This Gynecologic Oncology Group (GOG) study was designed to estimate the activity of goserelin acetate as treatment for advanced and recurrent endometrial carcinoma. Forty evaluable patients received monthly treatment with goserelin acetate at a dose of 3.6 mg, given subcutaneously. Standard GOG response and adverse effects criteria were used. The median age of patients was 71 years. Seventy-one percent of patients had received prior radiation therapy; 18% of patients were reported to have received prior progestational therapy for endometrial cancer. One patient had received prior chemotherapy. There were two complete responses (5%) and three partial responses (7%). One response occurred in a patient who previously did not respond to progestin therapy after having achieved a response. The overall response rate was 11% (95% CI: 4-27%). Median progression-free survival was 1.9 months and median overall survival was 7.3 months. No severe or life-threatening toxicities occurred because of goserelin. Deep venous thrombosis developed in two patients. This study confirmed the limited activity of goserelin acetate in endometrial carcinoma, with only one response in a patient previously treated with hormonal therapy. The activity is insufficient to warrant further study of the single agent at this time. Elucidation of the mechanism of action of this drug may allow more effective use in conjunction with other agents in the future.