It has been more than 30 years since Lehman et al. published research identifying rehabilitation problems encountered at different cancer sites, the need for rehabilitation services, and gaps in the delivery of rehabilitation care. The lack of identification of patient problems and the lack of appropriate referral by physicians unfamiliar with the concept of rehabilitation were identified as primary barriers to optimal delivery of rehabilitation care. These are frustratingly the same barriers to cancer rehabilitation we see today. Recommendations have been made for finding better methods for identifying and managing the broader effects of cancer and its treatment and for integrating a more holistic interdisciplinary approach during and after the treatment of patients with cancer. The purpose of this supplement was to increase awareness of the role of rehabilitation in cancer care among the public and among medical professionals, as well as to stimulate further interest and training in the field of cancer rehabilitation.