The diagnosis and treatment of orbital and periorbital malignancies are challenging. These tumors can result in blindness, death, and significant cosmetic deformities. Herein, we present the most common ocular malignancies and a systematic approach to diagnosis. Further, we integrate the seventh edition American Joint Committee on Cancer staging system, biomarkers, and multidisciplinary approaches to treatment.
*The Department of Ocular Tumor and Orbital Disease, The New York Eye Cancer Center
†The Department of Ophthalmology, The New York Eye and Ear Infirmary
‡The Department of Ophthalmology, Albert Einstein School of Medicine
§The Department of Pathology, Royal Liverpool University Hospital
∥The Department of Ophthalmology, New York University School of Medicine, New York City, NY
Reprints: Paul T. Finger, MD, FACS, The New York Eye Cancer Center, 115 East 61st Street, New York, NY 10065. e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Supported by the Eye Cancer Foundation, Inc.
The authors declare no conflicts of interest.
Robert M. Schwarcz, MD, 50 East 79th Street, New York City, NY.
Sarah E. Coupland MBBS, Royal Liverpool Hospital, Liverpool L69-3GA.