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Metastatic Hormone Refractory Prostate Cancer: Recent Advances in Standard Treatment Paradigm, and Future Directions

Keizman, Daniel MD; Maimon, Natalie MD; Gottfried, Maya MD

American Journal of Clinical Oncology: June 2014 - Volume 37 - Issue 3 - p 289–296
doi: 10.1097/COC.0b013e318248dc1e
Review Articles

Until recently, docetaxel-based chemotherapy was the only established treatment for patients with metastatic hormone refractory prostate cancer (mHRPC). In 2010 to 2011, 3 more agents were shown to be associated with a survival benefit in mHRPC, including the dendritic cell vaccine sipuleucel-T, the 17,20 lyase inhibitor abiraterone, and the taxane cabazitaxel. The improved understanding of prostate cancer biology in recent years led to the development of drugs directed against precise tumorigenesis-associated molecular pathways. Molecular pathways involved in the progression of mHRPC include the androgen receptor, angiogenesis, endothelin receptor, tyrosine kinases (SRC, MET, vascular endothelial growth factor receptor, RET), and the receptor activator of nuclear factor-kB-ligand. This review will focus on recent advances in the standard treatments paradigm, and promising new targeted agents that are being investigated, in mHRPC.

Genitourinary Oncology Service, Division of Oncology, Meir Medical Center, Sackler School of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Kfar-Saba, Israel

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

Reprints: Daniel Keizman, MD, Genitourinary Oncology Service, Division of Oncology, Meir Medical Center, Sackler School of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Kfar-Saba, Israel. E-mail: danielkeizman@gmail.com.

© 2014 by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc