The aim of this systematic review was to investigate the task specificity of strength training programs for walking in neurologic rehabilitation. Nine electronic databases were searched from conception to October 2012 for randomized controlled trials that used strength training to improve walking in adult neurologic populations. The search identified 25 randomized controlled trials that investigated the efficacy of strength training to improve walking in people with a variety of neurologic conditions. The results revealed that despite significant strength gains, many studies failed to show a significant improvement in walking capacity. Most studies did not include exercises relating to all three main power events important for walking. Strength testing and strengthening exercises were prioritized for the knee extensors and flexors, despite their relatively minor role in human walking. Strengthening exercises performed in the neurologic population are not specific to the main muscle groups responsible for the power generation required for walking. There is a predisposition for strength testing and strengthening exercises to focus on the knee flexors and extensors despite their relatively minor role during walking. Further consideration of the specificity of strength training may provide greater translation of strength gains to improved walking outcomes.