The histologic findings of celiac disease, that is, gluten-sensitive enteropathy (GSE), are dominated by increased intraepithelial lymphocytes, villous blunting, lymphoplasmacytic infiltration of lamina propria, and crypt hyperplasia. To date, neutrophils have not been thought to constitute a significant cell type in GSE, and their presence often invokes consideration of alternative diagnoses. Thus, we sought to determine the prevalence and severity of neutrophilic infiltration in duodenal biopsies from patients with GSE. The degree of neutrophilic infiltration and features characteristic of GSE were assessed in duodenal biopsies from 267 clinically confirmed GSE patients (116 adults and 151 children). These specimens were graded by the disease activity score (DAS) and the neutrophilic activity score (NAS). Gastric antral biopsies obtained from 195 patients were also evaluated for lymphocytic gastritis. NAS was correlated with DAS and other clinicopathologic features. We found that 56% of pediatric and 28% of adult GSE patients had significant duodenal neutrophilia. NAS was higher in children than in adults (2.3 vs. 1.2, P<0.001). Multivariate regression showed that DAS, eosinophilic infiltration, and foveolar metaplasia correlated positively, and age correlated negatively with NAS. Lymphocytic gastritis was seen in 21.5% of the gastric biopsies. The presence of lymphocytic gastritis correlated positively with NAS and DAS, and in the pediatric population it correlated negatively with age. Significant duodenal neutrophilia is often found in patients with celiac disease, especially in the pediatric population, and is associated with more active disease. Thus, the findings of duodenal neutrophilia in biopsies, otherwise consistent with GSE, should not preclude the diagnosis of GSE.