Chew K, Stevens KJ, Wang T-G, Fredericson M, Lew HL: Introduction to diagnostic musculoskeletal ultrasound: Part 2: examination of the lower limb. Am J Phys Med Rehabil 2008;87:238–248.
This is the second of two articles focusing on ultrasound examination of musculoskeletal components of the upper and lower limbs. Treatment of musculoskeletal injuries is based on establishing an accurate diagnosis. No one would dispute that a good history and physical examination by a competent clinician can help achieve that in the majority of cases. However, musculoskeletal imaging is also an essential adjunct in the work-up of many musculoskeletal disorders. This article describes the ultrasound examination of the lower limb in terms of anatomic structure. Normal and pathologic ultrasound features of these structures, including muscles, tendons, ligaments, bursae, and other soft tissues of the lower limb, will be described by reviewing several representative pathologies commonly seen in musculoskeletal medicine.
From the Sports Medicine Center, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Alexandra Hospital, Singapore (KC); Department of Radiology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Palo Alto, California (KJS); Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, National Taiwan University Hospital, School of Medicine, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (T-GW); Division of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Stanford University School of Medicine, Palo Alto, California (MF); Division of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Stanford University School of Medicine/VA Palo Alto Health Care System, Palo Alto, California (HLL).
All correspondence and requests for reprints should be addressed to Henry L. Lew, MD, PhD, Polytrauma Rehabilitation Center, VAPAHCS, PM&R Service, MS-B117, 3801 Miranda Avenue, Palo Alto, CA 94304.