traditionally, RT has been used in patients with advanced-stage endometrial carcinoma to improve locoregional control after hysterectomy. Its role has been established in patients with early-stage intermediate and high-risk endometrial cancer.15–17 Pelvic irradiation with or without para-aortic RT is commonly used in patients with advanced uterine carcinoma with the expectation of reducing the risk of nodal recurrence; there have been no randomized studies to demonstrate survival advantage. Several retrospective studies have reported the impact of adjuvant RT in this setting, but most of these studies are small and include highly variable groups of patients.18–22 In general, these studies suggest some benefits from adjuvant RT after complete surgical staging. However, the mode of relapse in these patients was mainly systemic, reflecting the fact that single-treatment modality is not adequate to prevent disease recurrences.
When RT is used alone, optimal treatment volume, however, is less defined. Various radiation treatment volumes include external-beam radiation therapy (EBRT) to the pelvis with or without para-aortic irradiation, combination of EBRT and vaginal cuff brachytherapy, and WART, incorporating pelvic boost with or without vaginal cuff brachytherapy (Table 2).
RATIONALE FOR CMT (CHEMOTHERAPY AND RADIATION TREATMENT)
The randomized phase III study (GOG 122) showed improved survival outcomes with CA chemotherapy compared with WART in women with advanced-stage endometrial carcinoma. However, chemotherapy alone has been reported to have locoregional relapse rates of 18% to 46%.11,23,24 For patients randomized to chemotherapy in the GOG study 0122, only 50% were predicted to be alive and disease free at 5 years, highlighting the necessity for improving the therapeutic gain of adjuvant treatment of patients with advanced-stage endometrial carcinoma.
In another prospectively randomized study reported by Maggi et al,25 patients with high-risk endometrial carcinoma (65% were FIGO stage III) were randomized to 5 cycles of adjuvant chemotherapy (CAP) versus adjuvant EBRT to the pelvis±para-aortic area. The 5-year PFS and OS was 63% and 66%, respectively, for patients who were treated with chemotherapy compared with 63% and 69% for those who were treated with RT. The authors reported no statistical differences between the 2 treatment groups in terms of PFS and OS. In this study, although RT delayed local relapse, chemotherapy delayed systemic relapse. In a pooled analysis of 2 randomized trials,26 the addition of chemotherapy to adjuvant RT improved but not OS in stage I-III patients.
In a multicenter retrospective study for patients with FIGO stage III endometrial carcinoma, 3-year relapse-free survival was 86.5% for patients who received CMT compared with only 65.8% and 44.1% for patients treated with chemotherapy alone or RT alone, respectively.27
A strategy combining chemotherapy and RT would potentially yield better results in this patient population by controlling both systemic and local recurrences. Several studies have reported that adjuvant therapy with both chemotherapy and RT for women with advanced-stage endometrial cancer is well tolerated.28–30 Several authors have reported that the prognosis of patients who received adjuvant CMT are superior compared with those treated with either RT alone, or chemotherapy alone.24,27,31,32 The currently open GOG study 0258 is randomizing patients to chemotherapy alone (6 cycles of carboplatin and paclitaxel) versus tumor-directed RT with concurrent cisplatin chemotherapy followed by 4 cycles of carboplatin and paclitaxel. It should shed light on this important question of whether or not the combination of chemotherapy and radiation treatment is superior to chemotherapy alone.33
The phase II trial run by the RTOG (protocol 9708) demonstrated feasibility and high efficacy of a combined chemotherapy and radiation treatment approach in endometrial cancer patients at high risk of recurrence. The regimen studied here involved cisplatin given together with pelvic radiation (45 Gy) followed by 4 cycles of cisplatin and paclitaxel. At 4 years, the cumulative proportions of patients with pelvic, regional, and distant recurrence are 2%, 2%, and 19%, respectively. The percentage of patients alive or alive and disease free at 4 years was 85% and 81%, respectively. For stage III patients, 4-year OS and disease-free survival was 77% and 72%, respectively.34
The recently reported results of GOG 184 suggest that a combined volume-directed RT followed by systemic chemotherapy yields 3-year recurrence-free survival of 62% to 64%. In this study, after surgical staging and volume-directed RT to the pelvis/para-aortic lymph nodes, women with stage III and IVA endometrial carcinoma were randomized to 6 cycles of CA with or without paclitaxel (CAP). There was no statistically significant difference in recurrence-free survival with the addition of paclitaxel to the CA regimen. The OS data are not yet reported.13
The appropriate sequence of administering chemotherapy and volume-directed radiation treatment, as well as the most appropriate chemotherapy agents to use, remains controversial. Some investigators reported satisfactory experiences for patients with advanced-stage endometrial carcinoma using adjuvant chemotherapy upfront followed by RT and followed by more chemotherapy “sandwich.”24,35–40 Other reported sequences of chemotherapy and RT included RT concurrently with cisplatin followed by more chemotherapy,34,40 RT upfront followed by chemotherapy,13 or chemotherapy followed by RT.41 However, there is no prospective study to date comparing these available sequences for chemotherapy and RT (Table 3).
SALVAGE MANAGEMENT OF RECURRENCE
Although no established standard exists, the majority of the panel supports individualized care, which accounts for factors such as site and size of recurrence, patient’s performance status, prior adjuvant therapy, etc. (Table 4).
RADIATION TREATMENT VOLUME AND PLANNING
There appears to be little role for WART in patients with stage III-IV endometrial carcinoma. The toxicity profile from WART suggests a better role for a more conformal or volume-directed RT with 3D (3DRT) or intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). Different radiation techniques are available (eg, 4-field box technique) to encompass the whole pelvis using bony landmarks to ensure adequate coverage of tumor bed and nodal areas at risk. Although no phase III trial has been designed to compare 3DRT and IMRT, IMRT may further improve treatment of areas at risk for tumor recurrence while sparing adjacent normal tissues.42
Several studies of IMRT for gynecologic malignancies showed that, compared with external-beam pelvic RT, IMRT improved target coverage and reduced the volume of normal tissues receiving the prescription dose.43–45 Treatment studies of IMRT for gynecologic malignancies also showed that this reduction in dose resulted in a reduction in both acute46 and chronic gastrointestinal47 side effects compared with historic controls.
At the time of simulation, and based on the site of treatment, the use of oral and/or IV contrast would help in accurately delineating the surrounding normal tissues as well as the target volume. Techniques to displace small bowel out of the pelvis to diminish treatment-related morbidity are discussed in other publications and are not the focus of this report (eg, using prone position, treatment with a belly board, etc). See the ACR Appropriateness Criteria “Role of adjuvant therapy in the management of early stage cervical cancer.”
According to a recently published RTOG protocol 0418,42 it is highly encouraged to insert radioopaque marker seeds into the vaginal apex before simulation to help identify the vaginal apex on the computed tomography scan. Markers or devices that distend or otherwise alter the vaginal anatomy are strongly discouraged. A minimum of 3 cm of the proximal vagina need to be contoured. It is very important to account for vaginal wall motion during planning and treatment.48 In addition, a nodal clinical target volume (CTV) is defined that includes the regional nodes (common iliac, internal and external iliac, and obturator±para-aortic lymph nodes) and paravaginal tissues. An online atlas detailing the nodal CTV and the vaginal CTV was posted on the RTOG Web site to help standardize delineation of these target volumes.49
For the purpose of this current American College of Radiology panel deliberation, the CTV dose is 45 to 50 Gy at 1.8 to 2.0 Gy per fraction. Vaginal cuff brachytherapy may be added to external beam as a boost (eg, in case of cervical stromal involvement). It is recommended that the vaginal treatment volume include the proximal 3 to 5 cm of the vaginal length.50
FOLLOW-UP AFTER TREATMENT
Although no established standard exists, the majority of the panel supports a general examination, including a complete history and a pelvic-rectal examination, conducted every 3 months for the first 2 years and semiannually thereafter as suggested by the Society of Gynecologic Oncology.51 As the majority of patients with recurrence are usually symptomatic and virtually all recurred within 5 years, it seems reasonable that patients return to annual population-based general physical and pelvic examination after 5 years of recurrence-free follow-up. It is recommended that all patients undergo a targeted investigation to rule out recurrence if symptomatic, as patients with local recurrence are potentially curable with further therapy.
There is insufficient evidence to recommend the routine use of Pap smear, abdominal/pelvic computed tomography scan, positron emission tomography, or CA 125 testing to detect asymptomatic recurrences. However, imaging studies are strongly recommended if clinically indicated (eg, suspicion of disease recurrence or to evaluate response to treatment).
It is also strongly recommended that patients be counseled on the potential adverse effects of treatment and their quality-of-life aspects, especially sexual quality of life, with each follow-up visit. Patients should be instructed to use a vaginal dilator at least weekly for the first 12 months after vaginal brachytherapy. In addition, patients should be instructed to follow the screening guidelines for mammography and colonoscopy.
- Patients with advanced stage endometrial carcinoma constitute a very heterogeneous group of patients with varying prognostic factors yielding highly variable clinical outcomes.
- Surgical staging is the cornerstone of curative management of these patients. Adjuvant multimodality therapy is highly recommended to reduce the chance of tumor recurrence with the potential to improve survival. A combination of systemic chemotherapy and radiation treatment is usually the appropriate adjuvant treatment option.
- Randomized studies are underway to monitor our progress in the treatment of advanced endometrial carcinoma.
- For adjuvant radiation treatment, IMRT and 3D radiation treatment are the most appropriate treatment techniques.
1. American Cancer Society.Cancer Facts & Figures 2012. 2012 .Atlanta:American Cancer Society.
2. Creasman WT, Odicino F, Maisonneuve P, et al .Carcinoma of the corpus uteri. FIGO 26th Annual Report on the results of treatment in gynecological cancer.Int J Gynaecol Obstet. 2006; 95:suppl 1 S105–S143.
3. Connell PP, Rotmensch J, Waggoner S, et al .The significance of adnexal involvement in endometrial carcinoma.Gynecol Oncol. 1999; 74:74–79.
4. Greven KM, Corn B, Lanciano RM, et al .Pathologic stage III endometrial carcinoma: significance of extrauterine sites.Radiat Oncol Investig. 1996; 4:122–128.
5. Mariani A, Webb MJ, Keeney GL, et al .Stage IIIC endometrioid corpus cancer includes distinct subgroups.Gynecol Oncol. 2002; 87:112–117.
6. Lewin SN, Herzog TJ, Barrena Medel NI, et al .Comparative performance of the 2009 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics’ staging system for uterine corpus cancer.Obstet Gynecol. 2010; 116:1141–1149.
7. Pecorelli S .Revised FIGO staging for carcinoma of the vulva, cervix, and endometrium.Int J Gynaecol Obstet. 2009; 105:103–104.
8. Hamilton CA, Cheung MK, Osann K, et al .Uterine papillary serous and clear cell carcinomas predict for poorer survival compared to grade 3 endometrioid corpus cancers.Br J Cancer. 2006; 94:642–646.
9. Lambrou NC, Gomez-Marin O, Mirhashemi R, et al .Optimal surgical cytoreduction in patients with stage III and stage IV endometrial carcinoma: a study of morbidity and survival.Gynecol Oncol. 2004; 93:653–658.
10. Thomas MB, Mariani A, Cliby WA, et al .Role of cytoreduction in stage III and IV uterine papillary serous carcinoma.Gynecol Oncol. 2007; 107:190–193.
11. Randall ME, Filiaci VL, Muss H, et al .Randomized phase III trial of whole-abdominal irradiation versus doxorubicin and cisplatin chemotherapy in advanced endometrial carcinoma: a Gynecologic Oncology Group Study.J Clin Oncol. 2006; 24:36–44.
12. Fleming GF, Brunetto VL, Cella D, et al .Phase III trial of doxorubicin plus cisplatin with or without paclitaxel plus filgrastim in advanced endometrial carcinoma: a Gynecologic Oncology Group Study.J Clin Oncol. 2004; 22:2159–2166.
13. Homesley HD, Filiaci V, Gibbons SK, et al .A randomized phase III trial in advanced endometrial carcinoma of surgery and volume directed radiation followed by cisplatin and doxorubicin with or without paclitaxel: a Gynecologic Oncology Group study.Gynecol Oncol. 2009; 112:543–552.
14. Miller D, Filiaci V, Fleming G, et al .Late-breaking abstract 1: randomized phase III noninferiority trial of first line chemotherapy for metastatic or recurrent endometrial carcinoma: a Gynecologic Oncology Group study.Gynecol Oncol. 2012; 125:771
15. Creutzberg CL, van Putten WL, Koper PC, et al .Surgery and postoperative radiotherapy versus surgery alone for patients with stage-1 endometrial carcinoma: multicentre randomised trial. PORTEC Study Group. Post operative radiation therapy in endometrial carcinoma.Lancet. 2000; 355:1404–1411.
16. Keys HM, Roberts JA, Brunetto VL, et al .A phase III trial of surgery with or without adjunctive external pelvic radiation therapy in intermediate risk endometrial adenocarcinoma: a Gynecologic Oncology Group study.Gynecol Oncol. 2004; 92:744–751.
17. Nout RA, Smit VT, Putter H, et al .Vaginal brachytherapy versus pelvic external beam radiotherapy for patients with endometrial cancer of high-intermediate risk (PORTEC-2): an open-label, non-inferiority, randomised trial.Lancet. 2010; 375:816–823.
18. Klopp AH, Jhingran A, Ramondetta L, et al .Node-positive adenocarcinoma of the endometrium: outcome and patterns of recurrence with and without external beam irradiation.Gynecol Oncol. 2009; 115:6–11.
19. Mundt AJ, Murphy KT, Rotmensch J, et al .Surgery and postoperative radiation therapy in FIGO stage IIIC endometrial carcinoma.Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2001; 50:1154–1160.
20. Nelson G, Randall M, Sutton G, et al .FIGO stage IIIC endometrial carcinoma with metastases confined to pelvic lymph nodes: analysis of treatment outcomes, prognostic variables, and failure patterns following adjuvant radiation therapy.Gynecol Oncol. 1999; 75:211–214.
21. Slomovitz BM, Burke TW, Eifel PJ, et al .Uterine papillary serous carcinoma (UPSC): a single institution review of 129 cases.Gynecol Oncol. 2003; 91:463–469.
22. Axelrod J, Bundy B, Roy T, et al .Advanced endometrial carcinoma (EC) treated with whole abdomen irradiation (WAI): a Gynecologic Oncology Group (GOG) study.Gynecol Oncol. 1995; 56:135–136.
23. Mundt AJ, McBride R, Rotmensch J, et al .Significant pelvic recurrence in high-risk pathologic stage I-IV endometrial carcinoma patients after adjuvant chemotherapy alone: implications for adjuvant radiation therapy.Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2001; 50:1145–1153.
24. Secord AA, Geller MA, Broadwater G, et al .A multicenter evaluation of adjuvant therapy in women with optimally resected stage IIIC endometrial cancer.Gynecol Oncol. 2013; 128:65–70.
25. Maggi R, Lissoni A, Spina F, et al .Adjuvant chemotherapy vs radiotherapy in high-risk endometrial carcinoma: results of a randomised trial.Br J Cancer. 2006; 95:266–271.
26. Hogberg T, Signorelli M, de Oliveira CF, et al .Sequential adjuvant chemotherapy and radiotherapy in endometrial cancer—results from two randomised studies.Eur J Cancer. 2010; 46:2422–2431.
27. Marchetti C, Pisano C, Mangili G, et al .Use of adjuvant therapy in patients with FIGO stage III endometrial carcinoma: a multicenter retrospective study.Oncology. 2011; 81:104–112.
28. McMeekin DS, Walker JL, Hartenbach EM, et al .Phase I trial of the treatment of high-risk endometrial cancer with concurrent weekly paclitaxel and cisplatin and whole abdominal radiation therapy: a Gynecologic Oncology Group study.Gynecol Oncol. 2009; 112:134–141.
29. Reisinger SA, Asbury R, Liao SY, et al .A phase I study of weekly cisplatin and whole abdominal radiation for the treatment of stage III and IV endometrial carcinoma: a Gynecologic Oncology Group pilot study.Gynecol Oncol. 1996; 63:299–303.
30. Wrenn DC, Saigal K, Lucci JA IIIrd, et al .A phase I study using low-dose fractionated whole abdominal radiotherapy as a chemopotentiator to full-dose cisplatin for optimally debulked stage III/IV carcinoma of the endometrium.Gynecol Oncol. 2011; 122:59–62.
31. Schwandt A, Chen WC, Martra F, et al .Chemotherapy plus radiation in advanced-stage endometrial cancer.Int J Gynecol Cancer. 2011; 21:1622–1627.
32. Secord AA, Havrilesky LJ, O’Malley DM, et al .A multicenter evaluation of sequential multimodality therapy and clinical outcome for the treatment of advanced endometrial cancer.Gynecol Oncol. 2009; 114:442–447.
34. Greven K, Winter K, Underhill K, et al .Final analysis of RTOG 9708: adjuvant postoperative irradiation combined with cisplatin/paclitaxel chemotherapy following surgery for patients with high-risk endometrial cancer.Gynecol Oncol. 2006; 103:155–159.
35. Fields AL, Einstein MH, Novetsky AP, et al .Pilot phase II trial of radiation “sandwiched” between combination paclitaxel/platinum chemotherapy in patients with uterine papillary serous carcinoma (UPSC).Gynecol Oncol. 2008; 108:201–206.
36. Fowler JM, Brady WE, Grigsby PW, et al .Sequential chemotherapy and irradiation in advanced stage endometrial cancer: a Gynecologic Oncology Group phase I trial of doxorubicin-cisplatin followed by whole abdomen irradiation.Gynecol Oncol. 2009; 112:553–557.
37. Geller MA, Ivy J, Dusenbery KE, et al .A single institution experience using sequential multi-modality adjuvant chemotherapy and radiation in the “sandwich” method for high risk endometrial carcinoma.Gynecol Oncol. 2010; 118:19–23.
38. Geller MA, Ivy JJ, Ghebre R, et al .A phase II trial of carboplatin and docetaxel followed by radiotherapy given in a “Sandwich” method for stage III, IV, and recurrent endometrial cancer.Gynecol Oncol. 2011; 121:112–117.
39. Lupe K, Kwon J, D’Souza D, et al .Adjuvant paclitaxel and carboplatin chemotherapy with involved field radiation in advanced endometrial cancer: a sequential approach.Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2007; 67:110–116.
40. Milgrom SA, Kollmeier MA, Abu-Rustum NR, et al .Postoperative external beam radiation therapy and concurrent cisplatin followed by carboplatin/paclitaxel for stage III (FIGO 2009) endometrial cancer.Gynecol Oncol. 2013; 130:436–440.
41. Bruzzone M, Miglietta L, Franzone P, et al .Combined treatment with chemotherapy and radiotherapy in high-risk FIGO stage III-IV endometrial cancer patients.Gynecol Oncol. 2004; 93:345–352.
42. Jhingran A, Winter K, Portelance L, et al .A phase II study of intensity modulated radiation therapy to the pelvis for postoperative patients with endometrial carcinoma: radiation therapy oncology group trial 0418.Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2012; 84:e23–e28.
43. Bouchard M, Nadeau S, Gingras L, et al .Clinical outcome of adjuvant treatment of endometrial cancer using aperture-based intensity-modulated radiotherapy.Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2008; 71:1343–1350.
44. Ahamad A, D’Souza W, Salehpour M, et al .Intensity-modulated radiation therapy after hysterectomy: comparison with conventional treatment and sensitivity of the normal-tissue-sparing effect to margin size.Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2005; 62:1117–1124.
45. Roeske JC, Lujan A, Rotmensch J, et al .Intensity-modulated whole pelvic radiation therapy in patients with gynecologic malignancies.Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2000; 48:1613–1621.
46. Mundt AJ, Lujan AE, Rotmensch J, et al .Intensity-modulated whole pelvic radiotherapy in women with gynecologic malignancies.Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2002; 52:1330–1337.
47. Mundt AJ, Mell LK, Roeske JC .Preliminary analysis of chronic gastrointestinal toxicity in gynecology patients treated with intensity-modulated whole pelvic radiation therapy.Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2003; 56:1354–1360.
48. Jhingran A, Salehpour M, Sam M, et al .Vaginal motion and bladder and rectal volumes during pelvic intensity-modulated radiation therapy after hysterectomy.Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2012; 82:256–262.
50. Small W Jr, Beriwal S, Demanes DJ, et al .American Brachytherapy Society consensus guidelines for adjuvant vaginal cuff brachytherapy after hysterectomy.Brachytherapy. 2012; 11:58–67.
51. Salani R, Backes FJ, Fung MF, et al .Posttreatment surveillance and diagnosis of recurrence in women with gynecologic malignancies: Society of Gynecologic Oncologists recommendations.Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2011; 204:466–478.