This review article discusses the development and implementation of a number of blood substitutes, including hemoglobin-based oxygen carriers (HBOCs) and perfluorocarbons. This review article will introduce the reader to blood substitutes by discussing an overview of an ideal blood substitute, the history of HBOCs and perfluorocarbons, strategies of oxygen carrying, side effects of HBOCs and perfluorocarbons, current clinical trials, and the future of blood substitutes.
1Department of Anesthesiology, University of California at Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA; 2Department of Anesthesiology, Charles R. Drew University of Medicine and Science; and 3Martin Luther King, Jr./Charles R. Drew Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA, USA.
*Address for correspondence: Department of Anesthesiology, UCLA Medical Center, Box 951778, Los Angeles, CA, 90095–1778. E-mail: email@example.com
J.S. Jahr has participated as Principal Investigator in multicenter US Food and Drug Administration phase 1, 2, and 3 trials with Biopure Incorporated (Cambridge, MA, USA) (two trials); Hemosol Incorporated (Toronto, ON, Canada) (one trial); and Alliance Pharmaceuticals (San Diego, CA, USA) (one trial).